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Full-Text Articles in Law

Deterrence And Antitrust Punishment: Firms Versus Agents, Keith Hylton Dec 2014

Deterrence And Antitrust Punishment: Firms Versus Agents, Keith Hylton

Faculty Scholarship

Antitrust enforcement regimes rely on two types of penalties for deterrence: penalties against the violating firm and penalties against the agents of the violating firm. In this paper I examine the economics of punishing agents versus firms. My area of application is antitrust, but the argument applies generally to other fields in which the government has the choice between punishing the agent, the firm, or both. This analysis suggests that whenever the firm has an incentive, given existing penalties, to engage in some illegal act that may result in relatively modest punishment for its agents, it can almost always induce ...


Promoting Innovation While Preventing Discrimination: Policy Goals For The Scored Society, Danielle K. Citron, Frank Pasquale Dec 2014

Promoting Innovation While Preventing Discrimination: Policy Goals For The Scored Society, Danielle K. Citron, Frank Pasquale

Faculty Scholarship

There are several normative theories of jurisprudence supporting our critique of the scored society, which complement the social theory and political economy presented in our 2014 article on that topic in the Washington Law Review. This response to Professor Tal Zarsky clarifies our antidiscrimination argument while showing that is only one of many bases for the critique of scoring practices. The concerns raised by Big Data may exceed the capacity of extant legal doctrines. Addressing the potential injustice may require the hard work of legal reform.


Nonprofit Executive Pay As An Agency Problem: Evidence From U.S. Colleges And Universities, David Walker, Brian D. Galle Dec 2014

Nonprofit Executive Pay As An Agency Problem: Evidence From U.S. Colleges And Universities, David Walker, Brian D. Galle

Faculty Scholarship

We analyze the determinants of the compensation of private college and university presidents from 1999 through 2007. We find that the fraction of institutional revenue derived from current donations is negatively associated with compensation and that presidents of religiously-affiliated institutions receive lower levels of compensation. Looking at the determinants of contributions, we find a negative association between presidential pay and subsequent donations. We interpret these results as consistent with the hypotheses that donors to nonprofits are sensitive to executive pay and that stakeholder outrage plays a role in constraining that pay. We discuss the implications of these findings for the ...


The Use And Abuse Of Labor's Capital, David Webber Dec 2014

The Use And Abuse Of Labor's Capital, David Webber

Faculty Scholarship

The recent financial crisis has jeopardized the retirement savings of twenty-seven million Americans who depend on public pension funds, leading to cuts in benefits, increased employee contributions, job losses, and the rollback of legal rights like collective bargaining. This Article examines ways in which public pension funds invest against the economic interests of their own participants and beneficiaries, and the legal implications of these investments. In particular, the Article focuses on the use of public pensions to fund privatization of public employee jobs. Under the ascendant — and flawed — interpretation of the fiduciary duty of loyalty, public pension trustees owe their ...


Windsor, Surrogacy, And Race, Khiara Bridges Dec 2014

Windsor, Surrogacy, And Race, Khiara Bridges

Faculty Scholarship

Scholars and activists interested in racial justice have long been opposed to surrogacy arrangements, wherein a couple commissions a woman to become pregnant, give birth to a baby, and surrender the baby to the couple to raise as its own. Their fear has been that surrogacy arrangements will magnify racial inequalities inasmuch as wealthy white people will look to poor women of color to carry and give birth to the white babies that the couples covet. However, perhaps critical thinkers about race should reconsider their contempt for surrogacy following the Supreme Court’s recent decision in United States v. Windsor ...


States And Status: A Study Of Geographical Disparities For Immigrant Youth, Laila Hlass Dec 2014

States And Status: A Study Of Geographical Disparities For Immigrant Youth, Laila Hlass

Faculty Scholarship

This article looks at the legal and practical challenges arising out of a particular immigration protection for abandoned, abused, and neglected child migrants called “Special Immigrant Juvenile Status” (SIJS). This benefit, which is a pathway to legal permanent residence and citizenship, is the only area within federal immigration law that requires a state court to take action in order for immigration authorities to consider an individual’s eligibility for relief. Using an original data set of roughly 12,000 SIJS applications from the Department of Homeland Security in June 2013, this article describes trends over time and by state regarding ...


