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Full-Text Articles in Law

State Prosecutors At The Center Of Mass Imprisonment And Criminal Justice Reform, Nora V. Demleitner May 2020

State Prosecutors At The Center Of Mass Imprisonment And Criminal Justice Reform, Nora V. Demleitner

Scholarly Articles

State prosecutors around the country have played a crucial role in mass imprisonment. Little supervision and virtually unsurpassed decision making power have provided them with unrivaled influence over the size, growth, and composition of our criminal justice system. They decide which cases to prosecute, whether to divert a case, whether to offer a plea, and what sentence to recommend. Their impact does not stop at sentencing. They weigh in on alternative dockets, supervision violations, parole release, and even clemency requests. But they are also part of a larger system that constrains them. Funding, judicial limits on their power, and legislative ...


Congressional Committee Resources On Space Policy During The 115th Congress (2017-2018): Providing Context And Insight Into Us Government Space Policy, Bert Chapman May 2020

Congressional Committee Resources On Space Policy During The 115th Congress (2017-2018): Providing Context And Insight Into Us Government Space Policy, Bert Chapman

Libraries Faculty and Staff Presentations

Article 1 of the US Constitution assigns the US Congress numerous responsibilities. These include creating new laws, revising existing laws, funding government programs, and conducting oversight of these programs' performance. Oversight of US Government agency space policy programs is executed by various congressional space policy committees including the House and Senate Science Committees, Armed Services, and Appropriations Committees. These committees conduct many public hearings on space policy, which invite expert witnesses to testify on US space policy programs and feature debate on the strengths and weaknesses of these programs. Documentation produced by these committees is widely available to the public ...


Indoctrination And Social Influence As A Defense To Crime: Are We Responsible For Who We Are?, Paul H. Robinson, Lindsay Holcomb May 2020

Indoctrination And Social Influence As A Defense To Crime: Are We Responsible For Who We Are?, Paul H. Robinson, Lindsay Holcomb

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

A patriotic POW is brainwashed by his North Korean captors into refusing repatriation and undertaking treasonous anti-American propaganda for the communist regime. Despite the general abhorrence of treason in time of war, the American public opposes criminal liability for such indoctrinated soldiers, yet existing criminal law provides no defense or mitigation because, at the time of the offense, the indoctrinated offender suffers no cognitive or control dysfunction, no mental or emotional impairment, and no external or internal compulsion. Rather, he was acting purely in the exercise of free of will, albeit based upon beliefs and values that he had not ...


Young Children's Ability To Describe Intermediate Clothing Placement, Breanne E. Wylie, Stacia N. Stolzenberg, Kelly Mcwilliams, Angela Evans, Thomas D. Lyon May 2020

Young Children's Ability To Describe Intermediate Clothing Placement, Breanne E. Wylie, Stacia N. Stolzenberg, Kelly Mcwilliams, Angela Evans, Thomas D. Lyon

University of Southern California Legal Studies Working Paper Series

Children’s ability to adequately describe clothing placement is essential to evaluating their allegations of sexual abuse. Intermediate clothing placement (partially removed clothing) may be difficult for young children to describe, requiring more detailed explanations to indicate the location of clothing (e.g., the clothes were pulled down to the knees). The current study investigated 172 3- to 6-year-olds’ descriptions of clothing placement when responding to commonly used questions (yes/no, forced-choice, open-choice, where), as well as children’s on-off response tendencies when describing intermediate placement (i.e.., labeling the clothing as fully on or off). Results revealed that "where ...


The Legal Determinants Of Health: How Can We Achieve Universal Health Coverage And What Does It Mean?, Lawrence O. Gostin May 2020

The Legal Determinants Of Health: How Can We Achieve Universal Health Coverage And What Does It Mean?, Lawrence O. Gostin

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

How can we keep people – wherever they live – healthy and safe? Among all global health initiatives, Universal Health Coverage (UHC) has garnered most political attention. But can UHC (as important as it is) actually achieve the two fundamental aspirations of the right to health: keeping people healthy and safe, while leaving no one behind? There is a universal longing for health and security, but also a deep-seated belief in fairness and equity. Can UHC achieve both health and equity, or what I have called, “global health with justice.”?

What makes a population healthy and safe? Certainly, universal and affordable access ...


