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Reflections On Regional Human Rights Law, Gabriel M. Wilner Dec 1995

Reflections On Regional Human Rights Law, Gabriel M. Wilner

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The principal purpose of the Colloquium, as can be seen from the great attention given to the papers presented by the second panel, was to discuss the uses of customary international human rights law in the defense of human rights before national courts. More generally, these discussions focused on the effectiveness of customary international human rights rules in influencing legislative and policy-making, administrative decisions and, particularly, judicial adjudication, at international and national levels. The initial and wider question of the feasibility of using custom as a source of human rights rules formed the underlying aspects of the debates in the ...


Sources Of International Law, Louis B. Sohn Dec 1995

Sources Of International Law, Louis B. Sohn

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To summarize, States can agree on international law begin made in any way they wish. Once they agree on a method, the matter is over. As I have pointed out, every few y ears we invent a new method; there is no end to ingenuity of human beings. by the year 2000, there might be one or two more methods. We are still applying the 19th century rule that international law is made by the community of states, but in every generation the community has been able to invent new methods for crystallizing international law. We finally have accepted the ...


The Georgia Death Penalty Habeas Corpus Reform Act Of 1995, Donald E. Wilkes Jr. Nov 1995

The Georgia Death Penalty Habeas Corpus Reform Act Of 1995, Donald E. Wilkes Jr.

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On April 10, 1995, Gov. Zell Miller signed into law Georgia's Death Penalty Habeas Corpus Reform Act of 1995. The Act is premised upon the following findings and determinations of the General Assembly: that through direct appeal, sentence review, and habeas corpus the state now provides persons sentenced to death "adequate opportunities" to assert their constitutional rights; that habeas corpus proceedings should not be used by persons sentenced to death "solely as a delaying tactic under the guise of asserting rights;" and that "strict compliance" with habeas corpus procedures "will prevent the waste of limited resources and will eliminate ...


Original Intent And Article Iii, Michael L. Wells, Edward J. Larson Nov 1995

Original Intent And Article Iii, Michael L. Wells, Edward J. Larson

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Article III of the United States Constitution sets limits on the ability of the legislature to expand or contract the jurisdiction of the federal courts. The Supreme Court has generally held that Article III's restraints on the power of the legislature to restrict the jurisdiction of the federal courts are few and extremely permissive. Many scholars, however, argue that Article III imposes some strong limitations on the legislature's ability to define federal jurisdiction. Strangely, both sides of the debate rely on originalist arguments. This Article argues that reliance on the Framers' intent to resolve issues of federal courts ...


Customary (And Not So Customary) International Environmental Law, Daniel M. Bodansky Oct 1995

Customary (And Not So Customary) International Environmental Law, Daniel M. Bodansky

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In this article, Professor Bodansky examines the creation and importance of customary international law. He suggests that the debate over the legal status of any given norm may be misplaced. Instead, he suggests that international lawmakers should spend their time and energy incorporating norms, regardless of their true status, into "concrete treaties and actions." The author begins his discussion by providing a working definition of customary international law. He asserts that such law can be based not just on uniformities of state behavior, as is traditionally held, but also on regularities in behavior. Thus, customary international law can be formed ...


Commerce Clause Restraints On State Taxation After Jefferson Lines, Walter Hellerstein, Michael J. Mcintyre, Richard D. Pomp Oct 1995

Commerce Clause Restraints On State Taxation After Jefferson Lines, Walter Hellerstein, Michael J. Mcintyre, Richard D. Pomp

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The Supreme Court's 1977 decision in Complete Auto Transit, Inc. v. Brady signaled a paradigmatic shift in the Court's approach to state tax adjudication under the dormant Commerce Clause. In Complete Auto, the Court repudiated the formalistic school of interpretation that once had governed Commerce Clause analysis of state taxation because it bore ‘no relationship to economic realities.’ In its place, the Court embraced a decisional framework that ‘considered not the formal language of the tax statute but rather its practical effect.’ In furtherance of this objective, the Court suggested a four-part test to guide the constitutional analysis ...


Idealism And The Individual Woman: Reading Bessie Head's A Question Of Power, Paul J. Heald Oct 1995

Idealism And The Individual Woman: Reading Bessie Head's A Question Of Power, Paul J. Heald

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In A Question of Power, South African exile Bessie Head graphically illustrates the relevance of gender difference to religion, political philosophy, and human rights. At first glance, the novel is a startling interior view of the psychosis that can result from constant alienation. The madness so painfully described, however, is portrayed as specific to women. And the road from madness -- the rejection of idealism, the rejection of universalism, and the rejection of power -- carries an important message to those seeking to understand the various feminist perspectives on human rights and spirituality. In Head's view, the recognition of the role ...


