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ADA

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Accessible Websites And Mobile Applications Under The Ada: The Lack Of Legal Guidelines And What This Means For Businesses And Their Customers, Josephine Meyer Oct 2020

Accessible Websites And Mobile Applications Under The Ada: The Lack Of Legal Guidelines And What This Means For Businesses And Their Customers, Josephine Meyer

Seattle University Law Review SUpra

No abstract provided.


Resolving Tensions Between Disability Rights Law And Covid-19 Mask Policies, Elizabeth Pendo, Robert Gatter, Seema Mohapatra Jul 2020

Resolving Tensions Between Disability Rights Law And Covid-19 Mask Policies, Elizabeth Pendo, Robert Gatter, Seema Mohapatra

All Faculty Scholarship

As states reopen, an increasing number of state and local officials are requiring people to wear face masks while out of the home. Grocery stores, retail outlets, restaurants and other businesses are also announcing their own mask policies, which may differ from public policies. Public health measures to stop the spread of the coronavirus such as wearing masks have the potential to greatly benefit millions of Americans with disabilities, who are particularly vulnerable to the impact of COVID-19. But certain disabilities may make it difficult or inadvisable to wear a mask.

Mask-wearing has become a political flashpoint, putting people with ...


The Art Of Access: Innovative Protests Of An Inaccessible City, Elizabeth F. Emens Jan 2020

The Art Of Access: Innovative Protests Of An Inaccessible City, Elizabeth F. Emens

Faculty Scholarship

This Essay considers inaccessible New York City through the lens of artistic production. The landscape of disability art and protest is vast and wildly diverse. This Essay proposes to capture one slice of this array. From Ellis Avery’s Zodiac of NYC transit elevators, to Shannon Finnegan’s Anti-Stairs Club Lounge at the Vessel in Hudson Yards, to Park McArthur’s work exhibiting the ramps that provided her access to galleries showing her work – these and other creative endeavors offer a unique way in to understanding the problems and potential of inaccessible cities. Legal actions have challenged some of the ...


Uncertainty In Employee Status Across Federal Law, Ryan G. Vacca Sep 2019

Uncertainty In Employee Status Across Federal Law, Ryan G. Vacca

Law Faculty Scholarship

Numerous federal statutes rely on a distinction between employees and independent contractors. Based on a series of Supreme Court decisions from 1968 through 2003, courts and administrative agencies have used a common law multifactor test to draw this distinction. In an effort to enhance predictability and certainty within and across legislation, these cases have rejected a purposive approach in applying the test. But the Supreme Court has never said which, if any, of the factors are the most important in the analysis, nor has anyone determined whether the underlying purpose—enhancing predictability and certainty—has been attained.

This empirical Study ...


A Primer On Disability Discrimination In Higher Education, Laura Rothstein Sep 2019

A Primer On Disability Discrimination In Higher Education, Laura Rothstein

Brandeis School of Law Faculty Scholarship

This article provides an overview of key issues and a focus on some of the most significant and important recent developments that should be given a high priority by university attorneys and higher education administrators and policymakers. It emphasizes the role that administrators responsible for facilitating or coordinating disability services on campus can play in ensuring that faculty members, staff members, and other administrators have the knowledge and tools to ensure access and also to avoid liability to the institution. Major changes in the Trump administration and Congress may signal changes that could affect disability discrimination issues on campus. These ...


Would The Ada Pass Today?: Disability Rights In An Age Of Partisan Polarization, Laura Rothstein Jan 2019

Would The Ada Pass Today?: Disability Rights In An Age Of Partisan Polarization, Laura Rothstein

Brandeis School of Law Faculty Scholarship

The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) was the most significant civil rights legislation enacted since the Civil Rights Act of 1964. It provided comprehensive protection against discrimination for individuals with disabilities in employment, public accommodations, and public services. It built on § 504 of the Rehabilitation Act that provided these protections only to programs receiving federal financial assistance. It afforded broad access to those individuals who had benefitted from the 1975 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. This complex and far-reaching legislation was made possible by a confluence of timing and the right people at the right place at the ...