Chevron At The Roberts Court: Still Failing After All These Years, Jack M. Beermann Nov 2014

Chevron At The Roberts Court: Still Failing After All These Years, Jack M. Beermann

Faculty Scholarship

This article looks at how Chevron deference has fared at the Supreme Court since John G. Roberts became Chief Justice. The article looks at Chevron deference at the Roberts Court from three distinct angles. First, the voting records of individual Justices in cases citing Chevron are examined to shed light on the strength of each Justice’s commitment to deference to agency statutory construction. Second, a select sample of opinions citing Chevron are qualitatively examined to see whether the Roberts Court has been any more successful than its predecessor in constructing a coherent Chevron doctrine. Third, the article looks closely ...


Jefferson's Constitutions, Gerald Leonard Oct 2014

Jefferson's Constitutions, Gerald Leonard

Faculty Scholarship

Between 1787 and 1840, the Constitution gained a far more democratic meaning than it had had at the Founding, and Thomas Jefferson was a key figure in the process of democratization. But, while more democratic in inclination than many of the Framers, he fell far short of the radically democratic constitutionalism of his most important acolytes, Martin Van Buren and Andrew Jackson. This chapter of Constitutions and the Classics explains that Jefferson was actually much less attached to democracy and more to law as the heart of the republican Constitution. Compared to the 1830s founders of the nation’s democratic ...


Liberty, James Fleming, Linda Mcclain Oct 2014

Liberty, James Fleming, Linda Mcclain

Faculty Scholarship

"To secure the blessings of liberty," the Preamble to the US Constitution proclaims, "We the People . . . ordain and establish this Constitution." The Constitution is said to secure liberty through three principal strategies: the design of the Constitution as a whole; structural arrangements, most notably separation of powers andfederalism; and protection of rights. This chapter focuses on this third strategy of protecting liberty, in particular, through the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments. We first examine the several approaches taken to the "Incorporation" of certain basic liberties "enumerated" in the Bill of Rights to apply to the state governments. We then examine the ...


Fashioning A General Common Law For Employment In An Age Of Statutes, Michael Harper Oct 2014

Fashioning A General Common Law For Employment In An Age Of Statutes, Michael Harper

Faculty Scholarship

In the current post-Erie age of statutes the Supreme Court continues to have potential influence over the development of a “general” common law used to decide recurring issues governed by state law. This influence, which has drawn little commentary, derives from the Court’s authority to consider analogous issues when filling gaps in federal statutes, sometimes through express reliance on general common law. The influence is through the power to persuade, like that of the federal judiciary in its general common lawmaking age of Swift, rather than through the power to command, like that of the federal judiciary in the ...


Principled Standards Vs. Boundless Discretion: A Tale Of Two Approaches To Intermediary Trademark Liability Online, Stacey Dogan Oct 2014

Principled Standards Vs. Boundless Discretion: A Tale Of Two Approaches To Intermediary Trademark Liability Online, Stacey Dogan

Faculty Scholarship

Over the past decade, courts have developed two distinct approaches in evaluating trademark claims against online intermediaries. In one – contributory infringement – courts struggle with the tension between preserving legitimate, non-infringing uses of technologies, on the one hand, and minimizing infringement, on the other. In the other – direct infringement – liability turns on perceived wrongdoing by intermediaries whose own behavior increases the risk of consumer confusion. This second type of liability boasts neither a clear doctrinal framework nor a coherent normative vision. Most troublingly, the scant case law has paid little attention to issues at the core of secondary liability analysis – namely ...


The Cohasset Marshlands Dispute: International Arbitration In Colonial New England, William Park Oct 2014

The Cohasset Marshlands Dispute: International Arbitration In Colonial New England, William Park

Faculty Scholarship

One of the earliest international arbitrations in the Americas arose from rival claims to hayfields contested between two groups of religious dissidents. The dispute resolution process which unfolded in 1640 between the Massachusetts and Plymouth colonies takes special significance as an epochal step toward the robust cross-border cooperation that ultimately united thirteen disparate colonies into a single nation.


