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2000

University of Michigan Law School

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Tax, Trade And Harmful Tax Competition: Reflections On The Fsc Controversy, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah Dec 2000

Tax, Trade And Harmful Tax Competition: Reflections On The Fsc Controversy, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah

Articles

This article contrasts three approaches to dealing with the BEPS problem: adopting a unitary taxation regime, ending deferral, and adopting anti-base-erosion measures. It concludes that while the first approach is the best long-term option, the other two are more promising as immediate candidates for adoption in the context of U.S. tax reform and the OECD BEPS project.


Vol. 51, No. 6, December 5, 2000, University Of Michigan Law School Dec 2000

Vol. 51, No. 6, December 5, 2000, University Of Michigan Law School

Res Gestae

•How to Get As in Law School •ATL Farewell •Final Words •Photo Tribute •For What It's Worth… •The Insider •We Three Films •Album of the Year •Gift Guide


Deference And Disability Discrimination, Rebecca Hanner White Dec 2000

Deference And Disability Discrimination, Rebecca Hanner White

Michigan Law Review

For thirty-five years, the civil rights community has paid scant attention to administrative law principles. Those interested in advancing on-the-job equality for this country's working men and women (or in preserving employer autonomy vis-a-vis federal encroachment) have all but ignored what many consider the arcane technicalities of administrative law. This state of affairs is strange when one considers that administration and enforcement of each of our major federal laws outlawing employment discrimination have been confided to an administrative agency, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission ("EEOC"). The EEOC, however, has historically been given short shrift by litigants and by the ...


The Second Amendment: Structure, History, And Constitutional Change, David Yassky Dec 2000

The Second Amendment: Structure, History, And Constitutional Change, David Yassky

Michigan Law Review

A fierce debate about the Second Amendment has been percolating in academia for two decades, and has now bubbled through to the courts. The question at the heart of this debate is whether the Amendment restricts the government's ability to regulate the private possession of firearms. Since at least 1939 - when the Supreme Court decided United States v. Miller, its only decision squarely addressing the scope of the right to "keep and bear Arms" - the answer to that question has been an unqualified "no." Courts have brushed aside Second Amendment challenges to gun control legislation, reading the Amendment to ...


Prosecution Of Minor Subcontractors Under The Major Fraud Act Of 1988, Chris Liro Dec 2000

Prosecution Of Minor Subcontractors Under The Major Fraud Act Of 1988, Chris Liro

Michigan Law Review

In the late 1980s, a series of well-publicized defense contractor abuses brought the ordinarily obscure topic of government contracting into the public eye. These abuses included not only instances of seemingly wasteful charges, like the infamous $600 toilet seat, approved by a complicit Department of Defense, but also examples of truly fraudulent activity such as knowingly overbilling and supplying inferior quality goods. The fraud cases grabbed the public attention for three primary reasons. First, enormous sums of money were involved. Second, the nature of the fraud often posed a direct danger to United States troops, potentially compromising "national security." Finally ...


Reducing The Overburden: The Doris Coal Presumption And Administrative Efficiency Under The Black Lung Benefits Act, Eric R. Olson Dec 2000

Reducing The Overburden: The Doris Coal Presumption And Administrative Efficiency Under The Black Lung Benefits Act, Eric R. Olson

Michigan Law Review

Coal dust build-up prevents many coal miners' lungs from functioning properly. This condition, commonly referred to as black lung or pneumoconiosis, can make common activities nearly impossible. The Black Lung Benefits Act covers the cost of medical treatment for many affected miners, though procedural impediments often prevent miners from receiving care. The miner's current or former employer, when identifiable, must pay for medical care relating to the miner's black lung. Most disputes over miners' claims for medical care arise when the miner has a history of cigarette smoking and the need for medical care could arise from either ...


Recent Books, Michigan Law Review Dec 2000

Recent Books, Michigan Law Review

Michigan Law Review

A list of books recenlty received by Michigan Law Review.


The Mixed Messages Of Title Ix, Sherman J. Clark Dec 2000

The Mixed Messages Of Title Ix, Sherman J. Clark

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Introduction to a University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform Symposium entitled Competing in the 21st Century: Title IX, Gender Equity, and Athletics.


