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2001

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Civil Rights and Discrimination

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Articles 1 - 30 of 204

Full-Text Articles in Law

Department Of Justice Oversight: Preserving Our Freedoms While Defending Against Terrorism: Hearing Before The S. Comm. On The Judiciary, 107th Cong., Dec. 6, 2001 (Statement Of Neal Kumar Katyal, Prof. Of Law, Geo. U. L. Center), Neal K. Katyal Dec 2001

Department Of Justice Oversight: Preserving Our Freedoms While Defending Against Terrorism: Hearing Before The S. Comm. On The Judiciary, 107th Cong., Dec. 6, 2001 (Statement Of Neal Kumar Katyal, Prof. Of Law, Geo. U. L. Center), Neal K. Katyal

Testimony Before Congress

No abstract provided.


Baker V. State And The Promise Of The New Judicial Federalism, Charles H. Baron, Lawrence Friedman Dec 2001

Baker V. State And The Promise Of The New Judicial Federalism, Charles H. Baron, Lawrence Friedman

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

In Baker v. State, the Supreme Court of Vermont ruled that the state constitution’s Common Benefits Clause prohibits the exclusion of same-sex couples from the benefits and protections of marriage. Baker has been praised by constitutional scholars as a prototypical example of the New Judicial Federalism. The authors agree, asserting that the decision sets a standard for constitutional discourse by dint of the manner in which each of the opinions connects and responds to the others, pulls together arguments from other state and federal constitutional authorities, and provides a clear basis for subsequent development of constitutional principle. This Article ...


The Death Of Section 504, Ruth Colker Dec 2001

The Death Of Section 504, Ruth Colker

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

This Article argues that the passage of the ADA had an unexpected consequence, namely the narrowing of the rights that were understood to exist under Section 504. Section 504 covered two broad areas of the law: the law of employment for individuals employed by entities receiving federal financial assistance and the law of education for students attending primary, secondary or higher education. The effect on the law of employment, which I will discuss in Part II, has been immediate and dramatic. The effect on the law of education, discussed in Part III, cannot yet be fully documented. Recent decisions, however ...


Disability, Equal Protection, And The Supreme Court: Standing At The Crossroads Of Progressive And Retrogressive Logic In Constitutional Classification, Anita Silvers, Michael Ashley Stein Dec 2001

Disability, Equal Protection, And The Supreme Court: Standing At The Crossroads Of Progressive And Retrogressive Logic In Constitutional Classification, Anita Silvers, Michael Ashley Stein

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

This Article compares current disability jurisprudence with the development of sex equality jurisprudence in the area of discrimination. It demonstrates that current disability law resembles the abandoned, sexist framework for determining sex equality and argues that disability equality cases should receive similar analysis as the more progressive, current sex equality standard. As such, the Article attempts to synthesize case law (14th Amendment Equal Protection jurisprudence) and statutory law (Title VII and the ADA) into a comprehensive overview of the state of current disability law viewed within the context of discrimination law in general.


"What's Good Is Bad, What's Bad Is Good, You'll Find Out When You Reach The Top, You're On The Bottom": Are The Americans With Disabilities Act (And Olmstead V. L. C.) Anything More Than "Idiot Wind?", Michael L. Perlin Dec 2001

"What's Good Is Bad, What's Bad Is Good, You'll Find Out When You Reach The Top, You're On The Bottom": Are The Americans With Disabilities Act (And Olmstead V. L. C.) Anything More Than "Idiot Wind?", Michael L. Perlin

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Mental disability law is contaminated by "sanism, " an irrational prejudice similar to such other irrational prejudices as racism and sexism. The passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)-a statute that focused specifically on questions of stereotyping and stigma-appeared at first to offer an opportunity to deal frontally with sanist attitudes and, optimally, to restructure the way that citizens with mental disabilities were dealt with by the remainder of society. However, in its first decade, the ADA did not prove to be a panacea for such persons. The Supreme Court's 1999 decision in Olmstead v. L.C. - ruling ...


Envisioning A Future For Age And Disability Discrimination Claims, Alison Barnes Dec 2001

Envisioning A Future For Age And Disability Discrimination Claims, Alison Barnes

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

This Article considers the reasons for reinterpretations of age and disability and examines the fundamental reasons for changes in the implementation of both the ADA and ADEA. Part I presents the basic structure and relevant requirements of the two statutes and comments on the reasons their legislative purposes are not often seen as overlapping. Part II discusses the recent Supreme Court decisions that have undermined the purposes and implementation of both the ADA and ADEA and chilled causes of action based on the ADA and ADEA. Part III projects the current problems with anti-discrimination causes into the future, when older ...


