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Adjudication

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Institution
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Articles 1 - 30 of 80

Full-Text Articles in Law

Due Process For Article Iii—Rethinking Murray's Lessee, Kent H. Barnett Jan 2019

Due Process For Article Iii—Rethinking Murray's Lessee, Kent H. Barnett

Scholarly Works

The Founders sought to protect federal judges’ impartiality primarily because those judges would review the political branches’ actions. To that end, Article III judges retain their offices during “good behaviour,” and Congress cannot reduce their compensation while they are in office. But Article III has taken a curious turn. Article III generally does not prohibit Article I courts or agencies from deciding “public rights” cases, i.e., when the government is a party and seeking to vindicate its own actions and interpretations under federal law against a private party. In contrast, Article III courts generally must resolve cases that concern ...


"Cyborg Justice" And The Risk Of Technological-Legal Lock-In, Rebecca Crootof Jan 2019

"Cyborg Justice" And The Risk Of Technological-Legal Lock-In, Rebecca Crootof

Law Faculty Publications

Although Artificial Intelligence (AI) is already of use to litigants and legal practitioners, we must be cautious and deliberate in incorporating AI into the common law judicial process. Human beings and machine systems process information and reach conclusions in fundamentally different ways, with AI being particularly ill-suited for the rule application and value balancing required of human judges. Nor will “cyborg justice”—hybrid human/AI judicial systems that attempt to marry the best of human and machine decisionmaking and minimize the drawbacks of both—be a panacea. While such systems would ideally maximize the strengths of human and machine intelligence ...


Judges And Judgment: In Praise Of Instigators, Kathryn Judge Jan 2019

Judges And Judgment: In Praise Of Instigators, Kathryn Judge

Faculty Scholarship

This essay celebrates judicial instigators, and Judge Richard Posner as instigator. It embraces a view of the judicial system as a system, one that can best achieve its myriad aims only if there is some variety in its constituent parts. Having some judges, some of the time, willing to ask hard questions about what the law is and should be is critical to ensuring the law achieves its intended aims. This essay illustrates this point by weaving together a single case about mutual fund fees with personal observations accumulated over a year as a clerk to Judge Posner and Posner ...


Designing The Decider, Emily S. Bremer Jan 2018

Designing The Decider, Emily S. Bremer

Journal Articles

The Administrative Procedure Act (APA) contains several provisions designed to ensure that presiding officials in so-called formal adjudications are able to make fair, well-informed, independent decisions. But these provisions do not apply to the vast majority of federal adjudicatory hearings. In this world of adjudication outside the APA, agencies enjoy broad procedural discretion, including substantial freedom to “design the decider.” This Article defines the scope of this discretion and explores how various agencies have exercised it. The discussion is enriched by examples drawn from an expansive new database of federal adjudicatory procedures. The Article argues that, although agency discretion to ...


Non-Alj Adjudicators In Federal Agencies: Status, Selection, Oversight, And Removal, Kent H. Barnett, Russell Wheeler Jan 2018

Non-Alj Adjudicators In Federal Agencies: Status, Selection, Oversight, And Removal, Kent H. Barnett, Russell Wheeler

Scholarly Works

This article republishes—in substantively similar form—our 2018 report to the Administrative Conference of the United States (ACUS) concerning federal agencies’ adjudicators who are not administrative law judges (ALJs). (We refer to these adjudicators as “non-ALJ Adjudicators” or “non-ALJs.”) As our data indicate, non-ALJs significantly outnumber ALJs. Yet non-ALJs are often overlooked and difficult to discuss as a class because of their disparate titles and characteristics. To obtain more information on non-ALJs, we surveyed agencies on non-ALJs’ hearings and, among other things, the characteristics concerning non-ALJs’ salaries, selection, oversight, and removal. We first present our reported data on these ...


