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Unpacking Patent Assertion Entities (Paes), Christopher A. Cotropia Dec 2014

Unpacking Patent Assertion Entities (Paes), Christopher A. Cotropia

Law Faculty Publications

In Part I, we explain several theories on why PAEs are beneficial or detrimental to the patent system. These theories outline distinct categories of patent holders who enforce their patents. Transforming the distinct categories into a coding scheme, we detail in Part II the methodology we used to generate the dataset. Part III provides descriptive statistics of 2010 and 2012 patent litigation. We discuss implications of the data, including points of disagreement between our data and the data of others, in Part IV. We also describe some areas of future study, many of which we are presently undertaking. Finally, we ...


Nondiscrimination In Insurance: The Next Chapter, Mary L. Heen Oct 2014

Nondiscrimination In Insurance: The Next Chapter, Mary L. Heen

Law Faculty Publications

Modern federal civil rights legislation prohibits race and gender discrimination in many important sectors of the American economy, including employment, education, public accommodations, housing, and credit. No comparable comprehensive federal civil rights legislation bans race and gender discrimination in the business of insurance-a business at the core of legal and social organization, culture, and finance. Why not?


Education & Practice (Newsletter Of The Section On Education Of Lawyer, Virginia State Bar) - V. 23, No. 1 (Fall 2014), Dale Margolin Cecka Oct 2014

Education & Practice (Newsletter Of The Section On Education Of Lawyer, Virginia State Bar) - V. 23, No. 1 (Fall 2014), Dale Margolin Cecka

Law Faculty Publications

Contents

Learning Styles and Problem-Solving: What Difference Does Our Teaching Make?, by Eric DeGroff, Professor of Law at Regent University

Chair’s Column, by Professor Jim Moliterno

Section’s Website Update

Law Faculty News

News and Events Around the Commonwealth

CALL FOR NOMINATIONS William R. Rakes Leadership in Education Award

2014-2015 Board of Governors


From Intent To Effect: Richmond, Virginia, And The Protracted Struggle For Voting Rights, 1965–1977, Julian Maxwell Hayter Oct 2014

From Intent To Effect: Richmond, Virginia, And The Protracted Struggle For Voting Rights, 1965–1977, Julian Maxwell Hayter

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

Twelve years after the ratification of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 [VRA], Richmond, Virginia elected a historic majority black city council. The 5-4 majority quickly appointed an African American lawyer named Henry Marsh, III to the mayoralty. Marsh, a nationally celebrated civil rights litigator, was not only the city’s first black mayor, but the council election of 1977 was also Richmond’s first since 1970. In 1972, a federal district court used the VRA’s preclearance clause in Section 5 to place a moratorium on council contests. This moratorium lasted until the Supreme Court and the Department of ...


Email, Metadata, And Clouds, Oh My! Recent Changes To The Model Rules Of Professional Conduct, Joyce Manna Janto Aug 2014

Email, Metadata, And Clouds, Oh My! Recent Changes To The Model Rules Of Professional Conduct, Joyce Manna Janto

Law Faculty Publications

A discussion of how the 2012 revisions to the Model Rules of Professional Conduct affect the attorney's duties in handling email: encryption, storage, metadata, and confidentiality.


An Open Access Distribution Tariff: Removing Barriers To Innovation On The Smart Grid, Joel B. Eisen Aug 2014

An Open Access Distribution Tariff: Removing Barriers To Innovation On The Smart Grid, Joel B. Eisen

Law Faculty Publications

This Article proposes that the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) consider promulgating an Open Access Distribution Tariff (OADT) to open the nation's electric grid to new products and services at the consumer (distribution) level. Design of the OADT would be comparable to the Open Access Transmission Tariff that the FERC has used previously to open the nation's transmission wires. This Article argues that an OADT is necessary to create a smart electricity network that would be national, multimodal, and interactive. There is no smart electricity network at present, and there are numerous barriers to the development of open ...


