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Unpacking Patent Assertion Entities (Paes), Christopher A. Cotropia Dec 2014

Unpacking Patent Assertion Entities (Paes), Christopher A. Cotropia

Law Faculty Publications

In Part I, we explain several theories on why PAEs are beneficial or detrimental to the patent system. These theories outline distinct categories of patent holders who enforce their patents. Transforming the distinct categories into a coding scheme, we detail in Part II the methodology we used to generate the dataset. Part III provides descriptive statistics of 2010 and 2012 patent litigation. We discuss implications of the data, including points of disagreement between our data and the data of others, in Part IV. We also describe some areas of future study, many of which we are presently undertaking. Finally, we ...


Education & Practice (Newsletter Of The Section On Education Of Lawyer, Virginia State Bar) - V. 23, No. 1 (Fall 2014), Dale Margolin Cecka Oct 2014

Education & Practice (Newsletter Of The Section On Education Of Lawyer, Virginia State Bar) - V. 23, No. 1 (Fall 2014), Dale Margolin Cecka

Law Faculty Publications

Contents

Learning Styles and Problem-Solving: What Difference Does Our Teaching Make?, by Eric DeGroff, Professor of Law at Regent University

Chair’s Column, by Professor Jim Moliterno

Section’s Website Update

Law Faculty News

News and Events Around the Commonwealth

CALL FOR NOMINATIONS William R. Rakes Leadership in Education Award

2014-2015 Board of Governors


Nondiscrimination In Insurance: The Next Chapter, Mary L. Heen Oct 2014

Nondiscrimination In Insurance: The Next Chapter, Mary L. Heen

Law Faculty Publications

Modern federal civil rights legislation prohibits race and gender discrimination in many important sectors of the American economy, including employment, education, public accommodations, housing, and credit. No comparable comprehensive federal civil rights legislation bans race and gender discrimination in the business of insurance-a business at the core of legal and social organization, culture, and finance. Why not?


Marriage Pluralism: Taxing Marriage After Windsor, David J. Herzig Oct 2014

Marriage Pluralism: Taxing Marriage After Windsor, David J. Herzig

Law Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Email, Metadata, And Clouds, Oh My! Recent Changes To The Model Rules Of Professional Conduct, Joyce Manna Janto Aug 2014

Email, Metadata, And Clouds, Oh My! Recent Changes To The Model Rules Of Professional Conduct, Joyce Manna Janto

Law Faculty Publications

A discussion of how the 2012 revisions to the Model Rules of Professional Conduct affect the attorney's duties in handling email: encryption, storage, metadata, and confidentiality.


An Open Access Distribution Tariff: Removing Barriers To Innovation On The Smart Grid, Joel B. Eisen Aug 2014

An Open Access Distribution Tariff: Removing Barriers To Innovation On The Smart Grid, Joel B. Eisen

Law Faculty Publications

This Article proposes that the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) consider promulgating an Open Access Distribution Tariff (OADT) to open the nation's electric grid to new products and services at the consumer (distribution) level. Design of the OADT would be comparable to the Open Access Transmission Tariff that the FERC has used previously to open the nation's transmission wires. This Article argues that an OADT is necessary to create a smart electricity network that would be national, multimodal, and interactive. There is no smart electricity network at present, and there are numerous barriers to the development of open ...


Tackling Climate Change: Don't Forget Energy Efficency, Joel B. Eisen Jul 2014

Tackling Climate Change: Don't Forget Energy Efficency, Joel B. Eisen

Law Faculty Publications

Todd S. Aagaard and Joel B. Eisen write that one option available for states under the EPA's high-profile Clean Power Plan is relying on greater efficiency in energy usage and other demand-side strategies such as "demand response," which involves programs to reduce consumption at specific times of high electricity demand. However, a federal court recently cast a cloud over demand response's future.


