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2010

Civil Rights and Discrimination

Institution
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Articles 1 - 30 of 186

Full-Text Articles in Law

Gender Matters In Juvenile Justice, Francine Sherman, Meda Chesney-Lind Dec 2010

Gender Matters In Juvenile Justice, Francine Sherman, Meda Chesney-Lind

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

No abstract provided.


Fred Fejes' Gay Rights And Moral Panic: The Origins Of America's Debate On Homosexuality (Book Review), Michael Boucai Dec 2010

Fred Fejes' Gay Rights And Moral Panic: The Origins Of America's Debate On Homosexuality (Book Review), Michael Boucai

Book Reviews

No abstract provided.


Does Ricci Herald A New Disparate Impact?, Joseph Seiner, Benjamin N. Gutman Dec 2010

Does Ricci Herald A New Disparate Impact?, Joseph Seiner, Benjamin N. Gutman

Faculty Publications

Federal law has long prohibited not just intentional discrimination by employers, but also practices that have an unintentional disparate impact on minorities. A cryptic passage at the end of the Supreme Court's recent decision in Ricci v. DeStefano may signal a sea change for this disparate impact doctrine. Ricci, a lawsuit about a civil-service exam for firefighters, received widespread attention as a case about intentional discrimination. We show that the opinion also can be read to suggest a new affirmative defense for employers facing claims of disparate impact. Before Ricci, disparate impact was a purely no-fault doctrine. An employer ...


Cultural Norms And Race Discrimination Standards: A Case Study In How The Two Diverge, Derek W. Black Dec 2010

Cultural Norms And Race Discrimination Standards: A Case Study In How The Two Diverge, Derek W. Black

Faculty Publications

The legal standard for race discrimination - the intent standard - has been scrutinized and justified for decades, but that conversation has occurred almost entirely within the legal community. Relatively little effort has been made to engage the public. This Article posits that the discussion of discrimination standards must account for and include public understandings of race and discrimination because race is a socially constructed concept and discrimination is culturally contingent. Race discrimination standards based solely upon the legal community’s perceptions are susceptible to significant flaws. This Article begins the incorporation of public understandings of race and discrimination by examining the ...


Reply Brief For Petitioner. Thompson V. North American Stainless, Lp, 562 U.S. 170 (2011) (No. 09-291), 2010 U.S. S. Ct. Briefs Lexis 2135, Eric Schnapper, David O'Brien Suetholz, Lisa S. Blatt, Anthony Franze Nov 2010

Reply Brief For Petitioner. Thompson V. North American Stainless, Lp, 562 U.S. 170 (2011) (No. 09-291), 2010 U.S. S. Ct. Briefs Lexis 2135, Eric Schnapper, David O'Brien Suetholz, Lisa S. Blatt, Anthony Franze

Court Briefs

No abstract provided.


A Furious Kinship: Critical Race Theory And The Hip Hop Nation, André Douglas Pond Cummings Nov 2010

A Furious Kinship: Critical Race Theory And The Hip Hop Nation, André Douglas Pond Cummings

Faculty Scholarship

Two explosive movements were born in the United States in the 1970s. While the founding of both movements was humble and lightly noticed, both grew to become global phenomena that have profoundly changed the world. Founded by prescient agitators, these two movements were borne of disaffect, disappointment, and near desperation - a desperate need to give voice to oppressed and dispossessed peoples. America in the 1970s bore witness to the founding of two furious movements: Critical Race Theory and Hip Hop.

Critical Race Theory was founded as a response to what had been deemed a sputtering civil rights agenda in the ...


Redemption And Resistance: Lessons In Non-Violent Action From Early Aotearoa/New Zealand, Ian Macduff Nov 2010

Redemption And Resistance: Lessons In Non-Violent Action From Early Aotearoa/New Zealand, Ian Macduff

Research Collection School Of Law

This article provides a brief account of the non-violent resistance of two Maori chiefs, Te Whiti and Tohu, in 19th century New Zealand. Each example of such non-violent or passive resistance is unique to its historical and cultural context; but at the same time there is a tangible common ground between this example and those found elsewhere, such as Martin Luther King and Gandhi. This article will also draw a link between the politics of acts of resistance – in this case, resistance to the forceful acquisition of Maori land – and faith-based justifications. In conclusion, it will be suggested that, despite ...


