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2003

Science and Technology Law

The John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law

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Protecting The Rights Of Indigenous Cultures Under The Current Intellectual Property System: Is It A Good Idea?, 3 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 88 (2003), Juan Andrés Fuentes Jan 2003

Protecting The Rights Of Indigenous Cultures Under The Current Intellectual Property System: Is It A Good Idea?, 3 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 88 (2003), Juan Andrés Fuentes

The John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law

Globalization and digital communication trends have provided new avenues and incentives for the commercial use of the folkloric artwork of indigenous peoples. Such commercial uses, however, have occurred largely without any creative control or financial benefit inuring to the original creators, people, or tribe of whom the artistic works form an integral part of their culture. Since much of the works are owned by a community as a whole, as opposed to being owned by individuals, it is difficult to fit such works into an intellectual property regime that is based on laws formed around Western notions of art and ...


Can This Brokered Marriage Be Saved? The Changing Relationship Between The Supreme Court And Federal Circuit In Patent Law Jurisprudence, 2 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 201 (2003), Debra D. Peterson Jan 2003

Can This Brokered Marriage Be Saved? The Changing Relationship Between The Supreme Court And Federal Circuit In Patent Law Jurisprudence, 2 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 201 (2003), Debra D. Peterson

The John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law

Congress created the Federal Circuit, in part, to provide uniformity in patent decisions throughout the United States and stability in patent law. During the first decade of the Federal Circuit’s existence, the Supreme Court largely deferred to the Federal Circuit in patent law decisions. However, the Supreme Court’s initial deference to the Federal Circuit has since been replaced by critical view of the Federal Circuit’s decisions and its decision-making processes. This article proposes that the Supreme Court has correctly abandoned its deferential mindset toward the Federal Circuit since the Federal Circuit was never intended to be the ...


The Next Wave: Federal Regulatory, Intellectual Property, And Tort Liability Considerations For Medical Device Software, 2 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 259 (2003), Paul A. Mathew Jan 2003

The Next Wave: Federal Regulatory, Intellectual Property, And Tort Liability Considerations For Medical Device Software, 2 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 259 (2003), Paul A. Mathew

The John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law

Counsel for the medical software technologist faces an unusually complex, ongoing, high-stakes challenge. Counsel operates in a special field of commercial, legal and regulatory forces: (1) intellectual property laws which govern the expression and protection of commercial rights derived from advances in medical science and technology; (2) existing and proposed contracts/warranty laws that govern technological commercial relationships; (3) negligence, professional liability, and product liability laws that govern the marketing of medical technologies; and, (4) a new body of regulation derived from the power of the federal government to indirectly provide for the safety, effectiveness, privacy, and security of medical ...


Stake Your (Linking) Claim: Assessing The Impact Of In Re Doyle On Patent Reissue, 2 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 360 (2003), Grace C.Y. Leung Jan 2003

Stake Your (Linking) Claim: Assessing The Impact Of In Re Doyle On Patent Reissue, 2 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 360 (2003), Grace C.Y. Leung

The John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law

A common problem encountered during patent prosecution is a restriction requirement. According to In re Doyle, the failure to assert linking claims that readon non-elected claims is an error correctable by reissue. This paper argues that the Doyle court was correct in holding that Doyle was distinguishable from In re Orita. Allowance of genus claims that link previously non-elected claims comports with the patent statute. As the public is on notice that patent claims may be broadenedwithin two years, the Doyle holding ensures that the patentee is given the fullbreadth of protection necessary to “promote the Progress of Science and ...


The Inevitable Disclosure Doctrine In Illinois: Is It An Inevitable Mistake?, 2 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 379 (2003), Juliet Ruth Otten Jan 2003

The Inevitable Disclosure Doctrine In Illinois: Is It An Inevitable Mistake?, 2 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 379 (2003), Juliet Ruth Otten

The John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law

In several recent decisions, Illinois courts have established that an ex-employee may be restrained from using information from their former employer, that will be "inevitably disclosed", even when no non-competition agreement existed between the employee and the employer. The use of this"inevitable disclosure" doctrine allows Illinois courts to create quasi non-competition agreements even where there has been no actual or threatened misappropriation of an employer's information. This comment proposes that Illinois courts should apply the inevitable disclosure doctrine only when several limiting factors are met and, instead, should encourage employers to use reasonable confidentiality agreements so that neither ...


The Post-Festo World Of Equivalents, 2 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 182 (2003), Michael D. Kaminski Jan 2003

The Post-Festo World Of Equivalents, 2 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 182 (2003), Michael D. Kaminski

The John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law

The Supreme Court again began to delve into substantial patent issues by addressing the interplay between prosecution history estoppel and the doctrine of equivalents. An analysis of the opinions in the Federal Circuit’s en banc ruling, together with the Supreme Court’s own decision may help to clarify some of the unanswered questions still lingering regarding what equivalents are available and when. The prosecution history will take a more prominent place in the minds of both patent prosecutors and litigators as courts attempt to determine the appropriate relationship between prosecution history estoppel and the doctrine of equivalents.