Administrative Adjudication And Adjudicators, Jack Beermann Jan 2018

Administrative Adjudication And Adjudicators, Jack Beermann

Faculty Scholarship

The appointment, removal, supervision and allocation of cases to Administrative Law Judges (ALJs) and other non-Article III adjudicators in the United States federal government continues to create vexing legal issues for courts and commentators. This article is an effort to address all of these issues together, to facilitate a holistic understanding of the place of non-Article III adjudicators in the federal government. The appointment question revolves around whether non-Article III adjudicators are Officers of the United States, which most are. There are two issues surrounding the removal of non-Article III adjudicators. First, for reasons sounding in due process concerns, adjudicators ...


Pran Justice: Social Order, Dispute Processing, And Adjudication In The Venezuelan Prison Subculture, Manuel A. Gomez Jan 2018

Pran Justice: Social Order, Dispute Processing, And Adjudication In The Venezuelan Prison Subculture, Manuel A. Gomez

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


The Pro Bono Collaborative Project Spotlight 12-20-2017, Roger Williams University School Of Law Dec 2017

The Pro Bono Collaborative Project Spotlight 12-20-2017, Roger Williams University School Of Law

Pro Bono Collaborative Staff Publications

No abstract provided.


A.J. V. Eighth Judicial Dist. Court, 133 Nev. Adv. Op. 28 (June 1, 2017), Briana Martinez Jun 2017

A.J. V. Eighth Judicial Dist. Court, 133 Nev. Adv. Op. 28 (June 1, 2017), Briana Martinez

Nevada Supreme Court Summaries

NRS 62C.240 is triggered when circumstances surrounding a juvenile’s arrest plainly demonstrate that the juvenile was arrested for prostitution or solicitation even if the juvenile is charged with offenses other than prostitution or solicitation.


Law And Digestion: A Brief History Of An Unpalatable Idea, Dan Priel Jan 2017

Law And Digestion: A Brief History Of An Unpalatable Idea, Dan Priel

Osgoode Legal Studies Research Paper Series

According to a familiar adage the legal realists equated law with what the judge had for breakfast. As this is sometimes used to ridicule the realists, prominent defenders of legal realism have countered that none of the realists ever entertained any such idea. In this short essay I show that this is inaccurate. References to this idea are found in the work of Karl Llewellyn and Jerome Frank, as well as in the works of their contemporaries, both friends and foes. But I also show the idea is older than the legal realists. One finds casual references to it in ...


Construction Contracts Act (2013): Implications Of The Act For The Practicing Quantity Surveyor. A Company Based Investigation, Roy Byrne Jan 2017

Construction Contracts Act (2013): Implications Of The Act For The Practicing Quantity Surveyor. A Company Based Investigation, Roy Byrne

Other resources

Abstract

The Construction Contracts Act 2013 was introduced into the Irish construction industry for the primary benefit of the sub-contractors, and to address their exposure to the poor payment practices that were prevalent in the industry.

The Act was introduced in the Seanad by Senator Feargal Quinn in May 2010, as a private member’s bill. It was enacted on 29th July 2013 and recently came into effect on the 25th July 2016. The Act seeks to regulate payments under construction contracts and to provide fast track dispute resolution for matters related to payments. The Act is centred ...


Against Administrative Judges, Kent H. Barnett Jun 2016

Against Administrative Judges, Kent H. Barnett

Scholarly Works

The single largest cadre of federal adjudicators goes largely ignored by scholars, policymakers, courts, and even litigating parties. These Administrative Judges or “AJs,” often confused with well-known federal Administrative Law Judges or “ALJs,” operate by the thousands in numerous federal agencies. Yet unlike ALJs, the significantly more numerous AJs preside over less formal hearings and have no significant statutory protections to preserve their impartiality. The national press has recently called attention to the alleged unfairness of certain ALJ proceedings, and regulated parties have successfully enjoined agencies’ use of ALJs. While fixes are necessary for ALJ adjudication, any solution that ignores ...


Just Listening: The Equal Hearing Principle And The Moral Life Of Judges, Barry Sullivan Jan 2016

Just Listening: The Equal Hearing Principle And The Moral Life Of Judges, Barry Sullivan

Faculty Publications & Other Works

No abstract provided.


