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Sex, Lies, And Ultrasound, B. Jessie Hill Jan 2018

Sex, Lies, And Ultrasound, B. Jessie Hill

Faculty Publications

State-mandated falsehoods are rampant in the context of abortion regulation. State legislatures have required doctors, before performing abortions, to provide scientifically unsupported information to women, such as that having an abortion increases the risk of breast cancer, or that it has negative mental health effects. Given the lack of evidence to sustain these sorts of claims, it seems reasonable to refer to such statements as government-mandated lies. However, this article argues that government mandated lies in the abortion context are unique in several ways that make them unlikely to be found unconstitutional, despite the fact that they obviously hinder patients ...


The Power To Tax, Erik M. Jensen Jan 2016

The Power To Tax, Erik M. Jensen

Faculty Publications

The Power to Tax, chapter 1 in The Powers of the U.S. Congress: Where Constitutional Authority Begins and Ends, Brien Hallett, editor: Copyright © 2016 by ABC-CLIO LLC

This is a chapter in a book intended largely for an undergraduate audience. The chapter outlines the key terms necessary for understanding the congressional power to tax under the U.S. Constitution; the history and development of our understanding of that power; and the limitations (or possible limitations) on the power.


Law Review Symposium 2011: Baker V. Carr After 50 Years: Appraising The Reapportionment Revolution: Introduction, Jonathan L. Entin Jan 2012

Law Review Symposium 2011: Baker V. Carr After 50 Years: Appraising The Reapportionment Revolution: Introduction, Jonathan L. Entin

Faculty Publications

Introduction to Law Review Symposium 2011: Baker V. Carr after 50 Years: Appraising the Reapportionment Revolution, Cleveland, OH


The Importance Of Immutability In Employment Discrimination Law, Sharona Hoffman Jan 2011

The Importance Of Immutability In Employment Discrimination Law, Sharona Hoffman

Faculty Publications

This article argues that recent developments in employment discrimination law require a renewed focus on the concept of immutable characteristics. In 29 two new laws took effect: the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA) and the Americans with Disabilities Act Amendments Act (ADAAA). This Article’s original contribution is an evaluation of the employment discrimination statutes as a corpus of law in light of these two additions.

The Article thoroughly explores the meaning of the term “immutable characteristic” in constitutional and employment discrimination jurisprudence. It postulates that immutability constitutes a unifying principle for all of the traits now covered by the ...


Quirky Constitutional Provisions Matter: The Tonnage Clause, Polar Tankers, And State Taxation Of Commerce, Erik M. Jensen Jan 2011

Quirky Constitutional Provisions Matter: The Tonnage Clause, Polar Tankers, And State Taxation Of Commerce, Erik M. Jensen

Faculty Publications

In Polar Tankers, Inc. v. City of Valdez, the Supreme Court in 29 struck down a City of Valdez levy that was in form a personal-property tax, but that primarily reached oil tankers using Valdez’s ports, on the ground that the levy violated the Tonnage Clause of the Constitution (“No State, shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any Duty of Tonnage”). The Tonnage Clause, part of the constitutional structure intended to ensure federal primacy in regulating commerce, was once a staple of litigation, but Polar Tankers was the first Supreme Court case decided under the Clause since 1935 ...


Law School Clinics And The First Amendment, Jonathan L. Entin Jan 2011

Law School Clinics And The First Amendment, Jonathan L. Entin

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Dangerous Terrain: Mapping The Female Body In Gonzales V. Carhart, B. Jessie Hill Jan 2010

Dangerous Terrain: Mapping The Female Body In Gonzales V. Carhart, B. Jessie Hill

Faculty Publications

The body occupies an ambiguous position within the law. It is, in one sense, the quintessential object of state regulatory and police power, the object that the state acts both upon and for. At the same time, the body is often constructed in legal discourse as the site of personhood - our most intimate, sacred, and inviolate possession. The inherent tension between these two concepts of the body permeates the law, but it is perhaps nowhere more prominent than in the constitutional doctrine pertaining to abortion. Abortion is one of the most heavily regulated medical procedures in the United States, and ...