Knowledge Of Practicing Physicians About Their Legal Obligations When Caring For Patients With Disability, Elizabeth Pendo Jan 2019

Knowledge Of Practicing Physicians About Their Legal Obligations When Caring For Patients With Disability, Elizabeth Pendo

All Faculty Scholarship

doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2018.05060 HEALTH AFFAIRS 38, NO. 4 (2019): 545–553


Permitted Incentives For Workplace Wellness Plans Under The Ada And Gina: The Regulatory Gap, Elizabeth Pendo, Brandon Hall Jan 2019

Permitted Incentives For Workplace Wellness Plans Under The Ada And Gina: The Regulatory Gap, Elizabeth Pendo, Brandon Hall

All Faculty Scholarship

Although workplace wellness plans have been around for decades, they have flourished under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (“PPACA”) into a $6 billion-dollar industry. Under PPACA, a “wellness plan” is a program of health promotion or disease prevention offered by an employer that is designed to promote health or prevent disease and which meets the other applicable requirements of that subsection. Employers look to these programs to promote healthy lifestyles, improve the overall health of employees and beneficiaries, and reduce rising healthcare costs. PPACA’s amendments to the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (“HIPAA”) permit employers to ...


The Future Of Disability Rights Protections For Transgender People, Kevin M. Barry, Jennifer Levi Jan 2019

The Future Of Disability Rights Protections For Transgender People, Kevin M. Barry, Jennifer Levi

Faculty Scholarship

The Americans with Disabilities Act and its predecessor, Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (“Section 504”), protect people from discrimination based on disability, but not if the disability is one of three archaic medical conditions associated with transgender people: “transvestism,” “transsexualism,” and “gender identity disorders not resulting from physical impairments.” This Article describes the origins of transgender exclusion and discusses why a growing number of federal courts find this exclusion does not apply to gender dysphoria, a new and distinct medical diagnosis. Further, the Authors define the future of disability rights protections for transgender people.


Rethinking The Americans With Disabilities Act’S Insurance Safe Harbor, Valarie Blake Nov 2017

Rethinking The Americans With Disabilities Act’S Insurance Safe Harbor, Valarie Blake

Law Faculty Scholarship

Despite the importance of access to healthcare for the disabled, the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) has made little inroads in reducing disability-based discrimination by health insurers in the United States. One reason is undoubtedly the ADA’s insurance safe harbor, which explicitly permits insurers to discriminate on the basis of disability in health insurance so long as the differential treatment is supported by actuarial data and is not just intended to disadvantage the disabled. While the safe harbor’s harms are somewhat limited by the advent of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), they are not entirely neutralized. This article ...


Community Integration Of People With Disabilities: Can Olmstead Protect Against Retrenchment?, Mary Crossley Jan 2017

Community Integration Of People With Disabilities: Can Olmstead Protect Against Retrenchment?, Mary Crossley

Articles

Since the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) in 1990, states have made significant progress in enabling Americans with disabilities to live in their communities, rather than institutions. That progress reflects the combined effect of the Supreme Court’s holding in Olmstead v. L.C. ex rel. Zimring, that states’ failure to provide services to disabled persons in the community may violate the ADA, and amendments to Medicaid that permit states to devote funding to home and community-based services (HCBS). This article considers whether Olmstead and its progeny could act as a check on a potential retrenchment of ...


Analyzing Social Impairments Under Title I Of The Americans With Disabilities Act, Susan Carle Jan 2017

Analyzing Social Impairments Under Title I Of The Americans With Disabilities Act, Susan Carle

Articles in Law Reviews & Other Academic Journals

This Article starts from the important contributions of the neurodiversity movement, which emphasizes the benefits of an expanded view of protecting human difference. These differences include variations in brain structure, behavior, and social functioning. Social impairments are a potential feature of many disabilities covered under the employment antidiscrimination provisions of Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act ("ADA"), but the legal literature has not yet focused on the analytic issues social impairments present. This Article analyzes how the ADA's employment protections should apply in the social impairments context.Congress's enactment of the Americans with Disabilities Act Amendments ...


The Interaction Of The Pregnancy Discrimination Act And The Americans With Disabilities Act After Young V. Ups, Deborah A. Widiss Jan 2017

The Interaction Of The Pregnancy Discrimination Act And The Americans With Disabilities Act After Young V. Ups, Deborah A. Widiss

Articles by Maurer Faculty

Pregnant women sometimes ask employers for accommodations – such as being able to sit on a stool or avoid heavy lifting – to permit them to work safely and productively. In 2015, in Young v. United Parcel Service, the Supreme Court held that the Pregnancy Discrimination Act (PDA) requires courts to scrutinize carefully denial of such requests. The facts in Young arose prior to the effective date of the ADA Amendments Act of 2008 (ADAAA); accordingly, the Court did not address how the ADAAA, which expanded the range of health conditions that qualify as disabilities, affects claims for accommodations under the PDA ...