Pay Equity For Coaches And Athletic Administrators: An Element Of Title Ix?, Barbara Osborne, Marilyn V. Yarbrough Dec 2000

Pay Equity For Coaches And Athletic Administrators: An Element Of Title Ix?, Barbara Osborne, Marilyn V. Yarbrough

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

In this Article, Professors Osborne and Yarbrough address the issue of gender discrimination in the compensation of coaches and athletic administrators. They discuss the application of the Equal Pay Act of 1963 and Title VII to pay inequity claims and conclude that both have proven to be inadequate as a means of addressing the problem. Professors Osborne and Yarbrough then present Title IX as a way of countering the problem of gender discrimination in the compensation of coaches. They also discuss the prospects for gender equality in compensation by considering several cases addressing the issue. Finally, they offer recommendations both ...


Who Is An Indian? Searching For An Answer To The Question At The Core Of Federal Indian Law, Margo S. Brownell Dec 2000

Who Is An Indian? Searching For An Answer To The Question At The Core Of Federal Indian Law, Margo S. Brownell

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

The definition of Indian is the measure of eligibility for a variety of benefits and programs provided to Indians under federal law. There is confusion, however, at the core of efforts to define "Indian." This confusion raises many concerns about the role that government plays in defining "Indian." This Note surveys the most common definitions of "Indian" found in federal statutes, BIA regulations, and state laws. The author argues that the racial basis of many of these laws and regulations are unconstitutional and tread on the sovereignty of Indian tribes. She evaluates efforts of the federal government to avoid these ...


Equally Bad Is Not Good: Allowing Title Ix "Compliance" By The Elimination Of Men's Collegiate Sports, Donald E. Shelton Dec 2000

Equally Bad Is Not Good: Allowing Title Ix "Compliance" By The Elimination Of Men's Collegiate Sports, Donald E. Shelton

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Athletic participation is an important part of the educational process, instilling important lessons about discipline and teamwork. Title IX was intended to address the historic lack of opportunities for women and girls to participate in school athletics. Unfortunately, the current administrative interpretation of Title IX permits the elimination of male athletic opportunities as a means of complying with the statute's equality standard. This result undermines the purpose of Title IX and the role of athletics in the educational process for all students.


The Struggle For Sex Equality In Sport And The Theory Behind Title Ix, Deborah Brake Dec 2000

The Struggle For Sex Equality In Sport And The Theory Behind Title Ix, Deborah Brake

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Title IX's three-part test for measuring discrimination in the provision of athletic opportunities to male and female students has generated heated controversy in recent years. In this Article, Professor Brake discusses the theoretical underpinnings behind the three-part test and offers a comprehensive justification of this theory as applied to the context of sport. She begins with an analysis of the test's relationship to other areas of sex discrimination law, concluding that, unlike most contexts, Title IX rejects formal equality as its guiding theory, adopting instead an approach that focuses on the institutional structures that subordinate girls and women ...


Gender And Intercollegiate Athletics: Data And Myths, Julia Lamber Dec 2000

Gender And Intercollegiate Athletics: Data And Myths, Julia Lamber

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

This Article explores what nondiscrimination means in the context of intercollegiate athletics. After reviewing the Department of Education's controversial Title IX Policy Interpretation, it critically examines the analytical framework used in Title IX athletic cases and concludes that commonly made analogies to litigation under Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act are inapt. A major part of the Article is an empirical study, looking first at gender equity plans written by institutions of higher education for the National Collegiate Athletic Association and then at data collected from more than 325 institutions pursuant to the Equity in Athletics Disclosure ...


An "Olympics" Approach: A More Equitable Approach To Athletics Than Title Ix Offers, Marcia Federbush Dec 2000

An "Olympics" Approach: A More Equitable Approach To Athletics Than Title Ix Offers, Marcia Federbush

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

A speech from Marcia Federbush, the writer of the first comprehensive Title IX complaint against a major university - the University of Michigan.


Vol. 51, No. 5, November 7, 2000, University Of Michigan Law School Nov 2000

Vol. 51, No. 5, November 7, 2000, University Of Michigan Law School

Res Gestae

•The Insider •Shout Out to My Holmes •Letter: RG Lacks Sensitivity, Embarrassment to Law Community •Letter: Smackin' the Ho, Yingtao Knows Nothing About Football •Your Guide to the 2000 National Election •Election Year Photo Phunnies •For What It's Worth... •Thanksgiving Under the Federal Rules •Compacted Disc Reviews


Proactive Legislation And The First Amendment, Stuart Minor Benjamin Nov 2000

Proactive Legislation And The First Amendment, Stuart Minor Benjamin

Michigan Law Review

It is a commonplace that the world is changing rapidly, with whole sectors of the economy being transformed. New forms of communication, like the World Wide Web, e-mail, and satellite television, have risen from obscurity to ubiquity in less than a decade. The speed of these changes has led some to express concern about the ability of governments to respond. The fear is that governments cannot keep up with developments as they occur and thus get hopelessly behind. The solution, according to some, is for the government to act proactively - before a harm has arisen, so that the government can ...