Privacy Is The Problem, Raymond Shih Ray Ku Jan 2010

Privacy Is The Problem, Raymond Shih Ray Ku

Faculty Publications

A local school district remotely activates laptop web cameras that allegedly record the activities of students, even in their bedrooms.1 The President authorizes the National Security Agency (NSA) to monitor the telephone calls and electronic communications of individuals within the United States on an unprecedented scale in the interest of national security.2 Even a cursory examination of the news suggests that the activities and communications of Americans are increasingly subject to government surveillance from every level of government. Whatever we may think about the necessity for this surveillance, we should question how such programs come into being; in ...


Unlimited Power: Why The President’S (Warrantless) Surveillance Program Is Unconstitutional, Raymond Shih Ray Ku Jan 2010

Unlimited Power: Why The President’S (Warrantless) Surveillance Program Is Unconstitutional, Raymond Shih Ray Ku

Faculty Publications

In this essay, Professor Ku explores the constitutionality of the President's Surveillance Program (PSP), and critiques the Bush Administration's legal explanations supporting warrantless surveillance. Defenders of the program have relied upon the President's inherent executive authority, the Congressional Authorization for Use of Military Force, the FISA Amendment Act of 2008, and ultimately that under any of these sources of authority the warrantless surveillance authorized is consistent with the right of privacy protected Fourth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. As such, Professor Ku uses the PSP to illustrate the how and why current constitutional analysis both ignores ...


Safford Unified School District No. 1 V. Redding, And The Future Of School Strip Searches, Lewis R. Katz Jan 2009

Safford Unified School District No. 1 V. Redding, And The Future Of School Strip Searches, Lewis R. Katz

Faculty Publications

Each year in America an unknown number of children in primary and secondary schools are strip searched by teachers and/or school administrators, forced to remove pants and shirts down to their underwear and sometimes forced to expose their breasts and genitals. In Safford Unified School District No. 1 v. Redding, 129 S.Ct. 2633 (29), the Supreme Court weighed in on the issue, finding that school officials violated the child’s Fourth Amendment rights during a strip search but reversing the Ninth Circuit and awarding the school officials qualified immunity not withstanding the ineptitude of the investigation. The Court ...


Is Nominal Use An Answer To The Free Speech & Right Of Publicity Quandary?: Lessons From America’S National Pastime, Raymond Shih Ray Ku Jan 2008

Is Nominal Use An Answer To The Free Speech & Right Of Publicity Quandary?: Lessons From America’S National Pastime, Raymond Shih Ray Ku

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Parents Involved And The Meaning Of Brown: An Old Debate Renewed, Jonathan L. Entin Jan 2008

Parents Involved And The Meaning Of Brown: An Old Debate Renewed, Jonathan L. Entin

Faculty Publications

In Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. 1 the Supreme Court debated the meaning of Brown v. Board of Education. This essay, prepared for a symposium on Parents Involved, traces the roots of the debate between color-blindness and anti-subordination to Brown itself and efforts to desegregate public schools in the wake of that decision but shows that the debate goes back at least as far as the tensions reflected in the first Justice Harlan's celebrated dissent in Plessy v. Ferguson.


United States V. Hatter And The Taxation Of Federal Judges, Jonathan L. Entin, Erik M. Jensen Feb 2006

United States V. Hatter And The Taxation Of Federal Judges, Jonathan L. Entin, Erik M. Jensen

Faculty Publications

Does the constitutional requirement that the "compensation" of federal judges "not be diminished during their Continuance in office" preclude Congress from subjecting sitting judges to the social security taxes from which they had previously been exempt? In Hatter v. United States, the Federal Circuit ruled for judges claiming such an exemption, and, after the Supreme Court granted cert, the authors wrote the first of these two articles, arguing why, for a multitude of reasons, the Supreme Court should reverse and make it clear that judges may constitutionally be subject to a tax of general application. After the Supreme Court held ...


