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2010

Criminal Law

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Articles 1 - 30 of 232

Full-Text Articles in Law

Staying Out Of Court: Leadership Factors For Consideration As Higher Education Administrators, Steven R. Briggs Dec 2010

Staying Out Of Court: Leadership Factors For Consideration As Higher Education Administrators, Steven R. Briggs

Parameters of Law in Student Affairs and Higher Education (CNS 670)

Higher education leaders have a tremendous responsibility as it relates to legal concerns. This guidebook is intended to assist leaders in higher education by providing factors for which administrators serving in a student affairs or higher education leadership role should consider. This guidebook is designed to offer five recommendations for best practices. The guidebook will also review the 2007 rape and murder of a Eastern Michigan University student in demonstrating how leaders at this institution failed to follow these five factors of best practice and thus providing examples of negligence or tort liability, which has best been defined as civil ...


The Arrest Of Henry Louis Gates, Jr., Donald E. Wilkes Jr. Dec 2010

The Arrest Of Henry Louis Gates, Jr., Donald E. Wilkes Jr.

Popular Media

Police forces tend to be among the most secretive and least accountable of all organizations. When pressed for accountability or sued for malfeasance, obfuscation and evasiveness are the typical response. The phenomenon is hardly limited to certain countries or societies–the unassailability of police organizations seems to be universal.–Michael H. Fox The serve-and-protect model of police motivation that was drummed into police corps across the country in the aftermath of the response to anti-war demonstrations in the sixties and seventies has been heavily encroached on by the control-and-suppress model.–J. Ackerman The best motto for a police officer is ...


Competing Theories Of Blackmail: An Empirical Research Critique Of Criminal Law Theory, Michael T. Cahill, Paul H. Robinson, Daniel M. Bartels Dec 2010

Competing Theories Of Blackmail: An Empirical Research Critique Of Criminal Law Theory, Michael T. Cahill, Paul H. Robinson, Daniel M. Bartels

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


The Disutility Of Injustice, Paul H. Robinson, Geoffrey P. Goodwin, Michael Reisig Dec 2010

The Disutility Of Injustice, Paul H. Robinson, Geoffrey P. Goodwin, Michael Reisig

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

For more than half a century, the retributivists and the crime-control instrumentalists have seen themselves as being in an irresolvable conflict. Social science increasingly suggests, however, that this need not be so. Doing justice may be the most effective means of controlling crime. Perhaps partially in recognition of these developments, the American Law Institute's recent amendment to the Model Penal Code's "purposes" provision – the only amendment to the Model Code in the 47 years since its promulgation – adopts desert as the primary distributive principle for criminal liability and punishment. That shift to desert has prompted concerns by two ...


Prolegomenon On The Status Of The Hopey, Changey Thing In American Criminal Justice, Frank O. Bowman Iii Dec 2010

Prolegomenon On The Status Of The Hopey, Changey Thing In American Criminal Justice, Frank O. Bowman Iii

Faculty Publications

This is an introductory essay to Volume 23, Number 2, of the FEDERAL SENTENCING REPORTER, which considers the state of American criminal justice policy in 2010, two years after the "Change" election of 2008. Part I of the essay paints a statistical picture of trends in federal criminal practice and sentencing over the last half-decade or so, with particular emphasis on sentence severity and the degree of regional and inter-judge sentencing disparity. The statistics suggest that the expectation that the 2005 Booker decision would produce a substantial increase in the exercise of judicial sentencing discretion and a progressive abandonment of ...


Advising Noncitizen Defendants On The Immigration Consequences Of Criminal Convictions: The Ethical Answer For The Criminal Defense Lawyer, The Court, And The Sixth Amendment, Yolanda Vazquez Dec 2010

Advising Noncitizen Defendants On The Immigration Consequences Of Criminal Convictions: The Ethical Answer For The Criminal Defense Lawyer, The Court, And The Sixth Amendment, Yolanda Vazquez

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This Article discusses the tension between the Sixth Amendment analysis by courts on the issue of immigration consequences of criminal convictions and the moral and ethical duties that an attorney owes his noncitizen client. Under the majority of jurisdictions, federal circuit and state courts hold that there is no duty to advise on this issue because they are deemed to be “collateral”. However, a growing number of these jurisdictions have begun to find a Sixth Amendment violation for failure to advise. These jurisdictions have created a Sixth Amendment duty only when: 1) the attorney “knew or should have known” the ...