Has Global Health Law Risen To Meet The Covid-19 Challenge? Revisiting The International Health Regulations To Prepare For Future Threats, Lawrence O. Gostin, Roojin Habibi, Benjamin Mason Meier May 2020

Has Global Health Law Risen To Meet The Covid-19 Challenge? Revisiting The International Health Regulations To Prepare For Future Threats, Lawrence O. Gostin, Roojin Habibi, Benjamin Mason Meier

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Global health law is essential in responding to the infectious disease threats of a globalizing world, where no single country, or border, can wall off disease. Yet, the Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) pandemic has tested the essential legal foundations of the global health system. Within weeks, the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus has circumnavigated the globe, bringing the world to a halt and exposing the fragility of the international legal order. Reflecting on how global health law will emerge in the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic, it will be crucial to examine the lessons learned in the COVID-19 response and the reforms required to ...


Global Health With Justice: Controlling The Floodgates Of The Upstream Determinants Of Health Through Evidence-Based Law, John Coggon, Lawrence O. Gostin May 2020

Global Health With Justice: Controlling The Floodgates Of The Upstream Determinants Of Health Through Evidence-Based Law, John Coggon, Lawrence O. Gostin

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

This article introduces a special issue on the legal determinants of health, following the publication of the Lancet–O’Neill Institute of Georgetown University Commission’s report on the subject. We contextualize legal determinants as a significant and vital aspect of the social determinants of health, explain the work of the Lancet–O’Neill Commission and outline where consequent research will usefully be directed. We also introduce the papers that follow in the special issue, which together set out in greater detail the work of the Commission and critically engage with different aspects of the report and the application of ...


Compliance Management Systems: Do They Make A Difference?, Cary Coglianese, Jennifer Nash May 2020

Compliance Management Systems: Do They Make A Difference?, Cary Coglianese, Jennifer Nash

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Regulatory compliance is vital for promoting the public values served by regulation. Yet many businesses remain out of compliance with some of the regulations that apply to them—presenting not only possible dangers to the public but also exposing themselves to potentially significant liability risk. Compliance management systems (CMSs) may help reduce the likelihood of noncompliance. In recent years, managers have begun using CMSs in an effort to address compliance issues in a variety of domains: environment, workplace health and safety, finance, health care, and aviation, among others. CMSs establish systematic, checklist-like processes by which managers seek to improve their ...


Anti-Immigration Laws Obstruct The Education Of Undocumented Students, Valeria Jansen May 2020

Anti-Immigration Laws Obstruct The Education Of Undocumented Students, Valeria Jansen

Poverty Law Conference & Symposium

Anti-immigration laws create unreasonable obstacles to the academic advancement of undocumented students. A close analysis of Proposition 187 and HB 56 will show how undocumented students are still facing hardship as they navigate American schools. Also, looking at the aftereffects of Proposition 187 will help uncover ways in which all states can help support undocumented children in their academic achievements. As Justice Brennan once wrote, “Education has a fundamental role in maintaining the fabric of our society.”

Following the introduction, Part II of this essay reflects on the 1982 landmark case, Plyler v. Doe. Part III compares two anti-immigration laws ...


Discrimination Against Employees Without Covid-19 Antibodies, Debbie N. Kaminer May 2020

Discrimination Against Employees Without Covid-19 Antibodies, Debbie N. Kaminer

Publications and Research

Policies that favor those with immunity to a contagious disease are a novel concept and have not been used in recent United States history. It is important to think about the legal and policy issues associated with banning employees without immunity to Covid-19 from the workplace and the appropriate balance between an individual’s right to work and the public health of the nation. In doing so, it is useful to compare these policies to immunization laws, mandatory retirement laws and the Americans with Disabilities Act.


No Choice: At The Crossroads Of Poverty And Decreasing Abortion Access, Marja-Leena Aaltonen May 2020

No Choice: At The Crossroads Of Poverty And Decreasing Abortion Access, Marja-Leena Aaltonen

Poverty Law Conference & Symposium

This paper will briefly review a portion of current abortion law in the United States and then focus on the problem through a lens of poverty with regard to access. Then the discussion will turn to lawmakers’ and religious interests’ interference in family planning decisions. Finally, I offer two steps toward making abortion more accessible to all but especially toward mitigating the costs of accessing abortion.


Genuine Incorporation Or Tax Avoidance?, Liu Hern Kuan, Vincent Ooi May 2020

Genuine Incorporation Or Tax Avoidance?, Liu Hern Kuan, Vincent Ooi

Research Collection School Of Law

In 2018, two articles in The Straits Times described how some professionals were incorporating one or more companies in an attempt to gain tax advantages. The issue was the difference between the highest personal income tax rate of 22 per cent and the corporate tax rate of 17 per cent, which provided an opportunity for tax arbitrage. The Start-Up Tax Exemption Scheme and Partial Tax Exemption and the availability of corporate tax rebates (typically announced during the Budget) also contributed to making incorporating one or more companies more attractive. Since the articles were published, many professionals have attempted to justify ...