Judges, Juries, And Patent Cases - An Emprical Peek Inside The Black Box, Kimberly A. Moore Nov 2000

Judges, Juries, And Patent Cases - An Emprical Peek Inside The Black Box, Kimberly A. Moore

Michigan Law Review

The frequency with which juries participate in patent litigation has skyrocketed recently. At the same time, there is a popular perception that the increasing complexity of technology being patented (especially in the electronic, computer software, biological and chemical fields) has made patent trials extremely difficult for lay juries to understand. These developments have sparked extensive scholarly debate and increasing skepticism regarding the role of juries in patent cases. Juries have participated in some aspects of patent litigation since the enactment of the first patent statute in 1790, which provided for "such damages as shall be assessed by a jury." The ...


The Zen Of Corporate Capital Structure Neutrality, Herwig J. Schlunk Nov 2000

The Zen Of Corporate Capital Structure Neutrality, Herwig J. Schlunk

Michigan Law Review

It is well understood that corporate capital structure affects tax collections. Most basically, corporate interest expense is deductible. With each interest accrual, the corporate tax base shrinks. Thus, there is a broad range of circumstances in which corporate managers are encouraged by the Internal Revenue Code (the "Code") to load their corporate capital structures with debt. But there is little support for the proposition that Conpress desires corporations to adopt such debt-laden capital structures. Indeed, much tax legislation suggests congressional displeasure with the achievable degree of corporate self- integration. On the other hand, corporate equity has its charms: shareholders are ...


The Exclusion Of Hiv-Positive Immigrants Under The Nicaraguan Adjustment And Central American Relief Act And The Haitian Refugee Immigration Fairness Act, Statutory Interpretation, Communicable Disease, Public Health, Legislative Intent, Shayna S. Cook Nov 2000

The Exclusion Of Hiv-Positive Immigrants Under The Nicaraguan Adjustment And Central American Relief Act And The Haitian Refugee Immigration Fairness Act, Statutory Interpretation, Communicable Disease, Public Health, Legislative Intent, Shayna S. Cook

Michigan Law Review

The United States has turned away immigrants infected with the human immunodeficiency virus ("HIV") under the public health exclusion of the Immigration and Nationality Act ("INA") since the mid-1980's. Since Congress codified the HIV exclusion in 1993, any alien applying for an immigrant or nonimmigrant visa, adjustment of status to lawful permanent resident, or refugee status must first have a blood test for HIV. The HIV exclusion is not absolute, however. Each HIV-positive alien can apply for one of two waivers of the HIV exclusion that are available in the INA. When an alien applies for immigrant or permanent ...


Recent Books, Michigan Law Review Nov 2000

Recent Books, Michigan Law Review

Michigan Law Review

A list of books recenlty received by Michigan Law Review.


Vol. 51, No. 4, October 24, 2000, University Of Michigan Law School Oct 2000

Vol. 51, No. 4, October 24, 2000, University Of Michigan Law School

Res Gestae

•See If Your Vote Matters •Pity for Nineveh •The Insider •The Gulag •Iceland's Greatest Import •Election 2000 Candidate Quote Quiz! •Telling a Ding from a Dong •Equal Access for Students & Professors •A No-Fear Vote for Nader •For What It's Worth… •To Be of Use


Vol. 51, No. 3, October 10, 2000, University Of Michigan Law School Oct 2000

Vol. 51, No. 3, October 10, 2000, University Of Michigan Law School

Res Gestae

•Dumb or Dumber: Who Will Lead the Free World in 2001? •Stand Together •Helpful Hints for 1Ls •The Insider •Election 2000 •For What It's Worth •Confessions of a 2L Transfer


The Anticompetitive Effect Of Passive Investment, David Gilo Oct 2000

The Anticompetitive Effect Of Passive Investment, David Gilo

Michigan Law Review

There are many cases in which a firm passively invests in its competitor. For example, Microsoft passively invested in $150 million worth of the nonvoting stock of Apple, its historic rival in the operating systems market. Also, in November 1998, Northwest Airlines, the nation's fourth-largest airline, purchased 14% of the common stock of Continental Airlines Inc., the nation's fifth-largest (and fastest growing) airline. Northwest competes with Continental on seven routes, serving 3.6 million passengers per year. In another example, TCI, the nation's largest cable operator, became a passive investor with a 9% stake (which can be ...