The Life Of An Unknown Assassin: Leon Czolgosz And The Death Of William Mckinley, Cary Federman Dec 2010

The Life Of An Unknown Assassin: Leon Czolgosz And The Death Of William Mckinley, Cary Federman

Department of Justice Studies Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

The purpose of this essay is to examine the discourses that surrounded the life of Leon Czolgosz, the assassin of President William McKinley. The gaps in Czolgosz’s life, his peculiar silences, his poor health and the ambiguity and thinness of his confession, rather than taken as instances of mental and physical distress, have, instead, been understood as signs of a revolutionary anarchistic assassin. Czolgosz is an expression of a cultural tradition in somatic form. I argue that the discursive construction of criminality, already present in the late nineteenth century within the medical and human sciences, is what shaped Czolgosz ...


Hope And Betrayal On Death Row, David Cole Nov 2010

Hope And Betrayal On Death Row, David Cole

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

No abstract provided.


Summary Of State V. Castaneda_Swm, 126 Nev. Adv. Op. No. 45, Sean W. Mcdonald Nov 2010

Summary Of State V. Castaneda_Swm, 126 Nev. Adv. Op. No. 45, Sean W. Mcdonald

Nevada Supreme Court Summaries

Appeal from order of dismissal of indecent exposure charges, after the district court judge concluded the state indecent exposure statute was unconstitutionally vague and overbroad.


"I'M Going To Dinner With Frank": Admissibility Of Nontestimonial Statements Of Intent To Prove The Actions Of Someone Other Than The Speaker—And The Role Of The Due Process Clause, Lynn Mclain Nov 2010

"I'M Going To Dinner With Frank": Admissibility Of Nontestimonial Statements Of Intent To Prove The Actions Of Someone Other Than The Speaker—And The Role Of The Due Process Clause, Lynn Mclain

All Faculty Scholarship

A woman tells her roommate that she is going out to dinner with Frank that evening. The next morning her battered body is found along a country road outside of town. In Frank’s trial for her murder, is her statement to her roommate admissible to place Frank with her that night? Since the Court’s 2004 Crawford decision, the confrontation clause is inapplicable to nontestimonial hearsay such as this.

American jurisdictions are widely divided on the question of admissibility under their rules of evidence, however. Many say absolutely not. A sizeable number unequivocally say yes. A small number say ...


The Messy Reality Of Organised Crime Research, Mark Findlay, Nafis Hanif Nov 2010

The Messy Reality Of Organised Crime Research, Mark Findlay, Nafis Hanif

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

The analysis starts out by confronting and exposing the ideological motivations for dualism in conventional organised crime research. In order to suggest a cognitive pathway beyond this restrictive normative frame, it is essential to appreciate its potency and resilience. Law enforcement language buoyed up by popular culture representations of gangs, syndicates and crime bosses have become the accepted starting point for much research in the field. Research from this perspective, we suggest, plays its own part in organised crime mystification and as such retards the critical utility of enterprise theory. Next the paper shows how distracted and distorted theorising infects ...


Returning Prosecutions To The States: A Proposal For A Criminal Justice Restoration Act, John A. Humbach Oct 2010

Returning Prosecutions To The States: A Proposal For A Criminal Justice Restoration Act, John A. Humbach

Pace Law Faculty Publications

The expensive and largely redundant Federal justice bureaucracy could be reduced to a fraction of its size by restoring to the states their traditional role of prosecuting crimes that fall under state jurisdiction. Returning criminal justice functions to the states can not only reduce the impact and effective reach of Federal power but can also achieve a surprisingly substantial decrease in Federal spending.

A small change in the wording of an existing Federal statute could accomplish the restoration.

This essay sets out and briefly analyses such a proposal.