Amicus Curiae Brief In Support Of Plaintiff-Appellees By Asian American Justice Center, Asian Law Caucus, Asian American Institute, Asian Pacific American Legal Center, Asian Pacific American Women Lawyers Alliance, Asian Pacific Islander Legal Outreach, Api Equality, California Conference Of The Naacp, Chinese For Affirmative Action, Coalition For Humane Immigrant Rights Of Los Angeles, Korematsu Center At Seattle University, Mexican American Legal Defense And Education Fund, And The Zuna Institute, Fred T. Korematsu Center For Law And Equality, Attorneys For Amicus Curiae Oct 2010

Amicus Curiae Brief In Support Of Plaintiff-Appellees By Asian American Justice Center, Asian Law Caucus, Asian American Institute, Asian Pacific American Legal Center, Asian Pacific American Women Lawyers Alliance, Asian Pacific Islander Legal Outreach, Api Equality, California Conference Of The Naacp, Chinese For Affirmative Action, Coalition For Humane Immigrant Rights Of Los Angeles, Korematsu Center At Seattle University, Mexican American Legal Defense And Education Fund, And The Zuna Institute, Fred T. Korematsu Center For Law And Equality, Attorneys For Amicus Curiae

Fred T. Korematsu Center for Law and Equality

Perry v. Hollingsworth


Religious Exemption Or Exceptionalism? Exploring The Tension Of First Amendment Religion Protections & Civil Rights Progress Within The Employment Non-Discrimination Act, Richael Faithful Oct 2010

Religious Exemption Or Exceptionalism? Exploring The Tension Of First Amendment Religion Protections & Civil Rights Progress Within The Employment Non-Discrimination Act, Richael Faithful

Articles in Law Reviews & Journals

The District of Columbia (D.C.) marked a landmark civil rights achievement in December 2009 when the city passed the Religious Freedom and Civil Marriage Equality Amendment Act. The law’s enactment allowed D.C. to become the sixth jurisdiction to sanction same-sex marriage in the United States. Supporters hailed the law as a victory for lesbian and gay equality, while detractors vowed that their efforts to traditionally define marriage would continue.

Among the most public opponents of the law was the Catholic Archdiocese of Washington, which operates Catholic Charities, a leading service provider to low-income residents in the metropolitan ...


The State-In-Society Approach To Democratization With Examples From Japan, Mary Alice Haddad Oct 2010

The State-In-Society Approach To Democratization With Examples From Japan, Mary Alice Haddad

Division II Faculty Publications

How does an undemocratic country create democratic institutions and transform its polity in such a way that democratic values and practices become integral parts of its political culture? This article uses the case of Japan to advocate for a new theoretical approach to the study of democratization. In particular, it examines how theoretical models based on the European and North American experiences have difficulty explaining the process of democratization in Japan, and argues that a state-in-society approach is better suited to explaining the democratization process diverse cultural contexts. Taking a bottom-up view of recent developments in Japanese civil society through ...


Reinventing The Eeoc, Nancy M. Modesitt Oct 2010

Reinventing The Eeoc, Nancy M. Modesitt

All Faculty Scholarship

The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) has struggled to be a meaningful force in eradicating employment discrimination since its inception. The primary reasons for this are structural in nature. The EEOC was designed to react to discrimination complaints by investigating and conciliating all of the thousands of complaints filed annually. The EEOC has never been able to investigate all these complaints despite using the vast majority of its resources attempting to do so. The devotion of resources to managing and investigating the huge volume of complaints prevents the EEOC from taking more effective steps to eliminate discrimination. This article proposes ...