No-Copy Technology And The Copyright Act: Has The Music Industry Been Allowed To Go Too Far In Diminishing The Consumers’ Personal Use Rights In The Digital World?, 2 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 337 (2003), Kevin C. Earle Jan 2003

No-Copy Technology And The Copyright Act: Has The Music Industry Been Allowed To Go Too Far In Diminishing The Consumers’ Personal Use Rights In The Digital World?, 2 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 337 (2003), Kevin C. Earle

The John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law

Record companies have in recent years begun production of compact discs containing “no-copy” technology. These CDs appear to be classic CDs but are alleged to have poorer sound quality and often will not play in computers. The recording industryhas used this and other methods to stem the increasing popularity of CD copying and unauthorized music file distribution online. While the right of copyright owners to protect their intellectual property is well established, it is arguable that the methoddescribed herein interferes with a consumer’s right to make personal use of legally purchased content. Such right is alleged to stem from ...


Protecting Minor Improvements On Core Patents: Complementing Traditional Patent Protection With Strategic Disclosure, 2 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 398 (2003), Todd E. Rinner Jan 2003

Protecting Minor Improvements On Core Patents: Complementing Traditional Patent Protection With Strategic Disclosure, 2 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 398 (2003), Todd E. Rinner

The John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law

Managing intellectual property in a manner that achieves its full value is a priority for companies of all types and sizes. Rather than viewing defensive publications as strictly an alternative to patenting, it should be seen as an efficient complement to be utilized in combination with patenting. The development of minor improvements on major inventions presents an attractive situation for combining strategic disclosure with traditional patent protection. Publishing information about a minor improvement will create prior art and prevent competitors from obtaining a patent.By publishing incremental innovations to core patents, a firm can achieve the initialpatent protection necessary to ...


How The Supreme Court Decides To Review Intellectual Property Cases, 3 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 19 (2003), Matthew M. Neumeier Jan 2003

How The Supreme Court Decides To Review Intellectual Property Cases, 3 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 19 (2003), Matthew M. Neumeier

The John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law

Because Supreme Court review is essentially discretionary, it is increasingly rare for the Court to hear an argument concerning Intellectual Property rights. However the Supreme Court will critically review cases that belong in one of four distinct categories. These include cases in which: (1) lower court decisions conflict, (2) lower courts have departed from accepted and usual court proceedings, (3) an important federal question is decided, and (4) lower courts have departed from Supreme Court precedent. This article provides practitioners with some guidance in determining whether the Supreme Court is likely to review a lower court decision on an Intellectual ...


Creative Claim Drafting: Claim Drafting Strategies, Specification Preparation, And Prosecution Tactics, 3 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 34 (2003), George F. Wheeler Jan 2003

Creative Claim Drafting: Claim Drafting Strategies, Specification Preparation, And Prosecution Tactics, 3 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 34 (2003), George F. Wheeler

The John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law

Patent prosecution is becoming more complex with every new rule, statute, and court decision. Rather than approaching the changes with a glass-is-half-empty view, the author explains why this development is a boon to the importance of skilled patent prosecutors. The author reviews the latest developments that have given added scrutiny to the patent drafting process and provides nine tips to assist patent prosecution in the current environment.


Using Declaratory Judgments Offensively In Patent Cases - Dj Jive, 3 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 1 (2003), Peter J. Shurn Iii Jan 2003

Using Declaratory Judgments Offensively In Patent Cases - Dj Jive, 3 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 1 (2003), Peter J. Shurn Iii

The John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law

The Declaratory Judgment Act permits a federal district court to grant relief where an actual controversy exists. Whether an actual controversy exists for declaratory judgments of patent non-infringement is governed by the Federal Circuit's test of the "totality of the circumstances." The declaratory judgment plaintiff has the burden of proving an actual controversy exists. However, the declaratory judgment defendant has the burden of proving patent infringement exists. Reasonable apprehension for a suit may be found to exist although the patentee made no patent-based threat. A company fearing business disruption from patent litigation can thus use declaratory judgment actions offensively ...


Is The Experimental Use Exemption For Patent Infringement Still Needed?, 3 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 103 (2003), Melanie K. Kitzan Haindfield Jan 2003

Is The Experimental Use Exemption For Patent Infringement Still Needed?, 3 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 103 (2003), Melanie K. Kitzan Haindfield

The John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law

The judicially created experimental use exemption has traditionally been a limitation on a patent holder’s rights because it allows patent infringing activities involving research for mere curiosity or amusement. This exemption was later modified to further protect any research performed by institutions not having a profit motive for the patent infringement, resulting in many institutions freely infringing patented inventions, knowing that broad protection was available under the experimental use exemption. However, in 2002 the Federal Circuit effectively ended the experimental use exemption as a defense for academic institutions, by recognizing that academic institutions can be held liable for infringement ...