Summary Of Hoagland V. State, 126 Nev. Adv. Op. 37, Meredith Still Oct 2010

Summary Of Hoagland V. State, 126 Nev. Adv. Op. 37, Meredith Still

Nevada Supreme Court Summaries

The district court rejected appellant Richard William Hoagland’s argument that necessity is a defense to driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI). The judge did not permit Hoagland to submit jury instructions on the defense or to present evidence to the jury to support the defense. In this case, the Nevada Supreme Court considered whether a defendant may assert a necessity defense to DUI.


What Economists Really Know, And What They Don't, Richard Adelstein Oct 2010

What Economists Really Know, And What They Don't, Richard Adelstein

Division II Faculty Publications

A PowerPoint presentation on what it's possible for economists to know.


Realism, Punishment & Reform [A Reply To Braman, Kahan, And Hoffman, "Some Realism About Punishment Naturalism”], Paul H. Robinson, Owen D. Jones, Robert O. Kurzban Oct 2010

Realism, Punishment & Reform [A Reply To Braman, Kahan, And Hoffman, "Some Realism About Punishment Naturalism”], Paul H. Robinson, Owen D. Jones, Robert O. Kurzban

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Professors Donald Braman, Dan Kahan, and David Hoffman, in their article "Some Realism About Punishment Naturalism," to be published in an upcoming issue of the University of Chicago Law Review, critique a series of our articles: Concordance and Conflict in Intuitions of Justice (http://ssrn.com/abstract=932067), The Origins of Shared Intuitions of Justice (http://.ssrn.com/abstract=952726), and Intuitions of Justice: Implications for Criminal Law and Justice Policy (http://.ssrn.com/abstract=976026). Our reply, here, follows their article in that coming issue. As we demonstrate, they have misunderstood our views on, and thus the implications of ...


An Examination Of Contextual And Organizational Factors Influencing Police Use Of Force: A Multilevel Model, Hoon Lee, Hyunseok Jang, Ilhong Yun, Hyeyoung Lim, David W. Tushaus Oct 2010

An Examination Of Contextual And Organizational Factors Influencing Police Use Of Force: A Multilevel Model, Hoon Lee, Hyunseok Jang, Ilhong Yun, Hyeyoung Lim, David W. Tushaus

Criminal Justice Faculty Publications and Presentations

The current study attempts to bridge this gap in research between contextual factors and police use of force. It also deepens our understandings of the association between organizational factors and use of force by incorporating police training into the analytical model. Finally, this study expands prior research by including multiple police agencies in the sample, thus producing research findings that can be more easily generalized.


Lessons Learned, Lessons Lost: Immigration Enforcement's Failed Experiment With Penal Severity, Teresa A. Miller Oct 2010

Lessons Learned, Lessons Lost: Immigration Enforcement's Failed Experiment With Penal Severity, Teresa A. Miller

Journal Articles

This article traces the evolution of “get tough” sentencing and corrections policies that were touted as the solution to a criminal justice system widely viewed as “broken” in the mid-1970s. It draws parallels to the adoption some twenty years later of harsh, punitive policies in the immigration enforcement system to address perceptions that it is similarly “broken,” policies that have embraced the theories, objectives and tools of criminal punishment, and caused the two systems to converge. In discussing the myriad of harms that have resulted from the convergence of these two systems, and the criminal justice system’s recent shift ...


A Modest Appeal For Decent Respect, Jessica Olive, David C. Gray Oct 2010

A Modest Appeal For Decent Respect, Jessica Olive, David C. Gray

Faculty Scholarship

In Graham v. Florida, the Supreme Court held that the Eighth Amendment prohibits imposing a sentence of life in prison without the possibility of release for nonhomicide crimes if the perpetrator was under the age of eighteen at the time of his offense. In so holding, Justice Kennedy cited foreign and international law to confirm the Court’s independent judgment. In his dissent, Justice Thomas recited now-familiar objections to the Court’s reliance on these sources. Those objections are grounded in his originalist jurisprudence. In this short invited essay, which expands on prior work, we argue that Justice Thomas should ...