El Papel De La Educación Y Las Ong’S En Mejorar El Acceso A Derechos Para Inmigrantes: El Caso De Los Derechos Sexuales Y Reproductivos = The Role Of Education And Ngo’S In Helping Immigrants Obtain Better Access To Their Rights: The Specific Case Of Sexual And Reproductive Rights, Amy Torres Oct 2010

El Papel De La Educación Y Las Ong’S En Mejorar El Acceso A Derechos Para Inmigrantes: El Caso De Los Derechos Sexuales Y Reproductivos = The Role Of Education And Ngo’S In Helping Immigrants Obtain Better Access To Their Rights: The Specific Case Of Sexual And Reproductive Rights, Amy Torres

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

In January of 2004, Argentina approved a new immigration law that guaranteed the protection of human rights for all immigrants in the country regardless of their legal status with the State. Among the rights explicitly guaranteed by this law were the right to migrate, the right to education and the right to health care. While this law represents a significant advance by the Argentine government in protecting the human rights of immigrants, oppressive mechanisms still remain in everyday practices that inhibit actual access to their rights.

Considering the changes in the law and the breach between the laws and everyday ...


Protecting Indigenous Identity And Culture In The Modern Nation-State: A Case Study Of The Sami In Norway, Claire Lockerby Oct 2010

Protecting Indigenous Identity And Culture In The Modern Nation-State: A Case Study Of The Sami In Norway, Claire Lockerby

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

The plight of indigenous peoples around the world is a serious one, and without significant international action, many valuable cultural and linguistic traditions are in grave danger of disappearing altogether. Many of these indigenous groups have experienced detrimental consequences from the history of slavery, colonialism and imperialism, and the emergence of nation-states that stripped them of their autonomy and greatly threatened their way of life. Today, there are some positive examples of international and national efforts to protect indigenous peoples, but unfortunately, most indigenous populations remain dispossessed and underrepresented. Although the international community has established principles of unalienable human rights ...


Bringing War Criminals To Justice And Justice To Victims: Mass Rape In Bosnia-Herzegovina And The Efficiency Of The Icty, Meredith Loken Oct 2010

Bringing War Criminals To Justice And Justice To Victims: Mass Rape In Bosnia-Herzegovina And The Efficiency Of The Icty, Meredith Loken

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This paper investigates if the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia has been efficient in achieving its main objective of “bringing war criminals to justice [and] bringing justice to victims.” This study explores the historical context by which the ICTY was created, and therefore examines the disintegration of Yugoslavia, focusing specifically on the Bosnian War. During this conflict, rape was employed as a method of warfare; this paper presents a brief theoretical examination of rape as a war weapon and analyzes rape and sexual violence as explicit methods of ethnic cleansing in Bosnia-Herzegovina. It explores the evolution of gender ...


A Tale Of Prosecutorial Indiscretion: Ramsey Clark And The Selective Non-Prosecution Of Stokely Carmichael, Lonnie T. Brown Oct 2010

A Tale Of Prosecutorial Indiscretion: Ramsey Clark And The Selective Non-Prosecution Of Stokely Carmichael, Lonnie T. Brown

Scholarly Works

During the height of the Vietnam War and one of the most volatile periods of the civil rights movement, then-Attorney General Ramsey Clark controversially resisted intense political pressure to prosecute Black Power originator and antiwar activist Stokely Carmichael. Taken in isolation, this decision may seem courageous and praiseworthy, but when considered against the backdrop of Clark’s contemporaneous prosecution of an all-white group of similarly situated anti-draft leaders (the so-called Boston Five), his exercise of prosecutorial discretion becomes suspect. Specifically, the Boston Five were prosecuted in 1968 for conspiracy to aid and abet draft evasion, a charge for which the ...


Introduction: Dukes V. Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Elizabeth Chamblee Burch Oct 2010

Introduction: Dukes V. Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Elizabeth Chamblee Burch

Scholarly Works

This short introduction to Dukes v. Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. aims to explain the case and to set the table for what promises to be thought-provoking roundtable discussion hosted by Vanderbilt Law Review En Banc. Accordingly, what follows is a concise overview of the legal background and current debate over the two procedural issues that the Ninth Circuit explored in detail – how to evaluate Rule 23(a)(2)’s commonality when common questions heavily implicate the case’s merits, and when a Rule 23(b)(2) class can include relief apart from injunctive or declaratory relief without endangering due process.