Arbitration's Discontents: Between The Pernicious And The Precarious, William Park Oct 2014

Arbitration's Discontents: Between The Pernicious And The Precarious, William Park

Faculty Scholarship

Arbitration has become a victim of its own success, as its wider use has triggered a flood of doubt, disapproval and denunciation. In consequence, higher visibility for arbitral proceedings and awards has led to increased criticism, both just and unjust, with respect to arbitrator independence and impartiality. A robust dispute resolution process requires balance between fairness and efficiency, keeping arbitrators free from taint while at the same time reducing the prospect of dilatory tactics aimed at sabotaging proceedings. If litigants hope to have their disputes resolved by intelligent and experienced individuals, criteria for arbitrator impartiality and independence will need to ...


A Fair Fight: Professional Guidelines In International Arbitration, William Park Oct 2014

A Fair Fight: Professional Guidelines In International Arbitration, William Park

Faculty Scholarship

Depending on context and content, a regulatory framework can either help or hinder efforts to enhance aggregate social and economic welfare. Lively debate has arisen with respect to the net effects of two recent sets of directives for lawyer comportment in cross-border arbitration: the guidelines adopted by the International Bar Association and the new arbitration rules promulgated by the London Court of International Arbitration. Each instrument aims to promote a more level playing field on matters where legal cultures differ, such as document production and counsel independence. Each has caused thoughtful commentators to question the need and the merits of ...


Third-Party Funding In International Arbitration: The Icca Queen-Mary Task Force, William Park, Catherine A. Rogers Oct 2014

Third-Party Funding In International Arbitration: The Icca Queen-Mary Task Force, William Park, Catherine A. Rogers

Faculty Scholarship

Third-party funding raises a host of ethical and procedural issues for international arbitration, perhaps most notably in connection with arbitrator comportment. The need for sustained study of these concerns prompted establishment of a Task Force on Third-Party Funding in International Arbitration, convened by the International Council for Commercial Arbitration (ICCA) along with Queen Mary College at the University of London. The Task Force, comprised of stakeholders from a range of viewpoints and backgrounds, will assess both real and perceived concerns that this relatively new practice raises, as well as what might be done, and why. This article outlines the Task ...


The Predictability Paradox: Arbitrators And Applicable Law, William Park Oct 2014

The Predictability Paradox: Arbitrators And Applicable Law, William Park

Faculty Scholarship

In resolution of international contract disputes, arbitrators may sometimes show greater fidelity than courts to the parties’ intentions and established rule of a chosen law, foregoing any policy-making function similar to that sometimes asserted by common law judges. In adjusting international contracts, arbitrators face special tensions in their search for counterpoise between rival notions of predictability, often expressed in imprecise terms like “commercial reality” or “strict letter of the law” which like the humble chameleon take different colors depending on the backdrop.


Charitable Giving, Tax Expenditures, And Direct Spending In The United States And The European Union, Lilian Faulhaber Sep 2014

Charitable Giving, Tax Expenditures, And Direct Spending In The United States And The European Union, Lilian Faulhaber

Faculty Scholarship

This Article compares the ways in which the United States and the European Union limit the ability of state-level entities to subsidize their own residents, whether through direct subsidies or through tax expenditures. It uses four recent charitable giving cases decided by the European Court of Justice (ECJ) to illustrate the ECJ’s evolving tax expenditure jurisprudence and argues that, while this jurisprudence may suggest a new and promising model for fiscal federalism, it may also have negative social policy implications. It also points out that the court analyzes direct spending and tax expenditures under different rubrics despite their economic ...


Congress's (Less) Limited Power To Represent Itself In Court: A Comment On Grove And Devins, Jack M. Beermann Sep 2014

Congress's (Less) Limited Power To Represent Itself In Court: A Comment On Grove And Devins, Jack M. Beermann

Faculty Scholarship

In their recent article, Congress’s (Limited) Power to Represent Itself in Court, 99 Cornell L. Rev. 571 (2014) Tara Leigh Grove and Neal Devins make the case against congressional litigation in defense of the constitutionality of federal statutes. They conclude that Congress, or a single House of Congress, may not defend the constitutionality of federal statutes in court even when the Executive Branch has decided not to do so but may litigate only in furtherance of Congress’s investigatory and disciplinary powers. Grove and Devins claim that congressional litigation in support of the constitutionality of federal statutes violates two ...


