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2001

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Cleveland State University

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Full-Text Articles in Law

2001 Scholars And Artists Bibliography, Michael Schwartz Library, Cleveland State University, Friends Of The Michael Schwartz Library Oct 2001

2001 Scholars And Artists Bibliography, Michael Schwartz Library, Cleveland State University, Friends Of The Michael Schwartz Library

Scholars and Artists Bibliographies

This bibliography was created for the annual Friends of the Michael Schwartz Library Scholars and Artists Reception, recognizing scholarly and creative achievements of Cleveland State University faculty, staff and emeriti


Understanding Islam And The Radicals, David F. Forte Oct 2001

Understanding Islam And The Radicals, David F. Forte

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

The United States is in a war, but it is not a war between Islam and the West. Radical Islamic terrorists hijacked four airplanes and killed thousands of innocent Americans on September 11. But their enmity was not just directed against the United States and the civilization it represents. These terrorists also mean, as President Bush made clear in his speech to the Joint Session of Congress recently, to hijack Islam itself and destroy Islamic civilization. In the developing battle on behalf of these two great civilizations, it is imperative that we understand something about the basic traditions of Islam ...


Effective Strategies For Protecting Human Rights: A Conference Engaging The International Community, David R. Barnhizer Apr 2001

Effective Strategies For Protecting Human Rights: A Conference Engaging The International Community, David R. Barnhizer

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

Human rights protection needs teeth. And those who work in the disparate field of human rights need to see the system more comprehensively and strategically. Far too often, political issues interfere with enforcement of human rights laws and allow violators to hide behind the unwillingness of national governments to take action to enforce existing laws against human rights violators. Lack of commitment to human rights enforcement or timely preventative or intervention actions have led to violators being left unpunished for torture, rape and genocide. This failure of governments means that there is a lack of deterent power sufficient to inhibit ...


The Right To Kill In Cold Blood: Does The Death Penalty Violate Human Rights, Alan Ryan Jan 2001

The Right To Kill In Cold Blood: Does The Death Penalty Violate Human Rights, Alan Ryan

Cleveland State Law Review

The essence of the argument is this: all punishment must be inflicted in cold blood; whatever damage we do to others not in cold blood is not punishment but self-defense or revenge; what we have a right to inflict in cold blood is a question of the rules of just social cooperation and especially the justice of the sanctions required to sustain those rules; it is here argued that the fundamental principle is that we may inflict whatever punishment is necessary to deter wrongdoing and not disproportionate to the offence; I do not dismiss 'pure' retribution as a goal of ...


Questioning The Rights Of Juvenile Prisoners During Interrogation , Adam Mizock Jan 2001

Questioning The Rights Of Juvenile Prisoners During Interrogation , Adam Mizock

Cleveland State Law Review

Part I of this Note will review a recent Colorado case involving the interrogation of a juvenile prisoner and the application of the additional-restraint factors within a totality-of-the-circumstances analysis. Part II will analyze how the decision in the Colorado case and the additional-restraint factors comport with the meaning of "custody" as set forth in U.S. courts' jurisprudence on custodial interrogations. Part III will propose that juvenile prisoners should be presumed in custody for Miranda purposes absent exceptional circumstances. It then will present the justification for this presumption, including a discussion of the solicitude normally provided to juveniles in the ...


It's Time To Put The Military's Death Penalty To Sleep , Michael I. Spak Jan 2001

It's Time To Put The Military's Death Penalty To Sleep , Michael I. Spak

Cleveland State Law Review

Part I will focus on the death penalty in the civilian sector of the United States. It begins with a brief history of and an introduction to death penalty laws in the United States. A critical examination of the primary arguments used to justify the death penalty follows. Part I next offers a brief overview of other independent reasons for the abolition of the death penalty. After having concluded that the application of the death penalty is unfair in the civilian sector and should thus be abolished, the article will then shift its focus to the death penalty in the ...


Bringing The Camel Into The Tent: State And Federal Power Over Electricity Transmission , Cassandra Burke Robertson Jan 2001

Bringing The Camel Into The Tent: State And Federal Power Over Electricity Transmission , Cassandra Burke Robertson

Cleveland State Law Review

This paper provides a framework for understanding the current controversy regarding jurisdiction over the power grid, and provides policy-oriented solutions to ensure an adequate, low-cost transmission supply. The main thesis of this paper is that sound transmission policy requires greater federal power, and that Congress is better equipped than the courts to enact such policy. To this end, Part I of the paper offers an historical outline of the problem and analyzes the statutes and regulations that form the backbone of both the federal and state jurisdictional claims. Part II looks at legal considerations regarding the scope of federal jurisdiction ...