From Legal Transplants To Legal Formats, Alan Watson Jul 1995

From Legal Transplants To Legal Formats, Alan Watson

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Most of the time rulers and governments in the Western world as a whole were little interested in making private law. Instead, the task devolved upon some group of the legal elite who became in effect subordinate law makers without having been given power to make law. Thus, Roman jurists as such were private individuals with no ties to government: they made law when their opinions came to win approval from other jurists. English judges in the Middle-Ages and later were appointed to decide cases: the tradition long was that they found the law but did not make it. Continental ...


Balancing Federalism And Free Markets: Toward Renewed Antitrust Policing, Privatization, Or A "State Supervision" Screen For Municipal Market Participant Conduct, James Ponsoldt Jul 1995

Balancing Federalism And Free Markets: Toward Renewed Antitrust Policing, Privatization, Or A "State Supervision" Screen For Municipal Market Participant Conduct, James Ponsoldt

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The past decade has witnessed an historic rejection of state control of markets in eastern Europe. Expansion of domestic antitrust immunity policy toward municipal businesses based upon federalism concerns, however, which occurred during the same period, has fostered autonomous governmental control of markets. The judicial application of the Parker doctrine to local government has tended to contradict the premise underlying several generations of U.S. foreign policy designed to support emerging competitive market economies outside the country. Academic analysis of the Parker doctrine during the 1980s was heated and creative. A number of commentators, with varying viewpoints, have addressed the ...


The Jurisprudence Of Action And Inaction In The Law Of Tort: Solving The Puzzle Of Nonfeasance And Misfeasance From The Fifteenth Through The Twentieth Centuries, Theodore Silver, Jean Elting Rowe Jul 1995

The Jurisprudence Of Action And Inaction In The Law Of Tort: Solving The Puzzle Of Nonfeasance And Misfeasance From The Fifteenth Through The Twentieth Centuries, Theodore Silver, Jean Elting Rowe

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No abstract provided.


Positivism And Antipositivism In Federal Courts Law, Michael Wells Apr 1995

Positivism And Antipositivism In Federal Courts Law, Michael Wells

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What is the proper role of rules in federal courts law? Some scholars associated with the Legal Process assert that rules are unimportant here. They believe that the values of principled adjudication and reasoned elaboration should take precedence over the making and application of rules. The area is, in the jargon of jurisprudence, "antipositivist." Others maintain that rules do, or at any rate should, count heavily in federal courts' decisionmaking. In this Article, I argue that Legal Process scholars are right to spurn formalism in most parts of federal courts law. But the Legal Process model of federal courts law ...


Lawyers As Exchange Engineers In Commerce: An Empirical Overview, Sandra M. Huszagh, Fredrick W. Huszagh Apr 1995

Lawyers As Exchange Engineers In Commerce: An Empirical Overview, Sandra M. Huszagh, Fredrick W. Huszagh

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This article empirical explores the exchange relationship between lawyers and their clients with particular attention on the variables of experience and practice specialty. The lawyers' perceptions of client relationships are preliminarily analyzed in terms of their discrete or relational properties and their distribution within experience segments within the firm. Enriched understanding of these matters can assist both lawyers and their clients in crafting more efficient and effective exchange relationships here viewed as critical to commercial activities.


Law And Literature Defining Itself, Paul J. Heald Mar 1995

Law And Literature Defining Itself, Paul J. Heald

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Earlier this spring, the University of Chicago Law School convinced Martha Nussbaum, University Professor of Philosophy, Comparative Literature, and Classics at Brown University, to join its faculty to teach law and literature. At Michigan and Duke, James B. White and Stanley Fish have long held joint appointments in their respective law schools and English departments. What use can law schools possibly have for literary critics? Although over 60 law schools, including Georgia, currently offer a class in law and literature, the focus of this interdisciplinary enterprise remains somewhat fuzzy.


Constitutional Torts: Combining Diverse Doctrines And Practicality, Thomas A. Eaton, Michael Wells Mar 1995

Constitutional Torts: Combining Diverse Doctrines And Practicality, Thomas A. Eaton, Michael Wells

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Constitutional Torts is, in part, a response to our sense that the upper level curriculum could be improved by courses that bring together areas of doctrine that are often studied in isolation. We think there is substantial value in bringing together seemingly disparate areas of doctrine that bear on a common real-world problem. Students benefit from learning how to put together concepts from different substantive areas in order to solve problems they will face in practice.


