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1993

University of Richmond Law Review

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Who Gets A Dead Man's Gold? The Dilemma Of Lottery Winnings Payable To A Decedent's Estate, M. Eldridge Blanton Dec 1993

Who Gets A Dead Man's Gold? The Dilemma Of Lottery Winnings Payable To A Decedent's Estate, M. Eldridge Blanton

University of Richmond Law Review

This article addresses the federal estate tax and federal income tax consequences of lottery winnings which flow to the estate of a decedent or, alternatively, directly to the decedent's beneficiaries. State income tax and state death tax considerations must also be taken into account. With respect to these secondary implications, this article draws largely upon the Code of Virginia and the relevant sections of Virginia's income tax and estate tax statutes. Some references will be made to the possibility of contrary statutory treatment in other states, but primary reliance will be upon Virginia law.


The Clemency Process In Virginia, Walter A. Mcfarlane Jan 1993

The Clemency Process In Virginia, Walter A. Mcfarlane

University of Richmond Law Review

When asked to contribute an article on the issue of clemency, I immediately knew the area I wanted to address: the procedural and practical aspects of the clemency process in Virginia. While numerous articles have been written about clemency, few have examined the procedural rules and none have comprehensively studied the executive viewpoint regarding this area of the law.


Pardon For Good And Sufficient Reasons, Kathleen Dean Moore Jan 1993

Pardon For Good And Sufficient Reasons, Kathleen Dean Moore

University of Richmond Law Review

The preamble to an executive grant of clemency from the Presi- dent of the United States implies that pardons are granted on the basis of "premises,... good and sufficient reasons." Yet, pardons have not always been regarded as the sort of acts that need to be justified by argument. In fact, most presidential pardons are issued without any statement of justification beyond the assurance that good reasons do exist. As a result, the issue of what constitutes good and sufficient reasons for a presidential pardon is seldom addressed and still unresolved.


Freeman V. Pitts: A Rethinking Of Public School Desegregation, Frank H. Stubbs Iii Jan 1993

Freeman V. Pitts: A Rethinking Of Public School Desegregation, Frank H. Stubbs Iii

University of Richmond Law Review

On March 31, 1992, the United States Supreme Court unanimously declared that federal district courts have the authority to relinquish supervision and control of a public school desegregation plan in incremental stages, before full compliance has been achieved in every area of school operations. The Court also held that public school districts have no duty to remedy racial imbalance caused by demographic shifts once the vestiges of de jure segregation have been eliminated. Reversing a lower court's ruling, Justice Kennedy, writing for the majority, stated that the decision was consistent with the Court's duties to both remedy constitutional ...


Annual Survey Of Virginia Law: Consumer Protection Law, Edward P. Nolde Jan 1993

Annual Survey Of Virginia Law: Consumer Protection Law, Edward P. Nolde

University of Richmond Law Review

This is the first year the University of Richmond Law Review has surveyed Virginia law concerning developments in the area of consumer protection. Thus, this article includes background material as well as recent developments that are more than one year old. Except as background for the current statutes, this survey does not discuss the common law torts of fraud and constructive fraud. Although these common law actions remain important to consumers, they have been discussed in several other recent publications.


Kroger Co. V. Morris: The Diminution Of Hearing Officers, Cullen D. Seltzer Jan 1993

Kroger Co. V. Morris: The Diminution Of Hearing Officers, Cullen D. Seltzer

University of Richmond Law Review

In Kroger Co. v. Morris the Court of Appeals of Virginia reached two contradictory conclusions. On one hand the court held that the Virginia Workers' Compensation Commission could overrule a deputy commissioner's fact findings based solely on evidence contained in the record below. On the other hand, the court concluded that it was itself unable to make such fact findings based solely on the record.


A Tribute To Professor Willie Moore, Okianer Christian Dark Jan 1993

A Tribute To Professor Willie Moore, Okianer Christian Dark

University of Richmond Law Review

I first met Professor Willie Moore during the 1989-90 recruitment season for law faculty. Willie came to our law school to meet with the Dean, faculty and students. There was much excitement among the faculty concerning his visit to the law school. Many persons had already reviewed his credentials - valedictorian of his high school class; an honors graduate of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; graduate of Yale University Law School; law clerk to Judge Damon J. Keith on the Federal Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit; former associate at Mitchell, Silberberg & Knupp in Los Angeles, California ...