Unfettered Discretion: Criminal Orders Of Protection And Their Impact On Parent Defendants, David Jaros Oct 2010

Unfettered Discretion: Criminal Orders Of Protection And Their Impact On Parent Defendants, David Jaros

All Faculty Scholarship

The last two decades have witnessed an astonishing increase in the use of the criminal justice system to police neglectful parents. Recasting traditional allegations of neglect as criminal charges of endangering the welfare of a child, prosecutors and the police have involved criminal courts in the regulation of aspects of the parent child relationship that were once the sole province of family courts. This Article explores the legal implications of vesting judges in these cases with the unfettered discretion to issue protective orders that criminalize contact between a parent and her child. I argue that procedures for issuing protective orders ...


A Tale Of Prosecutorial Indiscretion: Ramsey Clark And The Selective Non-Prosecution Of Stokely Carmichael, Lonnie T. Brown Oct 2010

A Tale Of Prosecutorial Indiscretion: Ramsey Clark And The Selective Non-Prosecution Of Stokely Carmichael, Lonnie T. Brown

Scholarly Works

During the height of the Vietnam War and one of the most volatile periods of the civil rights movement, then-Attorney General Ramsey Clark controversially resisted intense political pressure to prosecute Black Power originator and antiwar activist Stokely Carmichael. Taken in isolation, this decision may seem courageous and praiseworthy, but when considered against the backdrop of Clark’s contemporaneous prosecution of an all-white group of similarly situated anti-draft leaders (the so-called Boston Five), his exercise of prosecutorial discretion becomes suspect. Specifically, the Boston Five were prosecuted in 1968 for conspiracy to aid and abet draft evasion, a charge for which the ...


Do Judges Vary In Their Treatment Of Race?, David S. Abrams, Marianne Bertrand, Sendhil Mullainathan Sep 2010

Do Judges Vary In Their Treatment Of Race?, David S. Abrams, Marianne Bertrand, Sendhil Mullainathan

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Are minorities treated differently by the legal system? Systematic racial differences in case characteristics, many unobservable, make this a difficult question to answer directly. In this paper, we estimate whether judges differ from each other in how they sentence minorities, avoiding potential bias from unobservable case characteristics by exploiting the random assignment of cases to judges. We measure the between-judge variation in the difference in incarceration rates and sentence lengths between African-American and White defendants. We perform a Monte Carlo simulation in order to explicitly construct the appropriate counterfactual, where race does not influence judicial sentencing. In our data set ...


Section 5: Criminal Law, Institute Of Bill Of Rights Law At The William & Mary Law School Sep 2010

Section 5: Criminal Law, Institute Of Bill Of Rights Law At The William & Mary Law School

Supreme Court Preview

No abstract provided.


Abnormal Mental State Mitigations Of Murder – The U.S. Perspective, Paul H. Robinson Sep 2010

Abnormal Mental State Mitigations Of Murder – The U.S. Perspective, Paul H. Robinson

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This paper examines the U.S. doctrines that allow an offender's abnormal mental state to reduce murder to manslaughter. First, the modern doctrine of "extreme emotional disturbance," as in Model Penal Code Section 210.3(1)(b), mitigates to manslaughter what otherwise would be murder when the killing "is committed under the influence of extreme mental or emotional disturbance for which there is reasonable explanation or excuse." While most American jurisdictions are based upon the Mode Code, this is an area in which many states chose to retain their more narrow common law "provocation" mitigation. Second, the modern doctrine ...


Abolish Oral Argument?, Myron Moskovitz Sep 2010

Abolish Oral Argument?, Myron Moskovitz

Publications

No abstract provided.


Is Criminology Moving Toward A Paradigm Shift?: Evidence From A Survey Of The American Society Of Criminology, Jonathon A. Cooper, Anthony Walsh, Lee Ellis Sep 2010

Is Criminology Moving Toward A Paradigm Shift?: Evidence From A Survey Of The American Society Of Criminology, Jonathon A. Cooper, Anthony Walsh, Lee Ellis

Criminal Justice Faculty Publications and Presentations

Ideology forms and colors our attitudes and values in ways that lead to a tendency to accept or reject data according to how well or how poorly they cohere with that ideology. Previous research has suggested that the ideological divide in criminology is between criminologists who focus on strictly environmentalist theories that give short shrift to individual differences, and those who focus on individual differences and are favorably disposed to the biological sciences (Wright & Miller, 1998; Walsh & Ellis, 2004). The former tend to be radicals and liberals and the latter tend to be conservatives and moderates, although there is no one-to-one correspondence (Wright & Miller, 1998). The theoretical disarray in criminology occasioned by this tendency (among other things) has been noted by a number of scholars (Barak, 1998; Dantzker, 1998; Walsh, 2002).