Reforming Disability Nondiscrimination Laws: A Comparative Perspective, Stanley S. Herr Dec 2001

Reforming Disability Nondiscrimination Laws: A Comparative Perspective, Stanley S. Herr

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Comparing the law and policies of other countries concerning disability rights to ours can help us understand how we may strengthen those rights and heighten compliance with nondiscrimination laws. Since it took effect in 1992, the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) has been a leading example of such comprehensive legislation on behalf of people with disabilities. Along with the United Nations Standard Rules on Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities, the ADA has inspired many countries to develop their own disability nondiscrimination laws and remedial agencies. This process must work in both directions, however, and laws and agencies from ...


Guilty And Gay, A Recipe For Execution In American Courtrooms: Sexual Orientation As A Tool For Prosecutorial Misconduct In Death Penalty Cases, Michael B. Shortnacy Dec 2001

Guilty And Gay, A Recipe For Execution In American Courtrooms: Sexual Orientation As A Tool For Prosecutorial Misconduct In Death Penalty Cases, Michael B. Shortnacy

American University Law Review

No abstract provided.


International Red Cross Must Include Israel, Kenneth Lasson Nov 2001

International Red Cross Must Include Israel, Kenneth Lasson

All Faculty Scholarship

Israel's corresponding relief agency, the Mogen David Adom, has provided emergency services to countries all over the world since 1939, and it meets or surpasses every other standard for IFRC membership. Yet Israel remains the only nation left out of the 178- country federation. Why?

An IFRC spokesman says that it is "governments, not the federation, that give emblems the protective force of international law," and that "governments" are preparing to adopt an additional emblem, with no religious or national connotations, to stand alongside the Red Cross and the Red Crescent, one that Israel could adopt as its own ...


“Closet Case”: Boy Scouts Of America V. Dale And The Reinforcement Of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, And Transgender Invisibility, Darren Lenard Hutchinson Nov 2001

“Closet Case”: Boy Scouts Of America V. Dale And The Reinforcement Of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, And Transgender Invisibility, Darren Lenard Hutchinson

UF Law Faculty Publications

This Article argues that the Supreme Court's decision in Boy Scouts of America v. Dale misapplies and ignores controlling First Amendment precedent and incorrectly defines “sexual identity” as a clinical or biological imposition that exists apart from expression or speech. This Article provides a doctrinal alternative to Dale that would protect vital interests in both equality and liberty and that would not condition, as does Dale, sexual “equality” upon the silencing of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender individuals.

This Article proceeds in five parts. Part I provides an introduction to the case and issues.Part II discusses the evolution ...


John Wilkes And The Enlightenment, Stephen Carruthers Nov 2001

John Wilkes And The Enlightenment, Stephen Carruthers

Masters

Based on the absence of a substantial political philosophy and a scandalous reputation, modern assessments of John Wilkes have tended to marginalise his role in the development of radical political ideas in England in the 1760s and 1770s. This evaluation is reassessed in the context of an analysis of Wilkes’s collaboration with Charles Churchill on the North Briton and his political writings of the period, in particular his Introduction to the History of England (1768). Furthermore, Wilkes enjoyed extensive and prolonged contact with the leading continental philosophers of the period, and in particular d’Holbach, Diderot, Suard, Helvétius, and ...


Protecting Constitutional Freedoms In The Face Of Terrorism: Hearing Before The S. Comm. On The Judiciary, 107th Cong., Oct. 3, 2001 (Statement Of David D. Cole, Prof. Of Law, Geo. U. L. Center), David Cole Oct 2001

Protecting Constitutional Freedoms In The Face Of Terrorism: Hearing Before The S. Comm. On The Judiciary, 107th Cong., Oct. 3, 2001 (Statement Of David D. Cole, Prof. Of Law, Geo. U. L. Center), David Cole

Testimony Before Congress

No abstract provided.


Discriminatory Housing Statements And §3604(C): A New Look At The Fair Housing Act’S Most Intriguing Provision, Robert G. Schwemm Oct 2001

Discriminatory Housing Statements And §3604(C): A New Look At The Fair Housing Act’S Most Intriguing Provision, Robert G. Schwemm

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

Today, more than three decades after the 1968 Fair Housing Act ("FHA") banned such behavior, blatant discrimination—often accompanied by racist slurs and other explicitly discriminatory statements—continues to plague America's housing markets. The FHA not only outlawed discrimination in most housing transactions on the basis of race, color, religion, and national origin, but also contained a specific prohibition, § 3604(c), banning all discriminatory housing statements. Unlike the FHA's more traditional prohibitions against discriminatory refusals to deal and discriminatory terms and conditions, § 3604(c)'s ban on discriminatory statements has not been the subject of much litigation or ...