Tackling Climate Change: Don't Forget Energy Efficency, Joel B. Eisen Jul 2014

Tackling Climate Change: Don't Forget Energy Efficency, Joel B. Eisen

Law Faculty Publications

Todd S. Aagaard and Joel B. Eisen write that one option available for states under the EPA's high-profile Clean Power Plan is relying on greater efficiency in energy usage and other demand-side strategies such as "demand response," which involves programs to reduce consumption at specific times of high electricity demand. However, a federal court recently cast a cloud over demand response's future.


Garbage Everywhere What Refuse In India's Streets Reveals About America's Hidden Trash Problem, Noah M. Sachs Jun 2014

Garbage Everywhere What Refuse In India's Streets Reveals About America's Hidden Trash Problem, Noah M. Sachs

Law Faculty Publications

In early 2014, I arrived in the southern Indian city of Bangalore, which just two years before had been paralyzed by a garbage-worker strike and a severe shortage of landfill space. The municipal government had responded to public anger over uncollected trash with decrees on waste segregation and composting that went unenforced, and by the time I showed up, not much had changed. In the city that bills itself as India’s Silicon Valley, there are still putrid piles of garbage all around town. Bangaloreans accept open dumps in their neighborhoods as a fixture of the landscape, to be seen ...


Education & Practice (Newsletter Of The Section On Education Of Lawyer, Virginia State Bar) - V. 22, No. 2 (Spring 2014), Dale Margolin Cecka Apr 2014

Education & Practice (Newsletter Of The Section On Education Of Lawyer, Virginia State Bar) - V. 22, No. 2 (Spring 2014), Dale Margolin Cecka

Law Faculty Publications

Contents

The Richmond Legal Development Center: Virginia’s First Legal Incubator, by Eppa Hunton VI, the Managing Director of the Richmond Legal Development Center

From Crisis to Innovation, by Jeffrey Brauch, the Dean of Regent University School of Law

Chair’s Column, by Professor A. Benjamin Spencer of Washington and Lee School of Law

Section’s Website Update

Virginia Supreme Court Senior Justice Elizabeth B. Lacy Receives Leadership in Education Award

Law Faculty News

News and Events Around the Commonwealth

2013-2014 Board of Governors


"Screening" The Poor: The Legality Of Drug Testing For Welfare Benefits, Jacquelyn Bolen Jan 2014

"Screening" The Poor: The Legality Of Drug Testing For Welfare Benefits, Jacquelyn Bolen

Law Student Publications

On March 8, 2014, at the conclusion of the 2014 Virginia General Assembly regular session, Virginia joined at least 17 other states that, in this year alone, have introduced proposals to screen or test applicants for illegal substances prior to obtaining public assistance.1 Following the enactment of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, which permitted states to conduct drug testing as part of the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program, states began proposing drug screenings for applicants of public welfare benefits.2 Despite a 2003 Sixth Circuit decision holding that suspicionless drug testing is ...


The Tangled Web: A Case Against New Generic Top-Level Domains, Joseph P. Smith Iii Jan 2014

The Tangled Web: A Case Against New Generic Top-Level Domains, Joseph P. Smith Iii

Law Student Publications

This article’s purpose is to provide a general understanding of the legal and financial implications of the new generic top-level domains. By looking at the history and functionality of generic top-level domains, the reader will hopefully have the requisite background to understand the implications of adding new top-level domains.


America's (Not So) Golden Door: Advocating For Awarding Full Workplace Injury Recovery To Undocumented Workers, D. Paul Holdsworth Jan 2014

America's (Not So) Golden Door: Advocating For Awarding Full Workplace Injury Recovery To Undocumented Workers, D. Paul Holdsworth

Law Student Publications

This comment argues that awarding full damages to illegal immigrants who suffer workplace injuries better serves the United States' federal immigration objectives.


Administrative Law, John R. Mohrmann Jan 2014

Administrative Law, John R. Mohrmann

Law Student Publications

This article is a report of certain developments during the last two years relating to the Virginia Administrative Process Act ("the VAPA''), which governs rulemaking and adjudication of cases by state agencies as well as judicial review of both.