Are Contemporary Community Standards No Longer Contemporary, Roman A. Kostenko Jan 2001

Are Contemporary Community Standards No Longer Contemporary, Roman A. Kostenko

Cleveland State Law Review

This note concurs with the decision reached by the Third Circuit. The federal obscenity law, which incorporated the contemporary community standards test is unconstitutional as applied to expression on the internet because it has chilling effect on the exercise of freedom of speech as guaranteed by the First Amendment to the Constitution of the United States. Because freedom of speech would be restrained by any incorporation of community standards in federal regulation of the internet, the legislature should refrain from adopting a standard that would apply in all internet situations. Rather, with respect to obscenity, the internet should be left ...


Compelled Medical Treatment Of Pregnant Women: The Balancing Of Maternal And Fetal Rights , Pamala Harris Jan 2001

Compelled Medical Treatment Of Pregnant Women: The Balancing Of Maternal And Fetal Rights , Pamala Harris

Cleveland State Law Review

This note explores the question: is it ever permissible for a physician or a judge to compel a pregnant woman to submit to medical treatment for the benefit of her fetus? This note begins by examining the ideology of motherhood and the legal status of the fetus. This note then examines the ethical aspects and legal issues involved in compelling a pregnant woman to undergo treatment for the benefit of her fetus. This note then explores the controls of pregnancy that result in maternal-fetal conflicts. Finally, this note examines the court's use of a balancing test in reaching decisions ...


Extending Weingarten To The Nonunion Setting: A History Of Oscillation, Sarah C. Flannery Jan 2001

Extending Weingarten To The Nonunion Setting: A History Of Oscillation, Sarah C. Flannery

Cleveland State Law Review

Passed in response to the nineteenth century hostility towards union activity, the NLRA traditionally was viewed as a pro-union statute. However, as much as the Act contains provisions clearly aimed at protecting union activity, the Act explicitly applies to non-union employees as well as union employees. Nevertheless, many nonunion employers and employees are unaware of the existence of the NLRA despite it being the only law governing the relationship between an employer and its employees as a group in most private sector establishments in this country. This Note analyzes the conflicting history surrounding this issue and asserts that the necessary ...


Bankruptcy Reform: An Orderly Development Of Public Policy , William T. Bodoh, Lawrence P. Dempsey Jan 2001

Bankruptcy Reform: An Orderly Development Of Public Policy , William T. Bodoh, Lawrence P. Dempsey

Cleveland State Law Review

In legislating the pending bankruptcy "reform," Congress has made many of the key decisions behind closed doors. In fact, the process has been characterized as a congressional effort to pass a "stealth bankruptcy bill." This secrecy brings into question the democratic nature of congressional deliberation. When the Framers designed the legislative branch, open debate was envisioned as the rule, not the exception. Unfortunately, Congress has adopted a secretive, approach to pushing through recent bankruptcy legislation. In a sharp departure from the decades-long congressional approach to bankruptcy legislation, "Congress stopped seeking expert advice and instead turned to special interest lobbyists…” Thus ...


The Effects Of Mediation In A Juvenile Incarceration Facility: Reduction Of Violence Through Transformation, Linda Morton, Floralynn Einesman Jan 2001

The Effects Of Mediation In A Juvenile Incarceration Facility: Reduction Of Violence Through Transformation, Linda Morton, Floralynn Einesman

Cleveland State Law Review

The use of mediation techniques to resolve conflicts among American youth has grown in popularity over the past two decades; Conflict resolution programs have blossomed in school systems, but there has been a dearth of mediation programs for one of our most violent youth groups: incarcerated juveniles. In this article, we describe and analyze the effects and the potential success of our program through the data we have collected. Our article will first describe the objectives and content of our mediation program in Juvenile Hall in San Diego. Relying on sociological and psychological theory in our second section, we will ...