Fixing Watches With Sledgehammers: The Questionable Embrace Of Employee Sexual Harassment Training By The Legal Profession, Susan Bisom-Rapp Oct 2001

Fixing Watches With Sledgehammers: The Questionable Embrace Of Employee Sexual Harassment Training By The Legal Profession, Susan Bisom-Rapp

University of Arkansas at Little Rock Law Review

No abstract provided.


Employer Liability For Sexual Harassment - Normative, Descriptive, And Doctrinal Interactions: A Reply To Professors Beiner And Bisom-Rapp, Linda Hamilton Krieger Oct 2001

Employer Liability For Sexual Harassment - Normative, Descriptive, And Doctrinal Interactions: A Reply To Professors Beiner And Bisom-Rapp, Linda Hamilton Krieger

University of Arkansas at Little Rock Law Review

No abstract provided.


Using Evidence Of Women's Stories In Sexual Harassment Cases, Theresa M. Beiner Oct 2001

Using Evidence Of Women's Stories In Sexual Harassment Cases, Theresa M. Beiner

University of Arkansas at Little Rock Law Review

No abstract provided.


Fundamental Mismatch: The Improper Integration Of Individual Liberty Rights Into Commerce Clause Analysis Of The Patient Protection And Affordable Care Act, Arthur J.R. Baker Oct 2001

Fundamental Mismatch: The Improper Integration Of Individual Liberty Rights Into Commerce Clause Analysis Of The Patient Protection And Affordable Care Act, Arthur J.R. Baker

University of Miami Law Review

No abstract provided.


Courtroom Bias: Gender Discrimination Against Pregnant Litigators, Sandy Mastro Oct 2001

Courtroom Bias: Gender Discrimination Against Pregnant Litigators, Sandy Mastro

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

No abstract provided.


Disability, Equal Protection, And The Supreme Court: Standing At The Crossroads Of Progressive And Retrogressive Logic In Constitutional Classification, Anita Silvers, Michael Ashley Stein Oct 2001

Disability, Equal Protection, And The Supreme Court: Standing At The Crossroads Of Progressive And Retrogressive Logic In Constitutional Classification, Anita Silvers, Michael Ashley Stein

Faculty Publications

This Article compares current disability jurisprudence with the development of sex equality jurisprudence in the area of discrimination. It demonstrates that current disability law resembles the abandoned, sexist framework for determining sex equality and argues that disability equality cases should receive similar analysis as the more progressive, current sex equality standard. As such, the Article attempts to synthesize case law (l4th Amendment Equal Protection jurisprudence) and statutory law (Title VII and the ADA) into a comprehensive overview of the state of current disability law viewed within the context of discrimination law in general.


Invisible Markets Netting Visible Results: When Sub-Prime Lending Becomes Predatory, Cassandra Jones Havard Oct 2001

Invisible Markets Netting Visible Results: When Sub-Prime Lending Becomes Predatory, Cassandra Jones Havard

All Faculty Scholarship

In this article, I argue that Ellison's metaphor of social invisibility—the societal undervaluing of minorities—is analogous to economic invisibility—the denial of fair access to credit to minorities. I then use the metaphor of invisibility as a basis for understanding the contemporary legal problem of predatory lending, or making credit available to borrowers at unreasonably high interest rates. Disguised as credit access to high-risk, underserved borrowers, predatory lending helps to create risk by offering borrowers products that do not adequately measure risk and that are not fairly priced.


Toward A Motivating Factor Test For Individual Disparate Treatment Claims, Benjamin C. Mizer Oct 2001

Toward A Motivating Factor Test For Individual Disparate Treatment Claims, Benjamin C. Mizer

Michigan Law Review

Nathan Fields, an African-American employee at the New York State Office of Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities ("OMRDD"), was in many ways the typical Title VIP employment discrimination plaintiff, with a case that, on its face, suggested both discriminatory and benign actions by his employer. For six years, Fields worked as a maintenance assistant in the electrical shop at OMRDD's Oswald D. Heck Developmental Center ("Heck"). During that time, he twice applied for a promotion, and on each occasion, Heck selected white employees for the position. In addition, Fields claimed that he was discriminatorily singled out for disciplinary treatment ...


Section 1: Adarand Constructors V. Mineta, Institute Of Bill Of Rights Law At The William & Mary Law School Sep 2001

Section 1: Adarand Constructors V. Mineta, Institute Of Bill Of Rights Law At The William & Mary Law School

Supreme Court Preview

No abstract provided.