Freedom Of Speech As A Product Of Democracy, Arnold H. Loewy Jan 1993

Freedom Of Speech As A Product Of Democracy, Arnold H. Loewy

University of Richmond Law Review

There are very nearly as many (if not more) rationales for freedom of speech as there are books and articles on the subject. Without attempting to canvass them all, I think that they can be divided into two generic theories. One theory suggests that freedom of speech is essentially teleological or consequentialist, i.e. it exists to serve some other goal, usually effective participation in the democratic process. The other theory, which is deontological or normative, suggests that freedom of speech exists as an end in itself rather than as a means towards accomplishing something else. Of course, these theories ...


A Retributive Theory Of The Pardoning Power?, Hugo Adam Bedau Jan 1993

A Retributive Theory Of The Pardoning Power?, Hugo Adam Bedau

University of Richmond Law Review

During the past two decades; the retributive theory of punishment has made remarkable strides in recapturing the affections of penologists. The story has been told elsewhere and need not be reviewed here. For philosophers, if not for others interested in the theory and practice of punishment, a retributive approach holds a double attraction.


The Role Of Executive Clemency In Modern Death Penalty Cases, Bruce Ledewitz, Scott Staples Jan 1993

The Role Of Executive Clemency In Modern Death Penalty Cases, Bruce Ledewitz, Scott Staples

University of Richmond Law Review

When a governor commutes a sentence of death, typically to one of life imprisonment either with an extended mandatory term or without possibility of parole, how is this action to be understood? As former Governor Pat Brown's book about his commutation decisions illustrates, in a period of widespread support for the death penalty, each commutation contains an appeal for popular support and understanding as to why the decision was made. Where the case for commutation cannot be made to the public's satisfaction, a governor is not likely to act.


University Of Richmond Law Review Jan 1993

University Of Richmond Law Review

University of Richmond Law Review

No abstract provided.


Annual Survey Of Virginia Law: Antitrust And Trade Regulation, Michael F. Urbanski, Francis H. Casola Jan 1993

Annual Survey Of Virginia Law: Antitrust And Trade Regulation, Michael F. Urbanski, Francis H. Casola

University of Richmond Law Review

During the past year, Virginia's federal courts published surprisingly few antitrust opinions. These few opinions indicate fact-specific analysis and little significant development to the law. However, the decisions reflect the continued difficulties faced by private antitrust plaintiffs alleging conspiracy claims and criminal antitrust defendants prosecuted for conduct which is illegal per se. Antitrust plaintiffs, however, have enjoyed measured, if only temporary, success. For example, the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit reversed a grant of summary judgment against a durable medical equipment company alleging monopolization claims against a hospital and its affiliated medical equipment company. In ...


Annual Survey Of Virginia Law: Criminal Law And Procedure, Steven D. Benjamin Jan 1993

Annual Survey Of Virginia Law: Criminal Law And Procedure, Steven D. Benjamin

University of Richmond Law Review

During the past year, the Court of Appeals of Virginia continued to be the major contributor to the development of substantive and procedural criminal law in the Commonwealth. Many of the court's decisions concerned the characterization of. police-citizen encounters in the context of both Fourth Amendment law and the rights of an accused under Miranda v. Arizona. A number of cases concerned the admissibility of uncharged misconduct, and the numerous double jeopardy opinions involved case-by-case application of Grady v. Corbin, Blockburger v. United States, and related statutes. A growing body of procedural law concerned the propriety of impanelling jurors ...


Annual Survey Of Virginia Law: Legal Issues Involving Children, Robert E. Shepherd Jr. Jan 1993

Annual Survey Of Virginia Law: Legal Issues Involving Children, Robert E. Shepherd Jr.

University of Richmond Law Review

In the past year, several significant developments affecting children and the legal system have occurred: first, the General Assembly's enactment of Family Court legislation introduced under the auspices of the Supreme Court of Virginia and the Judicial Council; second, the reaffirmation of the Comprehensive Services Act, a state-wide, community-based, inter-agency system of delivering services to children, youth and their families; third, the adoption of a number of bills which address the growing problem of violence by juveniles; and fourth, an increasing number of decisions concerning transfer of juveniles to the circuit courts to be tried as adults, which also ...


University Of Richmond Law Review Index Jan 1993

University Of Richmond Law Review Index

University of Richmond Law Review

No abstract provided.


University Of Richmond Law Review Jan 1993

University Of Richmond Law Review

University of Richmond Law Review

No abstract provided.