Garbage Everywhere What Refuse In India's Streets Reveals About America's Hidden Trash Problem, Noah M. Sachs Jun 2014

Garbage Everywhere What Refuse In India's Streets Reveals About America's Hidden Trash Problem, Noah M. Sachs

Law Faculty Publications

In early 2014, I arrived in the southern Indian city of Bangalore, which just two years before had been paralyzed by a garbage-worker strike and a severe shortage of landfill space. The municipal government had responded to public anger over uncollected trash with decrees on waste segregation and composting that went unenforced, and by the time I showed up, not much had changed. In the city that bills itself as India’s Silicon Valley, there are still putrid piles of garbage all around town. Bangaloreans accept open dumps in their neighborhoods as a fixture of the landscape, to be seen ...


Food Labeling Litigation: Exposing Gaps In The Fda's Resources And Regulatory Authority, Nicole Negowetti Jun 2014

Food Labeling Litigation: Exposing Gaps In The Fda's Resources And Regulatory Authority, Nicole Negowetti

Law Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Education & Practice (Newsletter Of The Section On Education Of Lawyer, Virginia State Bar) - V. 22, No. 2 (Spring 2014), Dale Margolin Cecka Apr 2014

Education & Practice (Newsletter Of The Section On Education Of Lawyer, Virginia State Bar) - V. 22, No. 2 (Spring 2014), Dale Margolin Cecka

Law Faculty Publications

Contents

The Richmond Legal Development Center: Virginia’s First Legal Incubator, by Eppa Hunton VI, the Managing Director of the Richmond Legal Development Center

From Crisis to Innovation, by Jeffrey Brauch, the Dean of Regent University School of Law

Chair’s Column, by Professor A. Benjamin Spencer of Washington and Lee School of Law

Section’s Website Update

Virginia Supreme Court Senior Justice Elizabeth B. Lacy Receives Leadership in Education Award

Law Faculty News

News and Events Around the Commonwealth

2013-2014 Board of Governors


A Strategy To Protect Virginians From Toxic Chemicals, Noah M. Sachs Jan 2014

A Strategy To Protect Virginians From Toxic Chemicals, Noah M. Sachs

Law Faculty Publications

This report is divided into two main parts. Part I of this report details the major sources of toxic chemical releases in Virginia. Part II then discusses our recommendations in more detail, outlining a series of reforms that would help the Commonwealth police and reduce the risks from toxic chemicals.


"Why Won't My Homeowners Insurance Cover My Loss?": Reassessing Property Insurance Concurrent Causation Coverage Disputes, Peter N. Swisher Jan 2014

"Why Won't My Homeowners Insurance Cover My Loss?": Reassessing Property Insurance Concurrent Causation Coverage Disputes, Peter N. Swisher

Law Faculty Publications

Property insurance coverage disputes can be extremely complex cases when there are multiple concurrent causes in a causal chain of events and when some of these concurrent causes are covered under the policy language but other concurrent causes are excluded from coverage. To complicate matters enormously, there are no fewer than three different judicial approaches attempting to resolve this concurrent causation interpretive conundrum. Over the past two decades, a number of property insurance companies have attempted to address this interpretive problem contractually by inserting so-called anti-concurrent causation clauses into their property insurance policy language. But these anti-concurrent causation clauses have ...


Obligations And Potential Liabilities Of Attorneys In Public And Private Offerings, William O. Fisher Jan 2014

Obligations And Potential Liabilities Of Attorneys In Public And Private Offerings, William O. Fisher

Law Faculty Publications

This chapter examines issues that attorneys face when performing services for developing companies, with particular focus on private offerings and the initial public offering ("IPO"). In private and public offerings, both the securities laws and the issuer's interests mandate that the offering document present full and fair disclosure of the issuer's business and financial condition. In assisting an issuer, attorneys share this goal; and can face liability if they err when providing services in such a transaction.