Section 4: Civil Rights, Institute Of Bill Of Rights Law At The William & Mary Law School Sep 2001

Section 4: Civil Rights, Institute Of Bill Of Rights Law At The William & Mary Law School

Supreme Court Preview

No abstract provided.


Balancing States' Rights With Individual Rights: Tipping The Scales Against The Rights Of Non-Suspect Classes, Linda Carter Batiste Sep 2001

Balancing States' Rights With Individual Rights: Tipping The Scales Against The Rights Of Non-Suspect Classes, Linda Carter Batiste

West Virginia Law Review

No abstract provided.


Defunis V. Odegaard, 416 U.S. 312 (1974): A Case Study Of The Interface Between Cultural Development, Judicial Politics And Litigation Strategy, Marc A. Perrone Sep 2001

Defunis V. Odegaard, 416 U.S. 312 (1974): A Case Study Of The Interface Between Cultural Development, Judicial Politics And Litigation Strategy, Marc A. Perrone

Buffalo Public Interest Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Gender-Based Violence As Judicial Anomaly: Between "The Truly National And The Truly Local", Deborah M. Weissman Sep 2001

Gender-Based Violence As Judicial Anomaly: Between "The Truly National And The Truly Local", Deborah M. Weissman

Boston College Law Review

In United States v. Morrison, the Supreme Court struck down the federal civil rights remedy for gender-based violence in the Violence Against Women Act. Notwithstanding evidence considered by Congress documenting the economic impact of domestic violence, and despite the inability of state and local systems to address gender-based violence claims, the Court determined that Congress lacked the necessary authority. The author argues that Morrison is remarkable in what it reveals about the legal status of women as mediated in multiple levels of judicial transactions. She contends that the decision reflects attitudes ingrained in the nation's judicial culture. Specifically, the ...


Unlawful Discrimination: Your Rights And Remedies. Civil Rights Handbook, 3rd Ed., California Attorney General Aug 2001

Unlawful Discrimination: Your Rights And Remedies. Civil Rights Handbook, 3rd Ed., California Attorney General

California Agencies

No abstract provided.


Integration Without Classification: Moving Toward Race-Neutrality In The Pursuit Of Public Elementary And Secondary School Diversity, Paul Diller Aug 2001

Integration Without Classification: Moving Toward Race-Neutrality In The Pursuit Of Public Elementary And Secondary School Diversity, Paul Diller

Michigan Law Review

Ever since the Supreme Court's invalidation of racially segregated public schools in Brown v. Board of Education, America has wrestled with the challenge of successfully dismantling educational apartheid. In recent years, the federal judiciary has largely retreated from enforcing desegregation in school districts that were once under court supervision for engaging in intentional racial discrimination, finding that the vestiges of past discrimination have been satisfactorily ameliorated. In some such unitary school districts, as well as in districts in which no intentional segregation was ever identified by the courts, boards of education, have voluntarily implemented student assignment plans designed to ...


Arkansas Civil Rights Act - School Districts' Liability For Peer Abuse: Arkansas Supreme Court Holds School Districts Have No Duty To Protect Students From Each Other. Rudd V. Pulaski County Special School District, 341 Ark. 794, 20 S.W.3d 310 (2000)., Kimberly Miller Jul 2001

Arkansas Civil Rights Act - School Districts' Liability For Peer Abuse: Arkansas Supreme Court Holds School Districts Have No Duty To Protect Students From Each Other. Rudd V. Pulaski County Special School District, 341 Ark. 794, 20 S.W.3d 310 (2000)., Kimberly Miller

University of Arkansas at Little Rock Law Review

No abstract provided.


Closing A Discrimination Loophole: Using Title Vii's Anti-Retaliation Provision To Prevent Employers From Requiring Unlawful Arbitration Agreements As Conditions Of Continued Employment, Sidney Charlotte Reynolds Jul 2001

Closing A Discrimination Loophole: Using Title Vii's Anti-Retaliation Provision To Prevent Employers From Requiring Unlawful Arbitration Agreements As Conditions Of Continued Employment, Sidney Charlotte Reynolds

Washington Law Review

Courts have long viewed mandatory arbitration agreements (MAAs) as contract provisions that employees may accept or decline based on the common law doctrine of employment at-will. However, employees may see such MAAs as attempts to curtail Title VII rights and may refuse to sign them. Title VII prohibits employers from retaliating against employees who oppose discriminatory employment practices. A legal loophole has developed where some employers seek explicitly or implicitly to exempt themselves from Title VII's provisions by drafting MAAs that eliminate statutory rights and remedies from the arbitration process or deter employees from filing discrimination claims altogether. The ...