Medea And The Un-Man: Literary Guidance In The Determination Of Heinousness Under Maynard V. Cartwright, Paul J. Heald Feb 1995

Medea And The Un-Man: Literary Guidance In The Determination Of Heinousness Under Maynard V. Cartwright, Paul J. Heald

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In particular, this Essay brings Dante, C.S. Lewis, and Euripides to bear on a discrete problem examined by the U.S. Supreme Court in Maynard v. Cartwright. Reading Dante's Inferno, Lewis's Perelandra, and Euripides's Medea provides guidance in responding to the Court's mandate that the state channel discretion in capital sentencing. Specifically, these works imply an ethical framework for determining what constitutes an "especially heinous, atrocious, or cruel" murder. Other literary texts are certainly relevant to Maynard. This Essay, however, is not an attempt to survey comprehensively and distill the insights provided by all relevant ...


Hate Speech On Campus And The First Amendment: Can They Be Reconciled?, Thomas A. Schweitzer Jan 1995

Hate Speech On Campus And The First Amendment: Can They Be Reconciled?, Thomas A. Schweitzer

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No abstract provided.


Democratic Responses To International Terrorism, Christopher L. Blakesley Jan 1995

Democratic Responses To International Terrorism, Christopher L. Blakesley

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This volume provides a multidisciplinary study of terrorism. The editor notes at the outset the difficulty of definition: "Terrorism is not a one-dimensional problem; it transcends many frontiers: political, jurisdictional, institutional, disciplinary and methodological. So approaching the problem from only one perspective may lead to only partial understanding and an incomplete strategy for developing constructive responses” (p. 3). Note the tendency of even this careful statement to assume that terrorism is always committed by others, Also, although legal definition and consideration may be implied by the terms polical, jurisdictional, institutional and disciplinary, which are indicated as various dimensions of the ...


The Brown Symposium – An Introduction, Thomas B. Mcaffee Jan 1995

The Brown Symposium – An Introduction, Thomas B. Mcaffee

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This article is an introduction to a symposium sponsored by Southern Illinois University regarding Brown v. Board of Education.


Comment, The Augustan Constitution And Our Natural Rights Tradition: Is There A Conflict?, Thomas B. Mcaffee Jan 1995

Comment, The Augustan Constitution And Our Natural Rights Tradition: Is There A Conflict?, Thomas B. Mcaffee

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Professor Hoffheimer has provided us with a striking picture of two important strands of our constitutional heritage. The first, which he labels “Augustan constitutionalism,” descended from classical political thought and the English constitution. Its focus is on the governmental powers that it legitimates, and its themes relate to the forms of government; in the American context, this means that its focus is on separation of powers, checks and balances, and (in general) the problem of organizing and dividing government authority. The second, which he calls the “natural rights tradition,” roots government's legitimacy--and indeed its origin and purpose--in the protection ...


Interpreting Insurance Policies, Jeffrey W. Stempel Jan 1995

Interpreting Insurance Policies, Jeffrey W. Stempel

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Like any other contract, an insurance policy may become the subject of a legal dispute. When disputes arise over insurance coverage, lawyers must combine their skill in contract interpretation with their knowledge of insurance law, bringing both to bear on the special problems related to this type of contract. Each dispute has unique traits, but a few basic ground rules of contract law and insurance law can help you interpret insurance policies and resolve disputes over insurance coverage.


Two Cheers For Specialization, Jeffrey W. Stempel Jan 1995

Two Cheers For Specialization, Jeffrey W. Stempel

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Professor Dreyfuss adopts what might be termed the more conservative and deferential view of the efficacy of Delaware corporate law in her paper and her presentation. This approach generally views the market as making a statement with which one should not lightly quarrel. Because Delaware continues to attract incorporations, this view posits that the state's attraction is the superiority of its corporate law compared to other states, which lack a semi-specialized Chancery Court. Consequently, in a race to the top of corporate standards, legal rules and adjudications, Delaware's success in the market suggests that Delaware's legal product ...


Seeing The Forest And The Trees: The Proper Role Of The Bankruptcy Attorney, Nancy B. Rapoport Jan 1995

Seeing The Forest And The Trees: The Proper Role Of The Bankruptcy Attorney, Nancy B. Rapoport

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This article discusses the tension between the lawyer's duty to her client and her duty to the legal system as an officer of the court. It concludes that, in a situation in which those two duties conflict, the lawyer's duty to the system as a whole should trump the duty to the client.


The Lawyer's Dirty Hands, Leslie C. Griffin Jan 1995

The Lawyer's Dirty Hands, Leslie C. Griffin

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No abstract provided.