Patent Claim Interpretation Review: Deference Or Correction Driven?, Christopher A. Cotropia Jan 2014

Patent Claim Interpretation Review: Deference Or Correction Driven?, Christopher A. Cotropia

Law Faculty Publications

This Article examines the Federal Circuit's review of claim constructions by lower tribunals to determine whether the Federal Circuit defers to lower court constructions or is making its own, independent determination as to the "correct" construction and ultimate result in the case.


From The 2014 World Cup To The 2016 Olympics: Brazil's Role In The Global Anti-Corruption Movement, Andrew B. Spalding Jan 2014

From The 2014 World Cup To The 2016 Olympics: Brazil's Role In The Global Anti-Corruption Movement, Andrew B. Spalding

Law Faculty Publications

This Comment is the first in a series of publications on Brazil's efforts and, we hope, its successes in reducing corruption in the 2016 Olympic Games. It is written as part of a course at the University of Richmond School of Law entitled "Brazil, Corruption, and the 2016 Summer Olympics"-the co-authors are eight students and their pro- fessor. While the ultimate product will be a comprehensive analysis of the role of Brazilian law in controlling corruption, this Comment has a more modest purpose. It will discuss the various trends and forces that have converged on Brazil's hosting ...


Reports Of Cases In The Court Of Exchequer In The Time Of King George I (1714 To 1727), William Hamilton Bryson Jan 2014

Reports Of Cases In The Court Of Exchequer In The Time Of King George I (1714 To 1727), William Hamilton Bryson

Law Faculty Publications

This book publishes all of the known law reports from the Court of Exchequer from the reign of King George I, 1714 to 1726, including those in manuscript and those already in print. Most of the ones in print are the short and not very informative reports by William Bunbury. The much more substantial Exchequer reports of Philip Ward and Thomas Browne, which were heretofore unpublished manuscripts, have been conflated with Bunbury's reports and some other miscellaneous case reports.


The Beginning Of The End Of Coverture: A Reappraisal Of The Married Woman's Separate Estate, Allison Anna Tait Jan 2014

The Beginning Of The End Of Coverture: A Reappraisal Of The Married Woman's Separate Estate, Allison Anna Tait

Law Faculty Publications

Before statutory enactments in the nineteenth century granted married women a limited set of property rights, the separate estate trust was, by and large, the sole form of married women's property. Although the separate estate allowed married women to circumvent the law of coverture, historians have generally viewed the separate estate as an ineffective vehicle for extending property rights to married women. In this Article, I reappraise the separate estate's utility and argue that Chancery's separate estate jurisprudence during the eighteenth century was a critical first step in the establishment of married women as property-holders. Separate estates ...


The Arbitral Tribunal: Selection And Replacement Of Arbitrators, Chiara Giorgetti Jan 2014

The Arbitral Tribunal: Selection And Replacement Of Arbitrators, Chiara Giorgetti

Law Faculty Publications

The great majority of international investment arbitrations are decided by a three-member arbitral panel, where each party selects one arbitrator, and the presiding arbitrator is selected either by agreement of the parties, the party-appointed arbitrators, or, more often, by a neutral appointing authority. Their selection is not only a characteristic feature of international investment arbitration, but also one of the most important and delicate acts taken by the parties during the proceedings. Indeed, as frequent arbitrator Professor William W. Park noted, while “in real estate the three key elements are ‘location, location, location,’ . . . in arbitration the applicable trinity is ‘arbitrator ...


Virginia Practice Series: Criminal Offenses And Defenses, Ronald J. Bacigal Jan 2014

Virginia Practice Series: Criminal Offenses And Defenses, Ronald J. Bacigal

Law Faculty Publications

In this 2014-2015 edition, the statutory law is covered through the 2014 Session of the General Assembly. Decisions of the United States Supreme Court are included from the 2014-2015 term. Decisions of the U.S. Court of Appeals and the District Courts in Virginia are issued through August 1, 2014.