The Symbiotic Circle Of Community: A Comparative Investigation Of Deviance Control In Intentional Communities, Zachary Rothenberg Jan 2001

The Symbiotic Circle Of Community: A Comparative Investigation Of Deviance Control In Intentional Communities, Zachary Rothenberg

Cleveland State Law Review

With each community considered, I will try to paint a picture of the many collectivizing factors at work: (1) the history or tradition of the community; (2) its underlying ideology, belief and value systems, and/or common interests or goals; (3) the nature of its communalism; (4)the nature of its isolation from the outside world; and (5) its decision-making and governance structure. Finally, I will look to its "gate-keeping" or circumference-drawing functions-how the community controls deviance and maintains unity within, while distinguishing itself from the chaos without. In Section I, I will consider two extreme examples of community (the ...


When Indian Law And Tax Law Collide: How Pull-Tab Games Got To The Supreme Court , John Burgess Jan 2001

When Indian Law And Tax Law Collide: How Pull-Tab Games Got To The Supreme Court , John Burgess

Cleveland State Law Review

This Note will explore the reasons why two identical cases can turn out with completely different results. To do so, consideration will be given to the statutes involved and the varying interpretations of these statutes. Another important consideration is the policy behind these statutes, especially the IGRA. Part II will describe what the pull-tab games are, the statutes at issue, the conflicting cases, and the statutory interpretation issue. Part III will describe how the tenets of Indian Law can affect the analysis. Part IV will contain an analysis of the statutes and compare it to how the courts analyzed them ...


Are Forensic Locksmiths Really Qualified To Testify As Experts In Cases Of Insurance Fraud: An Examination Of The Admissibility Of Forensic Locksmith Opinions Under Rule 702, Chad A. Hester Jan 2001

Are Forensic Locksmiths Really Qualified To Testify As Experts In Cases Of Insurance Fraud: An Examination Of The Admissibility Of Forensic Locksmith Opinions Under Rule 702, Chad A. Hester

Cleveland State Law Review

This Note will argue that while forensic locksmiths may be qualified as experts under Rule 702, they should not necessarily be qualified to testify as to which key started a vehicle last. Part I of this note will discuss the basic history and case law which has established the requirements necessary to qualify an expert to testify under the Rule 702. In addition, Part I will discuss the recently enacted amendments to Rule 702 and how the amended Rule 702 has expanded the admissibility of expert witnesses. Part II of this note will discuss the generally accepted procedures of forensic ...


Personal Reflections On The Reliability Of Jury Verdicts, Sam Reese Sheppard Jan 2001

Personal Reflections On The Reliability Of Jury Verdicts, Sam Reese Sheppard

Cleveland State Law Review

The symposium presentation given by Dr. Sheppard’s son discussed the impact of the trial on his entire family, as well as the idea of a failed trial. He went through the different juries encountered by his father. He also listed his hopes for the symposium: “What would I hope to come out of a conference like this? First, selfishly, I would hope that it would help us with our new legal endeavor. Second, I hope that we can contribute to serious legal work that deals on realistic and dignified grounds on the problem, both federally and statewide, of wrongful ...


Scientific Evidence And The Ethical Obligations Of Attorneys, Michael J. Saks Jan 2001

Scientific Evidence And The Ethical Obligations Of Attorneys, Michael J. Saks

Cleveland State Law Review

This article considers the question: "What are the legal and ethical responsibilities of attorneys when offering scientific expert evidence to courts?" To a lesser extent it considers the responsibilities of attorneys to challenge such evidence when proffered and the ethical dimensions of the working relationship of lawyers and experts. Although the most prominent discussions of such issues have concerned so-called junk science in civil trials, the legal context upon which this article will focus is the criminal trial, where dubious science is more common, less questioned, and has even become institutionalized. The rules and practices of civil cases are provided ...


Witness To History: The Role Of Legal Commentators In High Profile Trials - Opening Remarks, Laurie L. Levenson Jan 2001

Witness To History: The Role Of Legal Commentators In High Profile Trials - Opening Remarks, Laurie L. Levenson

Cleveland State Law Review

As legal commentators, our role is, first and foremost, to educate the public and the media. The next thing that a commentator can do is, of course, provide some type of expertise. An experienced lawyer or legal commentator should know enough to say, if given the opportunity, that a certain fact will not necessarily make a difference in the case because the jurors will not hear it or because it is unrelated to the legal issues in the case. Another thing legal commentators can do is address problems in the presentation of what the law and the legal process is ...