Aaron Burr Jr. And John Pierre Burr: A Founding Father And His Abolitionist Son, Sherri Burr May 2020

Aaron Burr Jr. And John Pierre Burr: A Founding Father And His Abolitionist Son, Sherri Burr

Faculty Scholarship

Aaron Burr Jr. (Class of 1772), the third Vice President of the United States, fathered two children by a woman of color from Calcutta, India. Their son, John Pierre Burr (1792-1864), would become an activist, abolitionist, and conductor on the Underground Railroad.


Regulatory Approaches To Consumer Protection In The Financial Sector And Beyond: Toward A Smart Disclosure Regime?, Nydia Remolina Leon, Aurelio Gurrea-Martinez, Yvonne Ai-Chi Loh, David R. Hardoon May 2020

Regulatory Approaches To Consumer Protection In The Financial Sector And Beyond: Toward A Smart Disclosure Regime?, Nydia Remolina Leon, Aurelio Gurrea-Martinez, Yvonne Ai-Chi Loh, David R. Hardoon

Centre for AI & Data Governance

Traditionally, consumer and data protection policies evolved from issues of consent and information disclosure. The purpose of these regulatory approaches is the protection of consumers by reducing some contracting failures, such as asymmetries of information and a lower bargaining power, especially in transactions involving complex issues such as financial products and sensitive personal data. In the past, regulators have responded to privacy and consumer protection by adopting what this paper refers to as an “imperfectly informed regime”, in which consumers do not receive full information about the risks associated with their decisions, even if they are still protected through a ...


How Much You Talk Matters: Cheap Talk And Collusion In A Bertrand Oligopoly Game, Jun Yeong Lee, Elizabeth Hoffman May 2020

How Much You Talk Matters: Cheap Talk And Collusion In A Bertrand Oligopoly Game, Jun Yeong Lee, Elizabeth Hoffman

Economics Working Papers

This study investigates the impact of cheap talk on price in a repeated Bertrand oligopoly experiment. Each participant plays 20 rounds. Participants are placed in three-person bidding groups where the lowest bid wins. During the first 10 rounds, participants are not allowed to communicate with each other. All three-person groups converged to the zero-profit equilibrium in the first 10 periods. We then play another 10 rounds where participants can text with one another using an instant message system. Some groups were allowed to text before every round, some to text before every other round, some to text every third round ...


Aircraft Rescue And Fire Fighting Capabilities: Are Today’S Standards Protecting Passenger’S Futures?, Kaetlyn Blocker May 2020

Aircraft Rescue And Fire Fighting Capabilities: Are Today’S Standards Protecting Passenger’S Futures?, Kaetlyn Blocker

Student Works

Few studies have been conducted that have truly considered the relevance and inadequacies of applicable aircraft rescue and firefighting (ARFF) regulations. Fewer still have studied and explored accident cases that directly exemplify the deficiencies and inconsistencies of various regulatory standards and requirements. This study seeks to expose and explain those inadequacies by utilizing a historical, case-study type research method to examine accident cases during which time the governing regulations played a significant role in the ARFF operations. The findings discovered as a result of this multi-case analysis provide evidence that the current regulations governing United States ARFF operations are both ...


Snap Removal: Concept; Cause; Cacophony; And Cure, Jeffrey W. Stempel, Thomas O. Main, David Mcclure May 2020

Snap Removal: Concept; Cause; Cacophony; And Cure, Jeffrey W. Stempel, Thomas O. Main, David Mcclure

Scholarly Works

So-called “snap removal” – removal of a case from state to federal court prior to service on a forum state defendant – has divided federal trial courts for 20 years. Recently, panels of the Second, Third and Fifth Circuits have sided with those supporting the tactic even though it conflicts with the general prohibition on removal when the case includes a forum state defendant, a situation historically viewed as eliminating the need to protect the outsider defendant from possible state court hostility.

Consistent with the public policy underlying diversity jurisdiction – availability of a federal forum to protect against defending claims in an ...


Health Inequalities, Lawrence O. Gostin, Eric A. Friedman May 2020

Health Inequalities, Lawrence O. Gostin, Eric A. Friedman

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The vast health inequalities in the United States and beyond that COVID-19 makes glaringly evident are frequently masked by aggregate statistics, which for years had been showing health improvements. Yet these improvements were inequitably distributed, with benefits disproportionately going to wealthier – and in the United States, white – populations. Globally, vast health inequities also exist among and within countries. The inequalities, which have also helped fuel the rise of populism, extend far beyond health care, including to wealth and income. Disaggregated, granular data is critical to understanding these inequalities.