Income Taxation, Wealth Effects, And Uncertainty: Portfolio Adjustments With Isoelastic Utility And Discrete Probability, Theodore Sims Aug 2014

Income Taxation, Wealth Effects, And Uncertainty: Portfolio Adjustments With Isoelastic Utility And Discrete Probability, Theodore Sims

Faculty Scholarship

The expected utility formulation of the problem of a risk-averse agent’s allocating a portfolio between a safe and a risky asset is widely taken as standing for the proposition that if α* ε (0, 1) is the optimal allocation to the risky asset in the absence of tax, α*/(1-t) is the optimal allocation in the presence of tax at rate t, a finding obtained on the assumption that the return r to the riskless asset is (or is taxed as though it were) zero. In this paper I model the agent as exhibiting constant relative risk aversion and ...


The Return Of The King: The Unsavory Origins Of Administrative Law, Gary Lawson Aug 2014

The Return Of The King: The Unsavory Origins Of Administrative Law, Gary Lawson

Faculty Scholarship

Philip Hamburger’s Is Administrative Law Unlawful? is a truly brilliant and important book. In a prodigious feat of scholarship, Professor Hamburger uncovers the British and civil law antecedents of modern American administrative law, showing that contemporary administrative law “is really just the most recent manifestation of a recurring problem.” That problem is the problem of power: its temptations, its dangers, and its tendency to corrupt. Administrative law, far from being a distinctive product of modernity, is thus the “contemporary expression of the old tendency toward absolute power – toward consolidated power outside and above the law.” It represents precisely the ...


Trade And History: The Case Of Eu-Algeria Relations, Daniela Caruso, Joanna Geneve Aug 2014

Trade And History: The Case Of Eu-Algeria Relations, Daniela Caruso, Joanna Geneve

Faculty Scholarship

The recent centennial of Albert Camus’s birth has had little resonance in EU legal scholarship. Yet Camus’s work is a natural entry point into the EU’s trade relations with the global south, and Algeria’s case is a particularly salient one, given the oft-ignored fact that for five years the Algerian nation was a part of the European Economic Community. The onset of a free trade regime between the EU and the former colonies or territories of its member states is often touted as the culminating point in a line of constant progress, from dependency to autonomy ...


The New Habeas Corpus In Death Penalty Cases, Larry Yackle Aug 2014

The New Habeas Corpus In Death Penalty Cases, Larry Yackle

Faculty Scholarship

This article offers the first systematic examination of Chapter 154, United States Code, which establishes new statutory arrangements for cases in which state prisoners under sentence of death file federal habeas corpus petitions challenging their convictions or sentences. Chapter 154 was enacted as part of the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996. Yet its provisions were made applicable only in capital cases arising from states that established qualifying schemes for providing indigent death row prisoners with counsel in state postconviction proceedings. No state’s system for supplying lawyers in state court won approval and, in consequence, Chapter 154 ...


Fidelity, Change, And The Good Constitution, James Fleming Jul 2014

Fidelity, Change, And The Good Constitution, James Fleming

Faculty Scholarship

In thinking about fidelity and change in constitutional interpretation, many have framed the basic choice as being between originalism and living constitutionalism. Consider, for example, Jack M. Balkin’s Living Originalism, Robert W. Bennett and Lawrence B. Solum’s Constitutional Originalism: A Debate, and John O. McGinnis and Michael B. Rappaport’s Originalism and the Good Constitution. I shall argue for the superiority of what Ronald Dworkin called “moral readings of the Constitution” and what what Sotirios A. Barber and I have called a “philosophic approach” to constitutional interpretation. By “moral reading” and “philosophic approach,” I refer to conceptions of ...


Paternalism, Public Health, And Behavioral Economics: A Problematic Combination, Wendy K. Mariner Jul 2014

Paternalism, Public Health, And Behavioral Economics: A Problematic Combination, Wendy K. Mariner

Faculty Scholarship

Some critiques of public health regulations assume that measures directed at industry should be considered paternalistic whenever they limit any consumer choices. Given the presumption against paternalistic measures, this conception of paternalism puts government proposals to regulate industry to the same stringent proof as clearly paternalist proposals to directly regulate individuals for their own benefit. The result is to discourage regulating industry in ways that protect the public from harm and instead to encourage regulating individuals for their own good -- quite the opposite of what one would expect from a rejection of paternalism. Arguments favoring "soft paternalism" to justify some ...