Virginia's Gap Between Punishment And Culpability: Re-Examining Self-Defense Law And Battered Woman's Syndrome, Kendall Hamilton Jan 2014

Virginia's Gap Between Punishment And Culpability: Re-Examining Self-Defense Law And Battered Woman's Syndrome, Kendall Hamilton

Law Student Publications

This comment argues that in order for Virginia's criminal justice system to properly punish women who kill their abusers, effectively restoring their right to self-defend when necessary, Virginia must make two fundamental changes to its self-defense laws. First, Virginia's criminal justice system must advocate for the admission of expert testimony relating to battered woman's syndrome ("BWS"). This reform must be uniformly applied throughout our court system. Second, as Virginia's self-defense laws require both a reasonable fear and an overt act, the subjective standard for reasonable fear must also extend to the overt act requirement. This comment ...


New Affirmative Defense To The Fcpa For Countries Exiting Major Internal Strife, Chris Rohde Jan 2014

New Affirmative Defense To The Fcpa For Countries Exiting Major Internal Strife, Chris Rohde

Law Student Publications

This paper examines whether the current exception to the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA), or the affirmative defenses provided by the FCPA, allow American companies to be this positive influence. Part I examines the background of the FCPA, the current exception and affirmative defenses, and the recent increase in enforcement. Part II examines the issue of whether the current exceptions and affirmative defenses permit US companies to invest in countries currently exiting major internal strife. 4 Unfortunately, neither the exception nor the affirmative defenses provide companies the leeway necessary to enter these markets without serious risk of running afoul of ...


Vape Away: Why A Minimalist Regulatory Structure Is The Best Option For Fda E-Cigarette Regulation, Nick Dantonio Jan 2014

Vape Away: Why A Minimalist Regulatory Structure Is The Best Option For Fda E-Cigarette Regulation, Nick Dantonio

Law Student Publications

This comment argues that the FDA should regulate ecigarettes, but in doing so, it should take a minimalist approach to regulation. Instead of continuing its attempts to regulate tobacco products under the drug and device provisions of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act ("FDCA"), an incredibly stringent statute, the FDA should focus its efforts under the Tobacco Control Act ("TCA"), which is tailored specifically to regulate tobacco products. While the FDA has extensive regulatory options under the TCA, much of this authority should not be applied to ecigarettes. Part II will provide background information on ecigarettes generally as well ...


Lighting A Fire Under Free Speech: The Fda's Graphic Attempts To Reduce Smoking Rates, Ashley Peterson Jan 2014

Lighting A Fire Under Free Speech: The Fda's Graphic Attempts To Reduce Smoking Rates, Ashley Peterson

Law Student Publications

This article explores whether a graphic warning is possible or preferable in the government's fight against tobacco. Part II outlines a brief history of tobacco regulation in the United States. Part III turns to the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA) and the FDA's initial rulemaking process. Part IV outlines the doctrine of commercial free speech, and Part V discusses why the Rule faced insurmountable challenges under this jurisprudence. Part VI explores how the FDA may overcome these hurdles in its future rulemaking, while Part VII discusses alternative methods through which the government can pursue its ...


Private Enforcement Of Trips By Applying The Eu Law Principles Of Direct Effect And State Liability, Saud Aldawsari Jan 2014

Private Enforcement Of Trips By Applying The Eu Law Principles Of Direct Effect And State Liability, Saud Aldawsari

Law Student Publications

This comment is divided into three sections. Part I introduces the World Trad Organization (WTO) generally and analyzes the Trade Related Agreement on Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) agreement specifically. Part II discusses the proposed theory and its basis. It then introduces Novartis. The comment then explores the relevant EU laws and analyzes the jurisprudence of Direct Effect and State Liability. Part III applies EU law to Novartis.