Use Of Facial Recognition Technology For Medical Purposes: Balancing Privacy With Innovation, Seema Mohapatra Jan 2016

Use Of Facial Recognition Technology For Medical Purposes: Balancing Privacy With Innovation, Seema Mohapatra

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Vexatious Litigants And The Ada: Strategies To Fairly Address The Need To Improve Access For Individuals With Disabilities, Helia Garrido Hull Jan 2016

Vexatious Litigants And The Ada: Strategies To Fairly Address The Need To Improve Access For Individuals With Disabilities, Helia Garrido Hull

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


There’S No Place Like Work: How Modern Technology Is Changing The Judiciary’S Approach To Work-At-Home Arrangements, As An Ada Accommodation,, Benjamin D. Johnson Jan 2015

There’S No Place Like Work: How Modern Technology Is Changing The Judiciary’S Approach To Work-At-Home Arrangements, As An Ada Accommodation,, Benjamin D. Johnson

Law Student Publications

This comment addresses the extent to which the evolving definition of the "workplace" has upset the courts' traditional approach to teleworking as a reasonable accommodation for disabled employees under the ADA and ultimately necessitated changes in the reasonable accommodation framework.


Accidentally On Purpose: Intent In Disability Discrimination Law, Mark Weber Jan 2015

Accidentally On Purpose: Intent In Disability Discrimination Law, Mark Weber

College of Law Faculty

American disability discrimination laws contain few intent requirements. Yet courts frequently demand showings of intent in disability discrimination lawsuits. Intent requirements arose almost by accident: through a false statutory analogy; by repetition of obsolete judicial language; and by doctrine developed to avoid a nonexistent conflict with another law. Demanding that section 504 and Americans with Disabilities Act (“ADA”) claimants show intent imposes a burden not found in those statutes or their interpretive regulations. This Article provides reasons not to impose intent requirements for liability or monetary relief in section 504 and ADA cases concerning reasonable accommodations. It demonstrates that no ...


What Patients With Disabilities Teach Us About The Everyday Ethics Of Health Care, Elizabeth Pendo Jan 2015

What Patients With Disabilities Teach Us About The Everyday Ethics Of Health Care, Elizabeth Pendo

All Faculty Scholarship

In Healers: Extraordinary Clinicians at Work, by David Schenck and Dr. Larry Churchill, and in What PatientsTeach: The Everyday Ethics of Health Care, their follow-up with Joseph Fanning, the authors look at theeveryday experience of health care and the relationships that shape it. This article expands upon that inquiry by exploring the experiences and challenges of patients with disabilities and by exploring what patients withdisabilities can teach us about the everyday ethics of health care.

The authors of What Patients Teach provide a framework in which to focus on the everyday experience ofhealth care from the perspective of patients. This ...


Mental Illness In The Library: Ten Tips To Better Serve Patrons, Nick Harrell, Cindy Guyer Jan 2015

Mental Illness In The Library: Ten Tips To Better Serve Patrons, Nick Harrell, Cindy Guyer

Articles

No abstract provided.


Retaliation And The Reasonable Person, Sandra F. Sperino Jan 2015

Retaliation And The Reasonable Person, Sandra F. Sperino

Faculty Articles and Other Publications

When a worker complains about discrimination, federal law is supposed to protect that worker from later retaliation. Recent scholarly attention focuses on how courts limit retaliation claims by narrowly framing the causation inquiry. A larger threat to retaliation law is developing in the lower courts. Courts are declaring a wide swath of conduct as insufficiently serious to constitute retaliation.

Many courts hold that it is legal for an employer to threaten to fire a worker, to place the worker on administrative leave, or to negatively evaluate the worker because she complained about discriminatory conduct. Even if the worker has evidence ...


The Americans With Disabilities Act At 25: The Highest Expression Of American Values, Lawrence O. Gostin Jan 2015

The Americans With Disabilities Act At 25: The Highest Expression Of American Values, Lawrence O. Gostin

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Enacted in 1990, the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is a watershed piece of legislation which enshrines in law a social promise of equality and inclusion into all facets of life, while offering an inspiring model that much of the world has come to embrace. This editorial launches JAMA’s theme issue on the 25th anniversary of the ADA by detailing the Act’s history, main provisions, and far-reaching impacts on health, providing a context for the three Original Investigations and six scholarly Viewpoints that make up the theme issue. The editorial begins with a discussion of the ADA’s ...


The Disability Cliff, Samuel R. Bagenstos Jan 2015

The Disability Cliff, Samuel R. Bagenstos

Articles

We’re pretty good about caring for our disabled citizens—as long as they’re children. It’s time to put equal thought into their adulthoods.