Abraham, Isaac, And The State: Faith-Healing And Legal Intervention, Henry J. Abraham Jan 1993

Abraham, Isaac, And The State: Faith-Healing And Legal Intervention, Henry J. Abraham

University of Richmond Law Review

As a Cambridge magistrate in the England of 1960, Lady Rothschild doubtless considered herself an unlikely candidate for participation in a biblical drama reenactment. Nonetheless, on October 21, 1960, she willingly played the role of the last- minute angel of mercy in a virtual reenactment of the story of Abraham and Isaac -a story which, with unfortunate variations in the outcome for the child, seems destined to be repeated frequently in the future.


Some Reflections On Multiculturalism, "Equal Concern And Respect," And The Establishment Clause Of The First Amendment, Sanford Levinson Jan 1993

Some Reflections On Multiculturalism, "Equal Concern And Respect," And The Establishment Clause Of The First Amendment, Sanford Levinson

University of Richmond Law Review

I was born and grew up in Hendersonville, North Carolina, a small town of about 6000 people in the western part of the state. There were about 30 Jewish families in Hendersonville, and I knew from a very early age that I was Jewish and, consequently, that I was different in an important way from almost all of my neighbors and classmates. The most evident way, especially to a child, involved dietary prohibitions against eating pork. I also knew that I was allowed absences from school (Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur) while other children were not. Inevitably, my Jewishness accounts ...


Is The Idea Of Human Rights Ineliminably Religious?, Michael J. Perry Jan 1993

Is The Idea Of Human Rights Ineliminably Religious?, Michael J. Perry

University of Richmond Law Review

The name of the state where I was born and raised-Kentucky-derives from a Native American word meaning "the dark and bloody ground." Were there an Indian word for "the dark and bloody time," it would aptly name this century, a century as unrelentingly dark and bloody as any in human history. In the midst of all the terrible inhumanity of the twentieth century, however, there is a hopeful story: the emergence in international law of the idea of human rights.


Rawls's Excessively Secular Political Conception, Gary C. Leedes Jan 1993

Rawls's Excessively Secular Political Conception, Gary C. Leedes

University of Richmond Law Review

In Political Liberalism, John Rawls clarifies the differences between general theories of human nature and his model of justice. Unlike most philosophers in the Western tradition, Rawls does not place the subject of justice within a comprehensive theory of human behavior. His conception of justice rests solely on a unique "construct" called the "liberal political conception" (LPC). Rawls claims that his freestanding LPC, if adopted by citizens of a constitutional democracy, could unite reasonable persons otherwise divided by their ideologies. As a result,, citizens-given favorable conditions-enjoy the benefits of a stable, well-ordered society.


Retracing First Amendment Jurisprudence Under The Free Exercise Clause: Culmination In Church Of The Lukumi Babalu Aye, Inc. V. City Of Hialeah And Resolution In The Religious Freedom Restoration Act, Laura A. Colombell Jan 1993

Retracing First Amendment Jurisprudence Under The Free Exercise Clause: Culmination In Church Of The Lukumi Babalu Aye, Inc. V. City Of Hialeah And Resolution In The Religious Freedom Restoration Act, Laura A. Colombell

University of Richmond Law Review

The above comments of Justice Stewart recognize the myriad of religious beliefs and practices which exist in our nation of diverse people. Protecting them all from government infringement has become an increasingly lofty aim as the number and nature of religions in the United States continue to grow.


The Lemon Test Rears Its Ugly Head Again: Lamb's Chapel V. Center Moriches Union Free School District, Wirt P. Marks Iv Jan 1993

The Lemon Test Rears Its Ugly Head Again: Lamb's Chapel V. Center Moriches Union Free School District, Wirt P. Marks Iv

University of Richmond Law Review

Since 1971, Establishment Clause cases have been analyzed under the three-prong test articulated by the Supreme Court in Lemon v. Kurtzman. However, this test has often been criticized for producing inconsistent results. In addition, inconsistent application of the test by the Court, and conflicting philosophies among judges and scholars regarding the separation of church and state, have resulted in considerable objection to the Lemon test. In fact, at least five of the current Supreme Court Justices have expressed their dissatisfaction with the Lemon test as a workable framework for Establishment Clause analysis.


University Of Richmond Law Review Jan 1993

University Of Richmond Law Review

University of Richmond Law Review

No abstract provided.