Extrinsic Evidence, Parol Evidence, And The Parol Evidence Rule: A Call For Courts To Use The Reasoning Of The Restatements Rather Than The Rhetoric Of Common Law, Timothy Archer, Shalayne Davis, David G. Epstein Jan 2014

Extrinsic Evidence, Parol Evidence, And The Parol Evidence Rule: A Call For Courts To Use The Reasoning Of The Restatements Rather Than The Rhetoric Of Common Law, Timothy Archer, Shalayne Davis, David G. Epstein

Law Student Publications

This article is an example of what Professor Richard Epstein would call "Contracts small." According to Professor Richard Epstein, "'Contracts small' relates to contract law at the doctrinal level; it focuses on the rules of contract formation and performance; the everyday 'stuff of lawyer's law.' "This article looks to the Restatement of Contracts (hereafter "Restatement") and the Restatement (Second) of Contracts (hereafter "Restatement Second") for answers to the questions raised by the two problems. The Restatements generally have both been praised and condemned for their focus on doctrinal issues-on what Richard Epstein calls the "everyday stuff of lawyer's ...


Avoiding The Catch-22: Reforming The Renewable Fuel Standard To Protect Freshwater Resources And Promote Energy Independence, Leah Stiegler Jan 2014

Avoiding The Catch-22: Reforming The Renewable Fuel Standard To Protect Freshwater Resources And Promote Energy Independence, Leah Stiegler

Law Student Publications

Part I presents background on the ethanol industry and the implementation and development of the RFS. It also gives a brief overview of the non-water-related reasons that have led various sectors of the economy to oppose ethanol. Part II provides an overview of ethanol production (from cornfield to refinery) and the impact each stage of the process has on freshwater resources in the United States. Given the harm that the current RFS has caused by failing to consider the impact of the ethanol production process on our nation's freshwater resources, a policy change needs to happen. Yet there are ...


Serving Those Who Served, Edward G. Simpson, Iii, Gregory L. Collins Jan 2014

Serving Those Who Served, Edward G. Simpson, Iii, Gregory L. Collins

Law Student Publications

Forward from Richmond Journal of Law and the Public Interest, Vol. XVII, regarding the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). Despite the VA's massive budget and our country's growing veteran population, many veterans' issues are not being adequately addressed, and the legal needs of our veterans require our increased attention.


The Power Of Paradox: The Need For Alternative Remedies In Virginia Minority Shareholder Oppression Cases, Stephanie Martinez Jan 2014

The Power Of Paradox: The Need For Alternative Remedies In Virginia Minority Shareholder Oppression Cases, Stephanie Martinez

Law Student Publications

This comment addresses where Virginia's current scheme falls short and why equitable remedies are needed in Virginia minority shareholder oppression cases. Part I looks at how the MBCA attempted to solve the problem of minority shareholder oppression. Part II explores how other jurisdictions have interpreted or added to the MBCA so as to provide additional remedies in minority shareholder oppression cases. Finally, Part III advocates for adoption of a new dissolution statute in Virginia that includes equitable remedies for such cases.


Two Dads Are Better Than One: The Supreme Court Of Virginia's Decision In L.F. V. Breit And Why Virginia's Assisted Conception Statute Should Allow Gay Couples To Legally Parent A Child Together, Lauren Maxey Jan 2014

Two Dads Are Better Than One: The Supreme Court Of Virginia's Decision In L.F. V. Breit And Why Virginia's Assisted Conception Statute Should Allow Gay Couples To Legally Parent A Child Together, Lauren Maxey

Law Student Publications

This comment examines whether gay men can have a child through a surrogacy arrangement in Virginia and whether gay men can retain parental rights through surrogacy contracts under the Virginia Assisted Conception Act. The Virginia laws affect gay males and gay females equally, but this comment addresses the issues arising with same-sex couples in the context of gay dads. Part II provides a background of surrogacy and specifically discusses surrogacy in relation to same-sex couples. Part III provides a general background of adoption and the establishment of parentage rights. Part IV describes the Assisted Conception Act, the legislative history of ...


Adr Cases, Jacob Glasser Jan 2014

Adr Cases, Jacob Glasser

Law Student Publications

Description of recent case law regarding alternative dispute resolution.