Do You Believe He Can Fly? Royce White And Reasonable Accommodations Under The Americans With Disabilities Act For Nba Players With Anxiety Disorder And Fear Of Flying, Michael Mccann Jan 2014

Do You Believe He Can Fly? Royce White And Reasonable Accommodations Under The Americans With Disabilities Act For Nba Players With Anxiety Disorder And Fear Of Flying, Michael Mccann

Law Faculty Scholarship

This Article examines the legal ramifications of Royce White, a basketball player with general anxiety disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder, playing in the NBA. White's conditions cause him to have a fear of flying, thus making it difficult to play in the NBA. This subject is without precedent in sports law and, because of the unique aspects of an NBA playing career, lacks clear analogy to other employment circumstances. This dispute also illuminates broader legal and policy issues in the relationship between employment and mental illness.

This Article argues that White would likely fail in a lawsuit against an ...


Re-Evaluating The Role Of Companion Animals In The Era Of The Aging Boomer, Rebecca J. Huss Jan 2014

Re-Evaluating The Role Of Companion Animals In The Era Of The Aging Boomer, Rebecca J. Huss

Law Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Growing Ideas - Laws That Support Early Childhood Education For All, University Of Maine Center For Community Inclusion And Disability Studies Jan 2014

Growing Ideas - Laws That Support Early Childhood Education For All, University Of Maine Center For Community Inclusion And Disability Studies

Early Childhood Resources

State and federal laws protect the rights of children with disabilities. These laws support the inclusion of children with disabilities in care and education settings. Care and education professionals should be familiar with these laws.


The Tort Label, Sandra F. Sperino Jan 2014

The Tort Label, Sandra F. Sperino

Faculty Articles and Other Publications

Courts and commentators often label federal discrimination statutes as torts. Since the late 1980s, the courts increasingly applied tort concepts to these statutes. This Article discusses how courts placed employment discrimination law within the organizational umbrella of tort law without examining whether the two areas share enough theoretical and doctrinal affinities.

While discrimination statutes are torts in some general sense that they do not arise out of criminal law and are not solely contractual, it is far from clear that these statutes are enough like traditional torts to justify the reflexive and automatic use of tort law. Employment discrimination statutes ...


Advocates, Federal Agencies, And The Education Of Children With Disabilities, Eloise Pasachoff Jan 2014

Advocates, Federal Agencies, And The Education Of Children With Disabilities, Eloise Pasachoff

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The aim of this essay, prepared for a symposium on dispute resolution in special education held at The Ohio State University Moritz College of Law in February 2014, is to highlight ways that advocates for children with disabilities can use federal agencies to improve the implementation and enforcement of federal laws protecting children with disabilities in schools—that is, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, and the Americans with Disabilities Act as it relates to schools.

One can spend a lot of time engaging with the contemporary public conversation about the law ...


Parents With Mental Disabilities: The Legal Landscape, Dale Margolin Cecka Jan 2013

Parents With Mental Disabilities: The Legal Landscape, Dale Margolin Cecka

Law Faculty Publications

The ADA, coupled with federal and state child welfare laws, provides broad brush strokes for advocates of parents with mental disabilities and their children. To effectuate parents’ rights, child welfare professionals must work with the parents themselves, as well as with other state departments, to form service plans that are tailored for the success of each individual family.


Gilbert Redux: The Interaction Of The Pregnancy Discrimination Act And The Amended Americans With Disabilities Act, Deborah Widiss Jan 2013

Gilbert Redux: The Interaction Of The Pregnancy Discrimination Act And The Amended Americans With Disabilities Act, Deborah Widiss

Articles by Maurer Faculty

Pregnancy — a health condition that only affects women — raises complicated questions regarding the interaction of employment policies addressing sex discrimination and those addressing disability. The Pregnancy Discrimination Act (PDA), enacted in 1978, mandates that employers “shall” treat pregnant employees “the same for all employment-related purposes” as other employees “similar in their ability or inability to work.” Despite the clarity of this language, some courts permit employers to treat pregnant employees less favorably than employees with other health conditions, so long as the employer does so pursuant to a “pregnancy-blind” policy such as accommodating only workplace injuries or disabilities protected under ...


The Sins Of Hosanna-Tabor, Leslie C. Griffin Jan 2013

The Sins Of Hosanna-Tabor, Leslie C. Griffin

Scholarly Works

The Supreme Court has lost sight of individual religious freedom. In Hosanna-Tabor Evangelical Lutheran Church & School v. EEOC, the Court for the first time recognized the ministerial exception, a court-created doctrine that holds that the First Amendment requires the dismissal of many employment discrimination cases against religious employers. The Court ruled unanimously that Cheryl Perich, an elementary school teacher who was fired after she tried to return to school from disability leave, could not pursue an antidiscrimination lawsuit against her employer.

This Article criticizes Hosanna-Tabor as a profound misinterpretation of the First Amendment. The Court mistakenly protected religious institutions' religious ...