The Treaty Power And American Federalism, Part Ii, Curtis A. Bradley Oct 2000

The Treaty Power And American Federalism, Part Ii, Curtis A. Bradley

Michigan Law Review

In an article published in this Review two years ago, I described and critiqued what I called the "nationalist view" of the treaty power. Under this view, the national government has the constitutional power to enter into treaties, and thereby create binding national law by virtue of the Supremacy Clause, without regard to either subject matter or federalism limitations. This view is reflected in the writings of a number of prominent foreign affairs law scholars, as well as in the American Law Institute's Restatement (Third) of Foreign Relations Law of the United States. In my article, I argued that ...


Just Compensation, Incentives, And Social Meanings, Hanoch Dagan Oct 2000

Just Compensation, Incentives, And Social Meanings, Hanoch Dagan

Michigan Law Review

In Takings and Distributive Justice, I proposed a progressive interpretation of the Compensation Clause. In his response, published in this issue, Professor Lunney challenges the plausibility and the desirability of my interpretation and proposes an alternative. This Essay compares our approaches. It concludes that Professor Lunney's careful examination of the public choice analysis of takings does refine my theory. Contrary to Professor Lunney's claims, however, these refinements reinforce - rather than undermine - the viability of a progressive takings doctrine. Parts I and II set the stage by summarizing the principal claims made, respectively, in my original Article and in ...


Aggravated Assaults With Chairs Versus Guns: Impermissible Applied Double Counting Under The Sentencing Guidelines, Carolyn Barth Oct 2000

Aggravated Assaults With Chairs Versus Guns: Impermissible Applied Double Counting Under The Sentencing Guidelines, Carolyn Barth

Michigan Law Review

In a bar called Andrea's Attic, David and Victor were having a drink when they got into an argument. The argument escalated until Victor said something that infuriated David. David looked at Victor, and, wanting to hurt Victor, grabbed the nearest object, a chair, and then threw it at Victor. The chair hit Victor and he fell to the ground, but was not hurt. In a bar called Barb's Barn down the street, Valerie was having a drink. Dorothy walked into the bar, grabbed Valerie by the arm and dragged her outside onto the street. As Valerie was ...


Recent Books, Michigan Law Review Oct 2000

Recent Books, Michigan Law Review

Michigan Law Review

A list of books recenlty received by Michigan Law Review.


Eliminating Consideration Of Parental Wealth In Post-Divorce Child Custody Disputes, Carolyn J. Frantz Oct 2000

Eliminating Consideration Of Parental Wealth In Post-Divorce Child Custody Disputes, Carolyn J. Frantz

Michigan Law Review

There may be no story as old as that of the child of privilege, spoiled in the things of the world, who finally achieves happiness through coming to appreciate the simple charms of working-class life. But equal in strength are the real life stories of American parents: their drive for the accumulation of personal wealth, so frequently justified as "for the children." The place of wealth in the good life of a child is deeply controversial, and it should surprise no one to see it played out in child custody law. Under the statutes of almost all states, custody disputes ...


Takings, Efficiency, And Distributive Justice: A Response To Professor Dagan, Glynn S. Lunney Jr. Oct 2000

Takings, Efficiency, And Distributive Justice: A Response To Professor Dagan, Glynn S. Lunney Jr.

Michigan Law Review

In A Critical Reexamination of the Takings Jurisprudence, I addressed an efficiency problem that arises when the government attempts to change property rights in a manner that burdens a very few for the benefit of the very many. Specifically, in the absence of compensation, the collective action advantage of the few in organizing to oppose the proposed measure will often give them a decided edge against the many. As a result of that advantage, the few will too often be able to persuade the legislature not to act, even when an objective evaluation of the proposal's costs and benefits ...


The Racial Origins Of Modern Criminal Procedure, Michael J. Klarman Oct 2000

The Racial Origins Of Modern Criminal Procedure, Michael J. Klarman

Michigan Law Review

The constitutional law of state criminal procedure was born between the First and Second World Wars. Prior to 1920, the Supreme Court had upset the results of the state criminal justice system in just a handful of cases, all involving race discrimination in jury selection. By 1940, however, the Court had interpreted the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to invalidate state criminal convictions in a wide variety of settings: mob-dominated trials, violation of the right to counsel, coerced confessions, financially-biased judges, and knowingly perjured testimony by prosecution witnesses. In addition, the Court had broadened its earlier decisions forbidding ...