A Recount Of The Recount: Obenshain V. Herring, Maggie Bowman Jan 2014

A Recount Of The Recount: Obenshain V. Herring, Maggie Bowman

Law Student Publications

Because of the infrequency of recounts and the lack of judicial institutional knowledge, a plain-English guide is needed to assist judges and attorneys involved in recounts. The purpose of this essay is to provide such a guide as a resource for future Virginia recounts. Part I outlines the process of a recount and discusses how a recount differs from an election contest. Part I also briefly discusses the history of election recounts in Virginia, highlighting the two most recent state-wide recounts, Deeds and Obenshain. Part II delves more deeply into the primary issues encountered by the three-judge panel in Obenshain ...


It's Time For Revenge Porn To Get A Taste Of Its Own Medicine: An Argument For The Federal Criminalization Of Revenge Porn, Taylor Linkous Jan 2014

It's Time For Revenge Porn To Get A Taste Of Its Own Medicine: An Argument For The Federal Criminalization Of Revenge Porn, Taylor Linkous

Law Student Publications

This comment analyzes the various potential legal approaches to dealing with revenge porn and posits that a federal law criminalizing the dissemination of revenge porn is necessary to combat this growing trend. Part II provides background information on revenge porn and further analyzes how the successful relationship between technology and pornography led to the rise of revenge porn. Part III analyzes the different civil remedies currently available to revenge porn victims and argues these are not practicable solutions. Part IV discusses the current state laws criminalizing revenge porn and the legal challenges faced by those affected by revenge porn and ...


Copyright's Topography: An Empirical Study Of Copyright Litigation, Christopher A. Cotropia, James Gibson Jan 2014

Copyright's Topography: An Empirical Study Of Copyright Litigation, Christopher A. Cotropia, James Gibson

Law Faculty Publications

One of the most important ways to measure the impact of copyright law is through empirical examination of actual copyright infringement cases. Yet scholars have universally overlooked this rich source of data. This study fills that gap through a comprehensive empirical analysis of copyright infringement litigation, examining the pleadings, motions, and dockets from more than nine hundred copyright lawsuits filed from 2005 through 2008. The data we collect allow us to examine a wide variety of copyright issues, such as the rate of settlements versus judgments; the incidence of litigation between major media companies, small firms, and individuals; the kinds ...


The Cost Of Judicial Error: Stare Decisis And The Role Of Normative Theory, Kurt T. Lash Jan 2014

The Cost Of Judicial Error: Stare Decisis And The Role Of Normative Theory, Kurt T. Lash

Law Faculty Publications

The Supreme Court of the United States has long embraced the doctrine of stare decisis as an appropriate consideration any time the Court considers overruling past precedent. However, because the Court's actual application of the doctrine has been both sporadic and seemingly inconsistent, some scholars (and Justices) have accused the Court of methodological hypocrisy and bad faith. Much of this criticism assumes that, if members of the Supreme Court find certain rule of law values dispositive in one case, they should find those same considerations dispositive in all cases. Failure to do so suggests either incompetence or insincerity. This ...


The Compensation Myth And U.C.C. Section 2-713, David Frisch Jan 2014

The Compensation Myth And U.C.C. Section 2-713, David Frisch

Law Faculty Publications

This article seeks to bring greater discipline to the analysis of market damages by probing two basic assumptions that are routinely made in discussions of section 2-713: (1) that overcompensation concerns justify judicial interference with the buyer's choice of remedy; and (2) that the relevant market price, in all cases, is the market price that the aggrieved buyer would be required to pay if she wished to make a substitute purchase of goods elsewhere.


Considering Patricia Millett For The D.C. Circuit, Carl W. Tobias Jan 2014

Considering Patricia Millett For The D.C. Circuit, Carl W. Tobias

Law Faculty Publications

On June 4, Obama nominated three individuals: Patricia Millett, who has argued 32 Supreme Court appeals, Cornelia Pillard, who has won landmark High Court victories, and Robert Wilkins, who had served as a D.C. District Court judge for three years. The court’s allegedly smaller caseloads prompted Republicans to halt yes or no votes for all the nominees. But because well-qualified, moderate nominees warrant thorough consideration and final ballots, their Senate review deserves analysis, which this paper conducts by emphasizing Millett. It first surveys the nominee’s process and then shows how her evaluation concluded.