Predicting A Heart Attack: The Fundamental Opacity Of Extreme Liquidity Risk, William O. Fisher Jan 2014

Predicting A Heart Attack: The Fundamental Opacity Of Extreme Liquidity Risk, William O. Fisher

Law Faculty Publications

After 150 years of business, Lehman Brothers ran out of cash and credit and filed for bankruptcy on September 15, 2008. As a publicly traded company, Lehman had filed all the reports required by U.S. securities law. But the hundreds of pages of words and numbers provided no timely warning of lurking liquidity death. The risks of triparty repurchase financing and the endgame Lehman would have to play if a selfmagnifying credit drain hit were, as it turned out, inherently opaque. Disclosure, the traditional securities law “fix,” was destined to fail in this case, raising the question of whether ...


Still Aiming At The Wrong Target: A Case For Business Method And Software Patents From A Business Perspective, Kristen Jakobsen Osenga Jan 2014

Still Aiming At The Wrong Target: A Case For Business Method And Software Patents From A Business Perspective, Kristen Jakobsen Osenga

Law Faculty Publications

In Part I, I briefly discuss the rise and recent fall of business method patents. Part II covers the scholarly literature discussing business method and software patents. In Part III, I explain the proxy argument that I have made elsewhere and show how it plays in the recent decisions surrounding the patent eligibility of business method and software inventions. I then explain why the analysis of business method and software patents in the literature uses the same proxy-type arguments to avoid more difficult questions of patentability and policy. Finally, I conclude by explaining how business method and software patents, if ...


Debugging Software's Schemas, Kristen Osenga Jan 2014

Debugging Software's Schemas, Kristen Osenga

Law Faculty Publications

The analytical framework being used to assess the patent eligibility of software and computer-related inventions is fraught with errors, or bugs, in the system. A bug in a schema, or framework, in computer science may cause the system or software to produce unexpected results or shut down altogether. Similarly, errors in the patent eligibility framework are causing unexpected results, as well as calls to shut down patent eligibility for software and computer- related inventions. There are two general schemas that are shaping current discussions about software and computer-related invention patents-that software patents are generally bad (the bad patent schema) and ...


Formerly Manufacturing Entities: Piercing The Patent Troll Rhetoric, Kristen Jakobsen Osenga Jan 2014

Formerly Manufacturing Entities: Piercing The Patent Troll Rhetoric, Kristen Jakobsen Osenga

Law Faculty Publications

Everyone hates patent trolls-those companies that "hijack somebody else's idea" and use the patents to "extort some money" from companies that actually make things. But, despite the rhetoric, not all patent trolls are created equal. This Article is the first to focus on one type of patent troll the formerly manufacturing entity. These patent trolls used to make or do something in commerce, but now derive all or a significant portion of their income through licensing their intellectual property. Using case study analysis, this Article demonstrates that formerly manufacturing entities do not impose the harms associated with patent trolls ...


Not Just Anna Nicole Smith: Cleavage In Bankruptcy, David G. Epstein Jan 2014

Not Just Anna Nicole Smith: Cleavage In Bankruptcy, David G. Epstein

Law Faculty Publications

This is an essay about the unwarranted erosion of two basic bankruptcy principles:the cleavage effect of a debtor's filing of a bankruptcy petition and the equality of treatment of prepetition unsecured claims. These are two of the most fundamental bankruptcy concepts. First courts and then Congress have fashioned rules favoring the prepetition unsecured claims of vendors and lessors that are inconsistent with these concepts. We explore the origins of such favored treatment, question the commonly offered policy justifications, and argue that the prepetition unsecured claims of vendors and lessors generally should be afforded the same treatment in bankruptcy ...


The Compensation Myth And U.C.C. Section 2-713, David Frisch Jan 2014

The Compensation Myth And U.C.C. Section 2-713, David Frisch

Law Faculty Publications

This article seeks to bring greater discipline to the analysis of market damages by probing two basic assumptions that are routinely made in discussions of section 2-713: (1) that overcompensation concerns justify judicial interference with the buyer's choice of remedy; and (2) that the relevant market price, in all cases, is the market price that the aggrieved buyer would be required to pay if she wished to make a substitute purchase of goods elsewhere.