United States V. Hatter And The Taxation Of Federal Judges, Jonathan L. Entin, Erik M. Jesnen Feb 2006

United States V. Hatter And The Taxation Of Federal Judges, Jonathan L. Entin, Erik M. Jesnen

Faculty Publications

Does the constitutional requirement that the "compensation" of federal judges "not be diminished during their Continuance in office" preclude Congress from subjecting sitting judges to the social security taxes from which they had previously been exempt? In Hatter v. United States, the Federal Circuit ruled for judges claiming such an exemption, and, after the Supreme Court granted cert, the authors wrote the first of these two articles, arguing why, for a multitutde of reasons, the Supreme Court should reverse and make it clear that judges may constitutionally be subject to a tax of general application. After the Supreme Court held ...


Taxation, Compensation, And Judicial Independence: Hatter V. United States, Jonathan L. Entin, Erik M. Jensen Feb 2006

Taxation, Compensation, And Judicial Independence: Hatter V. United States, Jonathan L. Entin, Erik M. Jensen

Faculty Publications

Does the constitutional requirement that the "compensation" of federal judges "not be diminished during their Continuance in office" preclude Congress from subjecting sitting judges to the social security taxes from which they had previously been exempt? In Hatter v. United States, the Federal Circuit ruled for judges claiming such an exemption, and, after the Supreme Court granted cert, the authors wrote the first of these two articles, arguing why, for a multitutde of reasons, the Supreme Court should reverse and make it clear that judges may constitutionally be subject to a tax of general application. After the Supreme Court held ...


Unapportioned Direct-Consumption Taxes And The Sixteenth Amendment, Erik M. Jensen Feb 2006

Unapportioned Direct-Consumption Taxes And The Sixteenth Amendment, Erik M. Jensen

Faculty Publications

The point of this essay is simple: a direct-consumption tax like the Forbes-Armey-Hall-Rabushka flat tax or the Nunn-Domenici USA tax is not a "tax on incomes" within the meaning of the Sixteenth Amendment. As a result, such a tax would be constitutional only if it were apportioned among the states on the basis of population. And since these taxes would not be apportioned-how could they be and work as they are intended to work?-they would be unconstitutional.


Taxation And The Constitution: How To Read The Direct-Tax Clauses, Erik M. Jensen Jan 2006

Taxation And The Constitution: How To Read The Direct-Tax Clauses, Erik M. Jensen

Faculty Publications

This essay responds to Professor Bruce Ackerman, who had challenged the author's understanding of the Direct-Tax Clauses of the Constitution and the Sixteenth Amendment to that Constitution.


The Apportionment Of ‘Direct Taxes’: Are Consumption Taxes Constitutional?, Erik M. Jensen Jan 2006

The Apportionment Of ‘Direct Taxes’: Are Consumption Taxes Constitutional?, Erik M. Jensen

Faculty Publications

In debates about reorienting the American revenue system, nearly everyone assumes the Constitution is irrelevant. With few exceptions, the tax provisions in the original Constitution - particularly the direct-tax apportionment rule and the uniformity rule - have been interpreted to be paper tigers. And in only one major case has the Sixteenth Amendment, which excepts "taxes on incomes" from apportionment, been held to limit congressional power.

S Rejecting conventional wisdom, this Article argues that some consumption taxes would violate constitutional norms. The Article focuses on the requirement that “direct taxes” be apportioned among the states on the basis of population. From a ...


Is Morrison Dead? Assessing A Supreme Drug (Law) Overdose, Jonathan H. Adler Jan 2005

Is Morrison Dead? Assessing A Supreme Drug (Law) Overdose, Jonathan H. Adler

Faculty Publications

There was little doubt that the federal government would prevail in Gonzales v. Raich. What was, perhaps, unexpected was so expansive a repudiation of enforceable judicial limitations on federal power. In upholding the constitutionality of the Controlled Substances Act as applied to the non-commercial intrastate possession and consumption of marijuana for medical purposes as authorized under California law, the Supreme Court hollowed out the core of contemporary commerce clause jurisprudence. Insofar as United States v. Morrison had stood for the propositions that only intrastate economic activities could be aggregated for purposes of the "substantial effects" test, that attenuated connections between ...