“You Said What?”: A Look At The Influence Of Foreign Patent Prosecution On Domestic Infringement Litigation, 3 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 119 (2003), Brian R. Cheslek Jan 2003

“You Said What?”: A Look At The Influence Of Foreign Patent Prosecution On Domestic Infringement Litigation, 3 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 119 (2003), Brian R. Cheslek

The John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law

The current patent statutes are structured to grant unambiguous patents that give patent holders a right to exclude and provide the public with ample notice of the patented subject matter. Therefore, courts should interpret the scope of a claim using only the specification and the file history, the very tools used by the patent holder and public to define the bounds of the patent. Unfortunately, limiting statements made abroad can be allowed into evidence, creating a way or accused infringers to evade liability. By permitting judges to admit extrinsic evidence for the purpose of providing clarity to a supposedly already ...


The Rambus Shell Game: A Lack Of Integrity In The Standards Setting Process, 3 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 138 (2003), David Adam Dorth Jan 2003

The Rambus Shell Game: A Lack Of Integrity In The Standards Setting Process, 3 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 138 (2003), David Adam Dorth

The John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law

Standards setting organizations are formed to promulgate industry standards and in turn manage the course of technology that falls within their particular niche. Industry standards are the cornerstone of the technological compatibility that we enjoy as an advanced society. As we delve into the 21st century and beyond, the role of integrity in the standards setting process as a whole must be recognized by standards groups, end-users and importantly by the courts. This comment seeks to draw these entities into focusing on integrity and understand its importance in standards setting. Finally, this article strives to present a good starting point ...


Making A Pitch For Extending A Judge's Power To Determine Obviousness: How The Mcginley Court Struck Out, 3 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 156 (2003), John Petravich Jan 2003

Making A Pitch For Extending A Judge's Power To Determine Obviousness: How The Mcginley Court Struck Out, 3 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 156 (2003), John Petravich

The John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law

Obviousness is one of the most litigated elements of patent of validity, due primarily to the enormous gray area between the roles of judge and jury. While obviousness is ultimately a legal question, the courts make an effort to leave the underlying factual determinations to the jury, with mixed results. McGinley v. Franklin Sports, Inc. illustrates the problems with the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit’s current approach as to what role juries and district court judges should play in determining obviousness of a patent. Instead of the McGinley approach of maintaining a significant role for juries in ...


Flawed Or Flawless: Twenty Years Of The Federal Circuit Court Of Appeals, 2 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 178 (2003), Charles Shifley Jan 2003

Flawed Or Flawless: Twenty Years Of The Federal Circuit Court Of Appeals, 2 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 178 (2003), Charles Shifley

The John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law

A common complaint among patent practitioners is that the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit does not provide the predictability needed in patent law. The author suggests that a better question is whether the Federal Circuit provides more predictability than the alternative, the regional circuits. The choice is clear, the Federal Circuit provides greatly enhanced predictability compared to the regional circuits and patent practitioners should be thankful for what they have, and do not have.


A Hollow Victory For The Common Law? Trips And The Moral Rights Exclusion, 2 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 321 (2003), Monica Kilian Jan 2003

A Hollow Victory For The Common Law? Trips And The Moral Rights Exclusion, 2 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 321 (2003), Monica Kilian

The John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law

With the adoption of moral rights legislation in the United Kingdom and the United States, it appeared that moral rights were on the way to becoming acceptable in Anglo-American jurisdictions. However, the adoption of the TRIPs Agreement expressly excluded the moral rights provision of the Berne Convention. TRIPs signals that all is not well with the integration of moral rights into common law societies. This Article discusses the issues that hamper the acceptance of moral rights. This Article concludes that by bringing economic and moral rights into the same arena and softening the dichotomy of economic versus personal rights, the ...


Mary Mary Quite Contrary How Does Your Biodiverse Garden Grow? An Overview Of Intellectual Property Protections For Plants In The United States, Europe, And Japan, 2 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 307 (2003), Jacqueline M. Cohen Jan 2003

Mary Mary Quite Contrary How Does Your Biodiverse Garden Grow? An Overview Of Intellectual Property Protections For Plants In The United States, Europe, And Japan, 2 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 307 (2003), Jacqueline M. Cohen

The John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law

As we enter further into the boom of the biotechnology era, the role that plants play in our everyday lives continues to grow increasingly more important. This article seeks to provide a general outline of the protections available on a national, as well as, international level for new plant varieties produced through both genetic engineering processes utilized by the biotechnology field, as well as, the "older" methods, such as cross germination, splicing, etc. that are still successfully being utilized by the general scientific community. In the broadest sense this article is designed to help those who are unfamiliar with the ...


Navigating The Bankruptcy Waters In A Domain Name Rowboat, 3 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 61 (2003), Beverly A. Berneman Jan 2003

Navigating The Bankruptcy Waters In A Domain Name Rowboat, 3 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 61 (2003), Beverly A. Berneman

The John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law

The combination of rapidly emerging technologies and changes in intellectual property and information technology law has resulted in new species of property and contract rights, such as Internet domain names. While some laws that were enacted before the rise of the Internet cannot be reconciled with the issues raised by domain names, the Bankruptcy Code appears to be equipped with the tools to handle most issues raised by this new species of property. This article discusses how domain names are treated during bankruptcy, how the Bankruptcy Code can be used to protect the function and value of a debtor's ...