Considering Patricia Millett For The D.C. Circuit, Carl W. Tobias Jan 2014

Considering Patricia Millett For The D.C. Circuit, Carl W. Tobias

Law Faculty Publications

On June 4, Obama nominated three individuals: Patricia Millett, who has argued 32 Supreme Court appeals, Cornelia Pillard, who has won landmark High Court victories, and Robert Wilkins, who had served as a D.C. District Court judge for three years. The court’s allegedly smaller caseloads prompted Republicans to halt yes or no votes for all the nominees. But because well-qualified, moderate nominees warrant thorough consideration and final ballots, their Senate review deserves analysis, which this paper conducts by emphasizing Millett. It first surveys the nominee’s process and then shows how her evaluation concluded.


Filling The District Of Arizona Vacancies, Carl W. Tobias Jan 2014

Filling The District Of Arizona Vacancies, Carl W. Tobias

Law Faculty Publications

The judicial vacancy crisis must end. The federal bench has experienced nearly a ten percent vacancy rate over an unprecedented four and a half-year period. The substantial number and protracted character of those openings have imposed numerous detrimental effects. These phenomena have delayed the scheduling of jury trials in many civil cases and even propelled termination of some litigation because the Speedy Trial Act requires that criminal matters have precedence. Indeed, the emergency designation has meant that some criminal proceedings were delayed in the Arizona District. The vacancy crisis places additional pressure on sitting judges, particularly the eight senior judges ...


The Dominance Of Teams In The Production Of Legal Knowledge, Christopher A. Cotropia Jan 2014

The Dominance Of Teams In The Production Of Legal Knowledge, Christopher A. Cotropia

Law Faculty Publications

While collaboration is familiar to some legal researchers, the field, for the most part, does not seem to implicate the large-scale complexity and cost that has become associated with big science. These logistical differences, combined with a very strong cultural preference in legal academic circles for solitary work, could potentially keep team research from dominating the production of legal knowledge to the same extent that it has come to dominate the production of knowledge in other areas. On the other hand, the dominance of team research outputs and a shift towards team research has been observed in social sciences and ...


Judge Posner, Judge Wilkinson, And Judicial Critique Of Constitutional Theory, Kevin C. Walsh Jan 2014

Judge Posner, Judge Wilkinson, And Judicial Critique Of Constitutional Theory, Kevin C. Walsh

Law Faculty Publications

Judge Richard Posner's well-known view is that constitutional theory is useless. And Judge J Harvie Wilkinson III has lambasted constitutional theory for the way in which its "cosmic" aspirations threaten democratic self-governance. Many other judges hold similar views. And yet both Posner and Wilkinson-in the popular press, in law review articles, and in books-have advocated what appear to be their own theories of how to judge in constitutional cases. Judicial pragmatism for Posner and judicial restraint for Wilkinson seem to be substitutes for originalism, living constitutionalism, political process theory, and so on. But both Posner and Wilkinson also deny ...


The Supreme Court Chipping Away At Title Vii: Strengthening It Or Killing It?, Henry L. Chambers, Jr. Jan 2014

The Supreme Court Chipping Away At Title Vii: Strengthening It Or Killing It?, Henry L. Chambers, Jr.

Law Faculty Publications

Whether the Court's chipping away at Title VII is an attempt to make Title VII into a 21st century diamond, or an attempt to make it a 21st century pile of diamond dust, or merely an attempt to interpret Title VII consistent with its text is a matter of opinion. This Article explores how the Court is interpreting and reinterpreting Title VII and necessarily considers whether the Court's reinterpretation will likely reinvigorate or damage Title VII' s broad goal of workplace equality. This Article tentatively considers what may be next for Title VII. Part I briefly discusses Title ...