Addressing health inequities must extend far beyond universal access to quality health ...


Issuance Of The Keystone Xl Permit: Presidential Prerogative Or Presidential “Chutzpah”, Hope M. Babcock May 2020

Issuance Of The Keystone Xl Permit: Presidential Prerogative Or Presidential “Chutzpah”, Hope M. Babcock

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

This article uses President Trump's issuance of the Keystone XL Pipeline permit to illustrate the dangers of an imperial presidency, one in which the exercise of discretionary authority, based on neither the text of Article II of the Constitution nor a statute, will in all likelihood be unchecked by Congress, the courts, or popular opinion. To understand the dimensions of this concern, Part I of this article briefly describes the process and requirements for a presidential permit. Part II identifies key facts surrounding issuance of the Keystone XL Pipeline permit, the chronology of its issuance, and commonly given reasons ...


Open Banking: Regulatory Challenges For A New Form Of Financial Intermediation In A Data-Driven World, Nydia Remolina Leon May 2020

Open Banking: Regulatory Challenges For A New Form Of Financial Intermediation In A Data-Driven World, Nydia Remolina Leon

Centre for AI & Data Governance

Data has taken immense importance in the last years. Consider the amount of data that is being collected worldwide every day, industries are reshaping their activities into a data-driven business. The digital transformation of all industries, portent of the fourth industrial revolution, is creating a new kind of economy based on the datafication of almost any aspect of human social, political and economic activity as a result of the information generated by the numerous daily routines of digitally connected individuals and technology. The financial services industry is part of this trend. Embracing the digital revolution and creating the right foundations ...


Regulating Personal Data Usage In Covid-19 Control Conditions, Nydia Remolina Leon, Mark Findlay May 2020

Regulating Personal Data Usage In Covid-19 Control Conditions, Nydia Remolina Leon, Mark Findlay

Centre for AI & Data Governance

As the COVID-19 health pandemic ebbs and flows world-wide, governments and private companies across the globe are utilising AI-assisted surveillance, reporting, mapping and tracing technologies with the intention of slowing the spread of the virus. These technologies have capacity to amass and share personal data for community control and citizen safety motivations that empower state agencies and inveigle citizen co-operation which could only be imagined outside times of real and present personal danger. While not cavilling with the short-term necessity for these technologies and the data they control, process and share in the health regulation mission (provided that the technology ...


An Examination And Critique Of The Compatibility And Coherence Of Brian Leiter’S Naturalized Jurisprudence With The American Legal Framework, Michael L. Keck May 2020

An Examination And Critique Of The Compatibility And Coherence Of Brian Leiter’S Naturalized Jurisprudence With The American Legal Framework, Michael L. Keck

Masters Theses

In this thesis I argue Brian Leiter’s vision for a naturalized jurisprudence stands in problematic tension with critical facets of objective morality presupposed by the American legal system. Leiter makes the case for the naturalization of jurisprudence through adherence to his version of a naturalistic epistemology. Though Leiter explicitly rejects moral realism—and embraces elements of legal positivism—he acquiesces to the notion that judges sometimes utilize non-legal, “moral reasons,” when deciding cases. Leiter suggests that any moral “knowledge” that may influence the process of adjudication should be delivered by the hard sciences. I suggest Leiter’s epistemological naturalism ...


Reimaging Reentry: A Vision For Transformative Justice Beyond The Carceral State, Kemiya Nutter May 2020

Reimaging Reentry: A Vision For Transformative Justice Beyond The Carceral State, Kemiya Nutter

Ethnic Studies Senior Capstone Papers

Throughout the past decade, mass incarceration has emerged as a buzzword within academic scholarship and public policy discourse that seeks to examine the unparalleled expansion of the contemporary carceral state. With 2.2 million Americans imprisoned and over 7 million under various forms of penal control, the United States maintains the highest rate of incarceration in the world. The unprecedented inflation in the nation’s incarceration rate is a direct manifestation of the 1970’s War on Drugs, which enabled the legislative transformations that permeate modern sentencing policy and procedure. Institutions of policing, surveillance, and incarceration are constitutive features of ...