Civil Procedure: Cases, Materials, And Questions, Wendy Collins Perdue Jan 2016

Civil Procedure: Cases, Materials, And Questions, Wendy Collins Perdue

Law Faculty Publications

This innovative casebook is designed to be accessible to first year students while exposing them to the richness of the course. Each chapter begins with an “Introduction and Integration” section, which provides an overview and indicates how the materials relate to other topics. The authors explore the strategic and ethical issues faced by lawyers. The book features clear textual explication to set up consideration of cases. The seventh edition is wholly up-to-date, including the new discovery provisions that became effective December 1, 2015 (Carolina Academic Press).


The External Dimension Of Eu Investment Law.Pdf, Fernanda Nicola Jan 2016

The External Dimension Of Eu Investment Law.Pdf, Fernanda Nicola

Articles in Law Reviews & Other Academic Journals

EU trade and investment policy is in flux. The rate at which the global trade and investment architecture is evolving through the mega-regional Free Trade Agreements ("FTAs") is unprecedented. In this context, we explain how European lawyers and trade negotiators are addressing the newly acquired investment competence, while at the same time reforming investment arbitration and proposing new systems of dispute resolution at the international level. EU trade negotiators have put forward transformative proposals for investment chapters in their FTAs to safeguard, above all, the autonomy of the EU legal order in its relationship with international arbitration law. By mapping ...


Fairness At A Time Of Perplexity: The Civil Law Principle Of Fairness In The Court Of Justice Of The European Union, Daniela Caruso Nov 2015

Fairness At A Time Of Perplexity: The Civil Law Principle Of Fairness In The Court Of Justice Of The European Union, Daniela Caruso

Faculty Scholarship

The general principle of fairness, recently articulated by the Court of Justice of the European Union in the context of consumer law, is bound to prompt ambivalent scholarly reactions. Fairness in private law could be dismissed as hopelessly indeterminate: yet another venue of judicial balancing, a technique already seen ad nauseam in Luxembourg, whereby lip service is paid to conflicting considerations, but no real solace can be found against regressive outcomes of law and policy choices. At the same time, the judicial articulation of a general principle of fairness in private law could be seen as a prompt for domestic ...


Procedural Triage, Matthew J.B. Lawrence Oct 2015

Procedural Triage, Matthew J.B. Lawrence

Faculty Scholarly Works

Prior scholarship has assumed that the inherent value of a “day in court” is the same for all claimants, so that when procedural resources (like a jury trial or a hearing) are scarce, they should be rationed the same way for all claimants. That is incorrect. This Article shows that the inherent value of a “day in court” can be far greater for some claimants, such as first-time filers, than for others, such as corporate entities and that it can be both desirable and feasible to take this variation into account in doling out scarce procedural protections. In other words ...


Acus--And Administrative Law--Then And Now, Michael Herz Jan 2015

Acus--And Administrative Law--Then And Now, Michael Herz

Articles

The Administrative Conference of the United States (ACUS) both shapes and reflects the intellectual, policy, and practical concerns of the field of administrative law. Its recommendations are therefore a useful lens through which to view that field. Also, because of an unfortunate hiatus, ACUS has gotten underway not once but twice. Those two beginnings provide a kind of natural experiment, and they make a revealing contrast. This article traces the transformations of American administrative law, as well as the field’s perpetual concerns, by comparing the initial recommendations of ACUS 1.0 (1968 to 1970) with the initial recommendations of ...


Believable Victims: Asylum Credibility And The Struggle For Objectivity, Michael Kagan Jan 2015

Believable Victims: Asylum Credibility And The Struggle For Objectivity, Michael Kagan

Scholarly Works

Asylum adjudication is often the invisible frontline in the struggle by oppressed groups to gain recognition for their plights. Through this process, individual people must tell their stories and try to show that they are genuine victims of persecution rather than simply illegal immigrants attempting to slip through the system. In 2002, because the world had not yet acknowledged the nature of the calamity from which they were escaping, many Darfurian asylum cases would have relied on the ability of each individual to convince government offices to believe their stories. They would have had to be deemed “credible,” or they ...