The present study repeats and extends these earlier studies with the goals of evaluating the relationship between ideology and favored theory ...


Overcoming Defiance Of The Constitution: The Need For A Federal Role In Protecting The Right To Counsel In Georgia, Stephen B. Bright, Lauren Sudeall Lucas Sep 2010

Overcoming Defiance Of The Constitution: The Need For A Federal Role In Protecting The Right To Counsel In Georgia, Stephen B. Bright, Lauren Sudeall Lucas

Faculty Publications By Year

In their issue brief, Mr. Bright and Ms. Lucas discuss the problems that have existed in Georgia’s indigent defense system since Gideon was handed down. They contend that “[a]ll three branches of Georgia’s government have failed in their constitutional responsibility to ensure that poor people accused of crimes are effectively represented by competent lawyers.” They also argue that “[t]he federal government, which has made immense contributions to the prosecution of criminal cases in Georgia through grants to law enforcement, prosecutors, and courts, shares responsibility for the integrity of Georgia’s criminal justice system and the enforcement ...


Counterfeit Conspiracy: The Misapplication Of Conspiracy As A Substantive Crime In International Law, Taylor R. Dalton Aug 2010

Counterfeit Conspiracy: The Misapplication Of Conspiracy As A Substantive Crime In International Law, Taylor R. Dalton

Cornell Law School J.D. Student Research Papers

In the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) case Prosecutor v. Musema, the trial chamber held that an individual can be found guilty solely for the crime of conspiracy to commit genocide even if no genocide takes place. The trial chamber found its jurisdiction to punish the crime of conspiracy under its establishing statute, but looks almost exclusively at national legal traditions to determine its content. It cites no other international law supporting its decision to incorporate domestic concepts into the crime. In contrast, the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, which relatively recently entered into force, seems to ...


Fact-Finding Without Facts, Nancy Amoury Combs Aug 2010

Fact-Finding Without Facts, Nancy Amoury Combs

Popular Media

No abstract provided.


Expanding The Scope Of The Good-Faith Exception To The Exclusionary Rule To Include A Law Enforcement Officer's Reasonable Reliance On Well-Settled Case Law That Is Subsequently Overruled, Ross Oklewicz Aug 2010

Expanding The Scope Of The Good-Faith Exception To The Exclusionary Rule To Include A Law Enforcement Officer's Reasonable Reliance On Well-Settled Case Law That Is Subsequently Overruled, Ross Oklewicz

Articles in Law Reviews & Journals

In 2009, the Supreme Court handed down several important decisions on criminal procedure. Perhaps unanticipated at the time, two of those decisions have been read together by lower courts to reach dramatically different results. The emerging split has been sharp, bringing with it urgent calls for the Court to intervene.

Laying the foundation for the conflicting decisions was New York v. Belton, in which the Supreme Court held that “when a policeman has made a lawful custodial arrest of the occupant of an automobile, he may, as a contemporaneous incident of that arrest, search the passenger compartment of the automobile ...


Throttling Miranda: Right Wing Ideologues Support The Government Against The Individual, Donald E. Wilkes Jr. Jul 2010

Throttling Miranda: Right Wing Ideologues Support The Government Against The Individual, Donald E. Wilkes Jr.

Popular Media

The 1966 Miranda v. Arizona decision is arguably the most important and undeniably the most famous of all U.S. Supreme Court criminal procedure decisions. The noble purpose of this legal landmark is to prevent Americans taken into custody by police on criminal charges from being subjected to improper interrogation practices calculated to compel citizens to incriminate themselves.

Few people realize that since the early 1970s the Supreme Court has been stealthily choking the life out of Miranda. The latest example of this process of slow strangulation occurred a few weeks ago, on June 1, when the Court in Berghuis ...