Introduction, Symposium On Ronald Dworkin's Religion Without God, James Fleming Jul 2014

Introduction, Symposium On Ronald Dworkin's Religion Without God, James Fleming

Faculty Scholarship

Boston University School of Law and the Boston University Law Review are proud to publish this Symposium on Dworkin’s final book, Religion Without God (Harvard University Press, 2013), as a sequel to our 2009 Symposium on his Justice for Hedgehogs. The Symposium includes an introduction and eulogy by James E. Fleming and contributions by a number of the most distinguished scholars of law and religion in the United States and the United Kingdom: Jeremy Waldron, Stephen L. Carter, Paul Horwitz, Andrew Koppelman, Cécile Laborde, Linda C. McClain, Micah Schwartzman, and Steven D. Smith.


Lost At Sea, Daniela Caruso Jul 2014

Lost At Sea, Daniela Caruso

Faculty Scholarship

A reflection on the existential loss experienced by many young persons in the aftermath of the Euro-zone crisis (often referred to as ‘the lost generation’) must also acknowledge, for the record and for reasons of relative salience, those who have recently drowned in the waters of southern Europe in their quest for a better future. This essay proposes to reconsider, for a moment, the relation between the obstacles that third country nationals (TNCs) encounter at our external frontiers and the increasing permeability of internal EU borders. Normally, one thinks of the two as structurally opposed: within its boundaries, the EU ...


Stereotype Threat And Law Librarianship, Ronald Wheeler Jul 2014

Stereotype Threat And Law Librarianship, Ronald Wheeler

Faculty Scholarship

Mr. Wheeler looks at the concept of stereotype threat and discusses ways to confront and combat it in a diverse society. He proposes some simple solutions within the American Association of Law Libraries (AALL) and the law librarianship profession to help diminish the effects of this psychological barrier.


Criminalizing Revenge Porn, Danielle K. Citron, Mary Anne Franks Jul 2014

Criminalizing Revenge Porn, Danielle K. Citron, Mary Anne Franks

Faculty Scholarship

Violations of sexual privacy, notably the non-consensual publication of sexually graphic images in violation of someone's trust, deserve criminal punishment. They deny subjects' ability to decide if and when they are sexually exposed to the public and undermine trust needed for intimate relationships. Then too they produce grave emotional and dignitary harms, exact steep financial costs, and increase the risks of physical assault. A narrowly and carefully crafted criminal statute can comport with the First Amendment. The criminalization of revenge porn is necessary to protect against devastating privacy invasions that chill self-expression and ruin lives.


Can Religion Without God Lead To Religious Liberty Without Conflict?, Linda Mcclain Jul 2014

Can Religion Without God Lead To Religious Liberty Without Conflict?, Linda Mcclain

Faculty Scholarship

This Article engages with Ronald Dworkin’s final book, Religion Without God, which proposes to shrink the size and importance of the fierce “culture wars” in the United States between believers and nonbelievers – theists and atheists – by separating out the “science” and “value” components of religion to show these groups that they share a “fundamental religious impulse.” Religion Without God also calls for framing religious freedom as part of a general right to ethical independence rather than a “troublesome” special right for religious people. This article compares the argumentative strategy of Religion Without God with prior Dworkin works, such as ...


Silence Of The Lambs, Angela Onwuachi-Willig Jul 2014

Silence Of The Lambs, Angela Onwuachi-Willig

Faculty Scholarship

Reflections on Presumed Incompetent: The Intersections of Race and Class for Women in Academia Symposium -- The Plenary Panel in the Berkeley Journal of Gender, Law & Justice represents the author’s reflections on the recent important book PRESUMED INCOMPETENT edited by Gabriella Gutiérrez y Muhs, Yolanda Flores Niemann, Carmen G. González, and Angela P. Harris. PRESUMED INCOMPETENT has started a national movement of attention to treatment of women of color in academia; google the reviews and check out the book’s Facebook presence. In this recreation of the symposium plenary, the panelists discuss issues surrounding race and gender in academia, particularly in law schools. My own contribution to the book (co-authored with Margalynne Armstrong) and summarized for the panel focused on working across racial lines and the use of “color insight” to build such alliances.