There Is No Such Thing As Litigation: Access To Justice And The Realities Of Adjudication, Robert Rubinson Jan 2015

There Is No Such Thing As Litigation: Access To Justice And The Realities Of Adjudication, Robert Rubinson

All Faculty Scholarship

Does a "contest by judicial process" describe litigation's "means and applications"? Overwhelmingly, no. Litigation is not about judges: it is about default judgments, settlements, plea bargains. It sometimes does not even involve judges at all. Litigation is not about trials: the amount of litigation that goes to trial is infinitesimal. It is not about "process": the process is so minimal that to dignify it with that term stretches the word beyond recognition. It is not a "contest": it is an exercise where one side has no plausible chance of winning, especially since that side either has no lawyers or ...


Corporate Law Doctrine And The Legacy Of American Legal Realism, Edward B. Rock Jan 2015

Corporate Law Doctrine And The Legacy Of American Legal Realism, Edward B. Rock

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

In this contribution to a symposium on "Legal Realism and Legal Doctrine," I examine the role that jurisprudence plays in corporate law doctrine. Through an examination of paired cases from the United States and United Kingdom, I offer a case study of the contrasting influence on corporate law judging of American Legal Realism versus traditional U.K. Doctrinalism.

Specialist judges in both systems, aided by specialist lawyers, clearly identify and understand the core policy issues involved in a dispute and arrive at sensible results. Adjusting for differences in background law and institutions, it seems likely that the disputes would ultimately ...


The Growing Power Of Healthcare Ethics Committees Heightens Due Process Concerns, Thaddeus Mason Pope Jan 2014

The Growing Power Of Healthcare Ethics Committees Heightens Due Process Concerns, Thaddeus Mason Pope

Faculty Scholarship

Complex ethical situations, such as end-of-life medical treatment disputes, occur on a regular basis in healthcare settings. Healthcare ethics committees (HECs) have been a leading dispute resolution forum for many of these conflicts. But while the function of HECs has evolved from mediation to adjudication, the form of HECs has not evolved to adapt to this expanded and more consequential function.

HECs are typically multidisciplinary groups comprised of representatives from different departments of the healthcare facility: medicine, nursing, law, pastoral care, and social work, for example. HECs were established to support and advise patients, families, and caregivers as they work ...


Reforming Ontario’S Family Justice System: An Evidence-Based Approach, Noel Semple, Nicholas Bala Dec 2013

Reforming Ontario’S Family Justice System: An Evidence-Based Approach, Noel Semple, Nicholas Bala

Law Publications

This Report summarizes research about justice system responses to family disputes, makes recommendations for government action based on that empirical evidence, and identifies some as yet unanswered system design questions requiring further study. This document is provocative as it is premised on a realistic appreciation of the nature of family disputes and the limits of government action, especially in the present fiscal environment, and the fact that there are issues related to family justice that research has not adequately addressed and hence development of public policy must be undertaken in the face of uncertainty.


The Normative Legitimacy Of International Courts, Nienke Grossman Oct 2013

The Normative Legitimacy Of International Courts, Nienke Grossman

All Faculty Scholarship

This Article’s objective is to spark discussion about the standards by which we judge international courts. Traditional justifications for the authority of international courts are based on outmoded assumptions of their role and impact. State consent and procedural fairness to litigants are insufficient to ground the legitimacy of institutions that may adjudicate the international rights and duties of nonlitigants, deeply affect the interests of nonlitigating stakeholders, and shape the law prospectively. These realities mandate a new approach to the legitimacy of international courts. This Article presents alternative or additional approaches for justifying the authority of international courts rooted in ...