Critical Race Theory And Proposition 187: The Racial Politics Of Immigration Law, Ruben J. Garcia Jan 1995

Critical Race Theory And Proposition 187: The Racial Politics Of Immigration Law, Ruben J. Garcia

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Immigration law and politics have been historically intertwined with racial prejudice. Many of those who have called for immigration restrictions have also sought an end to the racial and cultural diversity brought by immigrants. With the end of legally sanctioned race discrimination in the 1960s, immigration rhetoric has lost some of its overt racist overtones. However, in the 1990s, many politicians and lawmakers have emphasized the difference between “legal” and “illegal” immigration. This change begs a central question: Have the racist motivations of past immigration law and policy been completely displaced by a concern for law and order? This Comment ...


Taking Liberties With The First Amendment: Congress, Section 5, And The Religious Freedom Restoration Act, Jay S. Bybee Jan 1995

Taking Liberties With The First Amendment: Congress, Section 5, And The Religious Freedom Restoration Act, Jay S. Bybee

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In 1993 Congress enacted the Religious Freedom Restoration Act (“RFRA”), which provided that government, including the United States and the states, “shall not substantially burden a person's exercise of religion even if the burden results from a rule of general applicability” except where the government can demonstrate that the burden furthers “a compelling governmental interest” and is “the least restrictive means of furthering that interest.”

Unfortunately, whatever consistency RFRA might bring to the substance of church-state relations comes at the expense of clarity in federal-state relations. This is unfortunate because the First Amendment does not address church-state relations; it ...


Busting The Hart & Wechsler Paradigm, Michael L. Wells Jan 1995

Busting The Hart & Wechsler Paradigm, Michael L. Wells

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Federal Courts law was once a vibrant area of scholarship and an essential course for intellectually ambitious students. Now its prestige has diminished so much that scholars debate its future in a recent issue of the Vanderbilt Law Review, where even one of its champions calls it (albeit in the subjunctive mood) a “scholarly backwater.” What, if anything, went wrong, and what should Federal Courts scholars do about it? In his contribution to the Vanderbilt symposium, Richard Fallon defends the reigning model of Federal Courts law, an approach to jurisdictional issues that dates from the publication in 1953 of Henry ...


Desperately Seeking Science, Francis J. Mootz Iii Jan 1995

Desperately Seeking Science, Francis J. Mootz Iii

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In this commentary I offer a lawyer’s view of what law and linguistics interdisciplinary studies might mean for legal practice, as well as a legal theorist’s view of what importance they may hold for jurisprudence. I do not pretend to have more than cursory knowledge about linguistics, and so my remarks about what linguistics scholars might gain from an interdisciplinary exchange necessarily will be brief general.


Substance Above All: The Utopian Vision Of Modern Natural Law Constitutionalists, Thomas B. Mcaffee Jan 1995

Substance Above All: The Utopian Vision Of Modern Natural Law Constitutionalists, Thomas B. Mcaffee

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Modern natural law constitutionalists assert that the Constitution, properly understood, includes a kind of general trump card in the form of a moral reality which provides (or is, at any rate, thought to provide) a measure of all positive legal acts--whether framed in terms of the values of natural equality, natural rights, or “simple justice.”

This article explores why “trump card” natural law constitutionalism cannot by its nature adequately confront crucial issues of institutional design and democratic theory. In thus putting questions of moral substance ahead of crucial issues of authority, natural law constitutionalism appears to rest on a naive ...


The Eeoc, The Courts, And Employment Discrimination Policy: Recognizing The Agency's Leading Role In Statutory Interpretation, Rebecca White Jan 1995

The Eeoc, The Courts, And Employment Discrimination Policy: Recognizing The Agency's Leading Role In Statutory Interpretation, Rebecca White

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This Article explores whether a delegation to the EEOC of law-interpreting authority may be found under Title VII, the ADEA, or the ADA, despite the agency's lack of full enforcement authority under these statutes. If the EEOC possesses such authority, it, not the courts, will decide many of the difficult issues left unresolved by Congress under the 1991 Civil Rights Act, the ADA, and other statutes administered by the agency. I easily conclude the EEOC has been delegated law-interpreting power under both the ADEA and the ADA. The authority to issue legislative rules, in the context of these statutory ...


The Separate Tax Status Of Loan-Out Corporations, Mary Lafrance Jan 1995

The Separate Tax Status Of Loan-Out Corporations, Mary Lafrance

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When professionals and other persons who offer their goods and/or services to the public conduct their businesses through corporations, the Treasury has acknowledged that for federal income tax purposes it must treat those corporations as separate and distinct from their controlling shareholder-employees, even where there is only a single shareholder-employee, provided that the corporation has a business purpose and the taxpayer consistently respects the corporate form. However, the Treasury has refused to accord equal dignity to incorporated workers who offer their services not to the public at large but to a single recipient or a small number of recipients ...