The Problem With Innocence, Margaret Raymond Jan 2001

The Problem With Innocence, Margaret Raymond

Cleveland State Law Review

Pursuing justice for the wrongfully convicted is a profoundly meaningful goal. Yet the innocence movement may have unintended consequences for the criminal justice system. This paper explores some of these, and argues that the focus on factual innocence may create certain distortions in the way that actors in the criminal justice system---the "ones left behind"--perceive their obligations and allegiances. It may convince the public, including policymakers, that the system works effectively to reveal and redress wrongful convictions. It may convince prospective jurors that it is-or should be-the defendant's burden to prove innocence. It may convince potential criminal defense ...


Convicting The Innocent Beyond A Reasonable Doubt: Some Lessons About Jury Instructions From The Sheppard Case, Lawrence M. Solan Jan 2001

Convicting The Innocent Beyond A Reasonable Doubt: Some Lessons About Jury Instructions From The Sheppard Case, Lawrence M. Solan

Cleveland State Law Review

Indeed, it is difficult to prove one's innocence, and the legal system purports not to require defendants in criminal cases to do so. The shift in the burden of proof happened for a number of reasons. In this article, I will discuss another factor that I believe pervades the criminal justice system: jury instructions that shift the burden from the government to the defendant. Part II of this article establishes three criteria for good criminal jury instructions. They are fidelity to the law, comprehensibility, and consistency with the presumption of innocence. It then discusses the presumption of innocence, burden ...


Scientific Evidence In The Sam Sheppard Case , Paul C. Giannelli Jan 2001

Scientific Evidence In The Sam Sheppard Case , Paul C. Giannelli

Cleveland State Law Review

My panel is discussing reliable jury verdicts, and my topic is "scientific" evidence. One way to approach this issue is to compare scientific evidence with other methods of proof. The trial lawyers that I worked with viewed cases as falling primarily into one of three categories: eyewitness cases, confession cases, and "scientific" evidence cases. In this scheme, anything that was not an eyewitness, confession, or snitch case was a "scientific evidence" case. These categories, of course, are neither exhaustive nor mutually exclusive; often two and sometimes all three are involved. Nevertheless, these categories are helpful because they present trial attorneys ...


Influence Of Media And Technology: Changing Roles And Responsibilities, Terry Gilbert Jan 2001

Influence Of Media And Technology: Changing Roles And Responsibilities, Terry Gilbert

Cleveland State Law Review

High profile cases are therefore media driven. What happens in the courtroom is a reflection of the attitudes of the larger society. Such was the case then and it is the case now. From the cases of Lizzy Borden, the Lindburgh kidnapping, O.J. Simpson, and Sheppard, anyone who thinks justice is completely blind to the influences of popular opinion is blind themselves. All too often justice is a function of political culture. The courtroom is nothing but a vehicle to carry out the popular will, often with lynch mob mentality. Despite the attempts to control this phenomenon, and certainly ...


Environmental Audit Privilege Laws: Stripping The Public's Right To Know, Jennifer Lukas Jackson Jan 2001

Environmental Audit Privilege Laws: Stripping The Public's Right To Know, Jennifer Lukas Jackson

Cleveland State Law Review

This Note argues that because the public places a high premium on its right to know, Congress should enact a federal statute that prohibits a privilege for environmental audits. A federal prohibition on a privilege for environmental audits will make the state statutes unconstitutional under the Supremacy Clause of the United States Constitution. This Note has six parts. Part II provides background on the traditional environmental regulatory regime and the role that the public plays in enforcing environmental statutes. Part III is an analysis of some of the typical state environmental audit privilege laws, including a discussion of the major ...


Quest For Fairness In Compensating Victims Of September 11, The, Robert L. Rabin Jan 2001

Quest For Fairness In Compensating Victims Of September 11, The, Robert L. Rabin

Cleveland State Law Review

Aside from natural disasters, when tragedy strikes - taking its toll in fatalities and serious injuries - we ordinarily look to the tort system for redress. Tort is not the exclusive form of redress, of course, in this era of private insurance and government disability programs. But still, it remains our most highly visible mechanism for assigning responsibility and providing compensation. In this Article, I will begin by describing the approach to compensation taken in the Victim Compensation Fund. I will then discuss the implementing regulations promulgated by the Special Master appointed under the Fund. Next, I will offer a preliminary assessment ...