Precedent Within The High Court, Kwan Ho Lau May 2020

Precedent Within The High Court, Kwan Ho Lau

Research Collection School Of Law

A number of Masters and a Registrar have recently indicated that they, when exercising High Court jurisdiction, are not bound strictly to follow prior decisions made by Judges in the High Court. This represents a notable departure from the position established by and within the High Court, where since the Judicature Acts of 1873 and 1875 an unquestioning obeisance of the Master and Registrar towards such decisions has been generally expected and offered. Delving into questions of power, authority and jurisdiction, and examining relevant legislation such as the Civil Procedure Rules, this article constructs and analyses various arguments for and ...


The Development Of Singapore Law: A Bicentennial Retrospective, Andrew Phang, Yihan Goh, Jerrold Tsin Howe Soh May 2020

The Development Of Singapore Law: A Bicentennial Retrospective, Andrew Phang, Yihan Goh, Jerrold Tsin Howe Soh

Research Collection School Of Law

The present article reviews (in broad brushstrokes) the status of Singapore law during its bicentennial year. It is not only about origins but also about growth – in particular, the autochthonous or indigenous growth of the Singapore legal system (particularly since the independence of Singapore as a nation state on 9 August 1965). The analysis of this growth is divided into quantitative as well as qualitative parts. In particular, the former constitutes an empirical analysis which attempts – for the very first time − to tell the development of Singapore law through numbers, building on emerging techniques in data visualisation and empirical legal ...


Youth Homelessness - State Policy Review, Adam Mercer Apr 2020

Youth Homelessness - State Policy Review, Adam Mercer

Student Research Projects

This project was sponsored by Waypoint within their runaway and homeless youth continuum. Waypoint is a private non-profit operating in New Hampshire and supporting homeless youth statewide. The objective of the project was to review state policies affecting youth for the purpose of increasing Waypoint’s ability to advocate for legislative changes that can prevent and bring an end to youth homelessness.

The rights and freedoms of minors in unsafe situations are often limited and tied to another person’s guardianship, which may not be the best option for them. Expanding their rights through new policy could improve their safety ...


Blockchain Technology And The Irs: How The Use Of Blockchain Technology Could Interfere With A Taxpayer’S Privacy Rights, Michelle Yang Apr 2020

Blockchain Technology And The Irs: How The Use Of Blockchain Technology Could Interfere With A Taxpayer’S Privacy Rights, Michelle Yang

Blockchain Law

We will examine the benefits and dangers of implementing blockchain technology within the IRS framework. In the context of filing and reviewing tax returns, implementing blockchain technology within the tax industry could soften the relationship between the government, particularly with the IRS, and the taxpayer with speedier refunds, more efficient communications, and a uniform effort to deal with controversy more effectively. Part II will provide a brief background on the pros and cons of using blockchain technology to file tax returns. Parts III and IV will focus on two of the current laws governing cyberspace technology and how each law ...


White Male Aristocracy, Mary Sarah Bilder Apr 2020

White Male Aristocracy, Mary Sarah Bilder

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

Written for the Symposium on Gerald Leonard and Saul Cornell, The Partisan Republic: Democracy, Exclusion, and the Fall of the Founders' Constitution, 1780s-1830s (Cambridge University Press, 2019).

Gerry Leonard and Saul Cornell’s fascinating book, The Partisan Republic: Democracy, Exclusion, and the Fall of the Founders’ Constitution, 1780-1830s tells the story, as I put in in a blurb, “of the unsettling transformation of aristocratic-tinged constitutional republic into a partisan white male democracy.” In this year where we recall the Nineteenth Amendment’s re-enfranchisement of women, the Leonard/Cornell book demands that we reevaluate the way we describe the early nineteenth-century ...


2019 Annual Report, Deirdre M. Smith Cumberland Legal Aid Clinic Apr 2020

2019 Annual Report, Deirdre M. Smith Cumberland Legal Aid Clinic

Cumberland Legal Aid Clinic Annual Report

No abstract provided.


The Wrong Choice To Address School Choice: Espinoza V. Montana Department Of Revenue, Brooke Reczka Apr 2020

The Wrong Choice To Address School Choice: Espinoza V. Montana Department Of Revenue, Brooke Reczka

Duke Journal of Constitutional Law & Public Policy Sidebar

For many school-choice advocates, Espinoza v. Montana Department of Revenue is the chance to extend the Supreme Court’s decision in Trinity Lutheran Church of Columbia, Inc. v. Comer in 2017. In Trinity Lutheran, the Supreme Court held that a state’s exclusion of a church from a public benefit program to resurface playgrounds discriminated against religion in violation of the Free Exercise Clause. Many school-choice proponents hope to extend the Trinity Lutheran holding from playgrounds materials to school funding and thus strike down religion-based exclusions in school voucher programs. However, Espinoza is the wrong vehicle to do so ...