The Export Clause, Erik M. Jensen Jan 2003

The Export Clause, Erik M. Jensen

Faculty Publications

This article examines the origins and meaning of the Export Clause in Article I, section 9 of the United States Constitution, which provides that "[n]o Tax or duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any State."

Part I of the article considers the original understanding of the Export Clause, concluding that, without the Clause, the Constitution would not have been adopted. In light of the Export Clause's significance in the constitutional structure, Part II examines the Supreme Court's decisions in United States v. International Business Machines Corp., 517 U.S. 843 (1996) (IBM), and United States ...


United States Supreme Court: 2001 Term, Paul C. Giannelli Jan 2001

United States Supreme Court: 2001 Term, Paul C. Giannelli

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Ohio’S Dna Databank Statute, Paul C. Giannelli Jan 2000

Ohio’S Dna Databank Statute, Paul C. Giannelli

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


United States Supreme Court: 2000 Term, Paul C. Giannelli Jan 2000

United States Supreme Court: 2000 Term, Paul C. Giannelli

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


United States Supreme Court: 1999 Term, Paul C. Giannelli Jan 1999

United States Supreme Court: 1999 Term, Paul C. Giannelli

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Comment, The Green Aspects Of Printz: The Revival Of Federalism And Its Implications For Environmental Law, Jonathan H. Adler Jan 1998

Comment, The Green Aspects Of Printz: The Revival Of Federalism And Its Implications For Environmental Law, Jonathan H. Adler

Faculty Publications

This Comment reviews the Printz decision in the context of the Supreme Court's recent federalism jurisprudence and assesses its implications for environmental law. Part I provides a brief historical overview of the federal-state relationship in the environmental context and recent Supreme Court decisions on federalism. Part II discusses and evaluates the Printz decision. Part III applies the Supreme Court holdings in Printz and related federalism cases to current environmental policies and identifies federal environmental programs that are constitutionally suspect. Finally, Part IV addresses the public policy concern that limiting the federal government's power in the environmental context will ...


United States Supreme Court: 1998 Term, Paul C. Giannelli Jan 1998

United States Supreme Court: 1998 Term, Paul C. Giannelli

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Commandeering, The Tenth Amendment, And The Federal Requisition Power: New York V. United States Revisited, Erik M. Jensen Jan 1998

Commandeering, The Tenth Amendment, And The Federal Requisition Power: New York V. United States Revisited, Erik M. Jensen

Faculty Publications

The Supreme Court's recent Tenth Amendment decisions, New York v. United States and Printz v. United States, have relied on the original understanding to hold that the Congress may not compel state officials to enact or administer federal programs. We present evidence from the field of taxation that raises questions about the Court's originalist approach to the Tenth Amendment. We explain why the results in New York and Printz are superficially supported by the history of the widely discredited system of requisitions that prevailed under the Articles of Confederation: the Constitution created a system of indirect and direct ...


United States Supreme Court: 1997 Term, Paul C. Giannelli Jan 1997

United States Supreme Court: 1997 Term, Paul C. Giannelli

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


United States Supreme Court: 1995 & 1996 Term, Paul C. Giannelli Jan 1996

United States Supreme Court: 1995 & 1996 Term, Paul C. Giannelli

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Note, Give Me Liberty Or Give Me Silence: Taking A Stand On Fifth Amendment Implications For Court-Ordered Therapy Programs, Jessica Wilen Berg Jan 1994

Note, Give Me Liberty Or Give Me Silence: Taking A Stand On Fifth Amendment Implications For Court-Ordered Therapy Programs, Jessica Wilen Berg

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.