Adjudicated Juveniles And Post-Conviction Litigation, Joshua A. Tepfer, Laura H. Nirider Jan 2012

Adjudicated Juveniles And Post-Conviction Litigation, Joshua A. Tepfer, Laura H. Nirider

Faculty Working Papers

Post-conviction relief is a vital part of the American justice system. By filing post-conviction petitions after the close of direct appeal, defendants can raise claims based on evidence outside the record that was not known or available at the time of trial. One common use of post-conviction relief is to file a claim related to a previously unknown constitutional violation that occurred at trial, such as ineffective assistance of counsel. If a defendant's trial attorney performed ineffectively by failing to call, for instance, an alibi witness, then that omission is unlikely to be reflected in the trial record -- but ...


Examining The International Judicial Function: International Courts As Dispute Resolvers, Anna Spain Jan 2011

Examining The International Judicial Function: International Courts As Dispute Resolvers, Anna Spain

Articles

This article examines the judicial function of international courts by considering both what it is and what it ought to be. The article identifies and describes two distinct functions - dispute settlement and peace promotion - and explores the tensions that exist in pursuing these two aims. It then introduces a third way of understanding the international judicial function that respects international courts’ traditional role as dispute settlers while allowing for their more engaged and proactive function as peacemakers. This third approach conceptualizes that the role of international courts is to resolve disputes. Doing so requires understanding courts as entities that exist ...


Beyond Adjudication: Resolving International Resource Disputes In An Era Of Climate Change, Anna Spain Jan 2011

Beyond Adjudication: Resolving International Resource Disputes In An Era Of Climate Change, Anna Spain

Articles

This Article examines the role of international adjudication as a mechanism for resolving international disputes and promoting global peace and security in an era of climate change. The central claim is that adjudication has limitations that make it ineffective as a tool for resolving international resource disputes. The Article argues that adjudication is limited due to source and process challenges and it illustrates this claim by reviewing cases adjudicated by the International Court of Justice, the Permanent Court of Arbitration and other international courts and tribunals. Four categories of adjudication limitation emerge: a) cases where the parties refused to submit ...


Implicit Bias And Immigration Courts, Fatma Marouf Jan 2011

Implicit Bias And Immigration Courts, Fatma Marouf

Scholarly Works

This Article highlights the importance of implicit bias in immigration adjudication. After tracing the evolution of prejudice in our immigration laws from explicit "old-fashioned" prejudice to more subtle forms of "modem" and "aversive" prejudice, the Article argues that the specific conditions under which immigration judges decide cases render them especially prone to the influence of implicit bias. Specifically, it examines how factors such as immigration judges' lack of independence, limited opportunity for deliberate thinking, low motivation, and the low risk of judicial review all allow implicit bias to drive decisionmaking. The Article then recommends certain reforms, both simple and complex ...


The Anti-Empathic Turn, Robin West Jan 2011

The Anti-Empathic Turn, Robin West

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Justice, according to a broad consensus of our greatest twentieth century judges, requires a particular kind of moral judgment, and that moral judgment requires, among much else, empathy–the ability to understand not just the situation but also the perspective of litigants on warring sides of a lawsuit.

Excellent judging requires empathic excellence. Empathic understanding is, in some measure, an acquired skill as well as, in part, a natural ability. Some people do it well; some, not so well. Again, this has long been understood, and has been long argued, particularly, although not exclusively, by some of our most admired ...


The Limits Of Wto Adjudication: Is Compliance The Problem?, Juscelino F. Colares Jan 2011

The Limits Of Wto Adjudication: Is Compliance The Problem?, Juscelino F. Colares

Faculty Publications

Mainstream international trade law scholars have commented positively on the work of World Trade Organization (WTO) adjudicators. This favorable view is both echoed and challenged by empirical scholarship that shows a high disparity between Complainant and Respondent success rates (Complainants win between 8 and 9 percent of the disputes). Regardless of how one interprets these results, mainstream theorists, especially legalists, believe more is to be done to strengthen the system, and they point to instances of member recalcitrance to implement rulings as a serious problem. This article posits that such attempts to strengthen compliance are ill-advised. After discussing prior empirical ...