Risk Management For Land Use Regulations: A Proposed Model , Kenneth G. Silliman Jan 2001

Risk Management For Land Use Regulations: A Proposed Model , Kenneth G. Silliman

Cleveland State Law Review

This Article constructs a conservative legal framework to guide planners in conventional planning activities. It further proposes that planners should apply the model to these conventional activities, but work closely with the municipal attorney before adopting more innovative and controversial planning devices.This Article proceeds in four major sections. Section I commences, with historical reviews: major changes in land use planning within the last 50 years, the land development problems associated with those changes, and judicial responses to these same problems. Comparisons are frequently made between cases from a rustbelt Midwestern state (Ohio) and cases from a faster growing sunbelt ...


Maintaining The Status Quo: Electricity Utility Deregulation Difficulties In Ohio , Todd A. Snitchler Jan 2001

Maintaining The Status Quo: Electricity Utility Deregulation Difficulties In Ohio , Todd A. Snitchler

Cleveland State Law Review

In this Article, I seek to review the state of affairs under the Ohio deregulation plan by identifying first the present circumstances in the Ohio electricity utility marketplace and second options that other states, which have not yet deregulated, should consider in developing their plans. In Part I, I examine the current state of electricity utilities in Ohio and the pressures on the legislature that led to calls for deregulation. In Part II, I briefly consider the existing regulatory framework on the state and federal levels. In Part III, I analyze the Ohio deregulation plan with a focus on whether ...


The Constitutional Legitimacy Of The Civil Provisions Of The Federal Wiretap Act - A Suggestion To The Supreme Court In The Case Of Bartnicki V. Vopper, Jess Gamiere Jan 2001

The Constitutional Legitimacy Of The Civil Provisions Of The Federal Wiretap Act - A Suggestion To The Supreme Court In The Case Of Bartnicki V. Vopper, Jess Gamiere

Cleveland State Law Review

Title III of the Federal Wiretap Act, as amended, remains the "primary law guarding the privacy of personal communication [among private citizens] in the United States." This piece of legislation will serve as the focal point of this Note. This Note will first discuss the history and context of the statute under which two cases have arisen. It will then survey various Supreme Court cases addressing the tension between the First Amendment and the right to privacy so as to provide the reader with a better understanding of the conflict between these two constitutional rights. Then it will outline and ...


The Applicability Of The Ada To Private Internet Web Sites, Carrie L. Kiedrowski Jan 2001

The Applicability Of The Ada To Private Internet Web Sites, Carrie L. Kiedrowski

Cleveland State Law Review

This article proposes that private commercial web sites are considered places of public accommodation; consequently, private Internet web sites must be accessible to people with disabilities under the Americans with Disabilities Act. Part I introduces the thesis of this article. Part II sets out the historical inception of the legal rights of accessibility for people with disabilities in public and private entities. Additionally, Part II describes recent federal actions mandating accessibility of government related web sites. Part III addresses the question of whether Internet web sites are considered places of public accommodation under the ADA, including an analysis of supporting ...


With God All Things Are Possible, Including Finding Ohio's State Motto Constitutional Under The Establishment Clause Of The First Amendment, Christopher Pierre Jan 2001

With God All Things Are Possible, Including Finding Ohio's State Motto Constitutional Under The Establishment Clause Of The First Amendment, Christopher Pierre

Cleveland State Law Review

The current battle over Ohio's state motto, "With God All Things Are Possible," has brought the debate over the meaning and application of the Establishment Clause to the Sixth Circuit and sparked deep feelings on both sides of the issue. Establishment Clause of the First Amendment. This brief survey will reveal the continuing disagreements over the interpretation and application of the Establishment Clause while showing that history supports generalized references to God by the federal and state government. Part III will introduce the background and procedural history of the current case American Civil Liberties Union of Ohio v. Capitol ...


No Pain, No Gain, No Compensation: Expoliting Professional Athletes Through Substandard Medical Care Administered By Team Physician, Nick Dicello Jan 2001

No Pain, No Gain, No Compensation: Expoliting Professional Athletes Through Substandard Medical Care Administered By Team Physician, Nick Dicello

Cleveland State Law Review

This note discusses the role of the team physician and the unique conflicts he or she faces when providing medical care to athletes. In particular, the note describes the pressure team doctors experience from team management, the coaching staff, and the players themselves. Next, the note discusses the types of claims professional athletes have brought against their doctors and team employers and how the terms of collective bargaining agreements (CBA) and workers' compensation laws create obstacles to their recovery. The note will explore the need for a specialized legal standard within the practice of sports medicine and identify the disincentive ...