Give Use Your Tired, Your Poor, Your Huddled Masses . . . Except When They Have Hiv: An Analysis Of Current United States Immigration Policy Regarding Hiv-Positive Aliens In Light Of Guantanamo Bay, Jason W. Konvicka Jan 1993

Give Use Your Tired, Your Poor, Your Huddled Masses . . . Except When They Have Hiv: An Analysis Of Current United States Immigration Policy Regarding Hiv-Positive Aliens In Light Of Guantanamo Bay, Jason W. Konvicka

University of Richmond Law Review

On September 30, 1991, a party of military leaders overthrew the first democratically elected government in Haitian history. Although Haiti's former president, Jean Bertrand Aristide escaped to safety, many of his supporters were not so fortunate. Numerous Haitians were tortured and killed due to their political affiliation. Fearing similar persecution, thousands of Haitian nationals abandoned their belongings and fled to the high seas in an attempt to reach the United States. Soon thereafter, the United States Coast Guard began interdicting an increasing number of Haitian boats as they made their way into international waters.


Annual Survey Of Virginia Law: Business And Corporate Law, Richard T. Horan Jr., Thomas E. Repke Jan 1993

Annual Survey Of Virginia Law: Business And Corporate Law, Richard T. Horan Jr., Thomas E. Repke

University of Richmond Law Review

This article reviews recent developments in the law affecting Virginia businesses and corporations. Part II discusses recent judicial decisions in Virginia courts involving businesses and corporations. Part III discusses several acts of the 1993 session of the Virginia General Assembly that amend Virginia's corporate, partnership, limited liability company and securities act statutes.


Annual Survey Of Virginia Law: Wills, Trusts, And Estates, J. Rodney Johnson Jan 1993

Annual Survey Of Virginia Law: Wills, Trusts, And Estates, J. Rodney Johnson

University of Richmond Law Review

The 1993 session of the General Assembly enacted legislation dealing with wills, trusts, and estates that added, amended, or repealed a number of sections of the Code of Virginia (the code). In addition to this legislation, there were five cases from the Supreme Court of Virginia in the year ending June 1, 1993 which involve issues of interest to both the general practitioner and the specialist in wills, trusts, and estates. This article analyzes each of these leg- islative and judicial developments.


Products Liability Tort Reform: Why Virginia Should Adopt The Henderson-Twerski Proposed Revision Of Section 402a Restatement (Second) Of Torts, Peter Nash Swisher Jan 1993

Products Liability Tort Reform: Why Virginia Should Adopt The Henderson-Twerski Proposed Revision Of Section 402a Restatement (Second) Of Torts, Peter Nash Swisher

University of Richmond Law Review

Over the past three decades, literally thousands of American products liability judicial opinions have explicitly referred to, and analyzed, section 402A of the Second Restatement of Torts. At least thirty-four states have judicially adopted section 402A, and

five other states have passed specific statutes adopting the section.3 Since the landmark products liability case of Greenman v. Yuba Power Products,Inc.4 in 1963, at least forty-five states have now adopted some form of strict liability in tort remedy in American products liability actions.5 Only Virginia and four other states do

not recognize a strict liability in tort remedy ...


University Of Richmond Law Review Jan 1993

University Of Richmond Law Review

University of Richmond Law Review

No abstract provided.


Statement By Toney Anaya On Capital Punishment, Toney Anaya Jan 1993

Statement By Toney Anaya On Capital Punishment, Toney Anaya

University of Richmond Law Review

I oppose capital punishment and was thrust into a position of having to put that opposition to the ultimate test - in 1986 commuted the death sentences of all those on "death row" in the New Mexico State Penitentiary.


Due Process In Death Penalty Commutations: Life, Liberty, And The Pursuit Of Clemency, Daniel T. Kobil Jan 1993

Due Process In Death Penalty Commutations: Life, Liberty, And The Pursuit Of Clemency, Daniel T. Kobil

University of Richmond Law Review

The idea of the last-minute reprieve granted by a distant, unknowable dispenser of mercy to a man condemned to death has a powerful hold on our imaginations. Fyodor Dostoevsky's eleventh hour pardon by the czar in many ways shaped his literary career. The scene of the haunted Death Row prisoner who awaits word from the governor as a ticking clock punctuates his final hours is a stock vignette of Hollywood crime films. Anyone who has ever seized on the slimmest hope, whose fate has been committed to the hands of another - virtually all of us - can identify with the ...