Do Judges Vary In Their Treatment Of Race?, David S. Abrams, Marianne Bertrand, Sendhil Mullainathan Sep 2010

Do Judges Vary In Their Treatment Of Race?, David S. Abrams, Marianne Bertrand, Sendhil Mullainathan

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Are minorities treated differently by the legal system? Systematic racial differences in case characteristics, many unobservable, make this a difficult question to answer directly. In this paper, we estimate whether judges differ from each other in how they sentence minorities, avoiding potential bias from unobservable case characteristics by exploiting the random assignment of cases to judges. We measure the between-judge variation in the difference in incarceration rates and sentence lengths between African-American and White defendants. We perform a Monte Carlo simulation in order to explicitly construct the appropriate counterfactual, where race does not influence judicial sentencing. In our data set ...


Electronic Communications Privacy Act And The Revolution In Cloud Computing : Hearing Before The Subcomm. On The Constitution, Civil Rights, And Civil Liberties Of The H. Comm. On The Judiciary, 111th Cong., Sept. 23, 2010 (Statement By Adjunct Professor Marc J. Zwillinger, Geo. U. L. Center), Marc J. Zwillinger Sep 2010

Electronic Communications Privacy Act And The Revolution In Cloud Computing : Hearing Before The Subcomm. On The Constitution, Civil Rights, And Civil Liberties Of The H. Comm. On The Judiciary, 111th Cong., Sept. 23, 2010 (Statement By Adjunct Professor Marc J. Zwillinger, Geo. U. L. Center), Marc J. Zwillinger

Testimony Before Congress

ECPA has functioned fairly well during its first 20 years in striking the right balance between law enforcement needs and the privacy expectation of U.S. citizens. But when it was initially passed in 1986, Congress recognized that the “law must advance with the technology to ensure the continued vitality of the fourth amendment.” Based on my experience as an ECPA practitioner for the past 13 years, I believe the time is ripe for another advancement. I hope you will consider these perspectives in crafting legislation that balances law enforcement needs and user privacy in a manner that reflects the ...


Veiled Women In The American Courtroom: Is The Niqab A Barrier To Justice?, Anita L. Allen Sep 2010

Veiled Women In The American Courtroom: Is The Niqab A Barrier To Justice?, Anita L. Allen

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

U.S. courts and policy-makers have recently authorized laws and practices that interfere with the wearing of religious modesty attire that conceals the hair or face in contexts such as courtroom testimony or driver’s license issuance. For example, in response to a court’s dismissal of the case of a woman who refused to remove her niqab in the courtroom, the Michigan Supreme Court decided that judges can exercise “reasonable control” over the appearance of courtroom parties. But what degree of control over religious attire is reasonable? The Constitution will not allow a blanket niqab removal policy based on ...


Brief For Petitioner, Thompson V. North American Stainless, Lp, 562 U.S. 170 (2011) (No. 09-291), 2010 Wl 3501186, Eric Schnapper, David O'Brien Suetholz, Lisa S. Blatt Sep 2010

Brief For Petitioner, Thompson V. North American Stainless, Lp, 562 U.S. 170 (2011) (No. 09-291), 2010 Wl 3501186, Eric Schnapper, David O'Brien Suetholz, Lisa S. Blatt

Court Briefs

QUESTIONS PRESENTED

Section 704(a) of Title VII forbids an employer from retaliating against an employee because he or she engaged in certain protected activity. The questions presented are:

(1) Does section 704(a) forbid an employer from retaliating for such activity by inflicting reprisals on a third party, such as a spouse, family member or fiance, who is closely associated with the employee who engaged in such protected activity?

(2) If so, may that prohibition be enforced in a civil action brought by the third party victim?


Civil Rights Violations = Broken Windows: De Minimis Curet Lex, Anita Bernstein Sep 2010

Civil Rights Violations = Broken Windows: De Minimis Curet Lex, Anita Bernstein

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Traveling Concepts: Substantive Equality On The Road, Susanne Baer Sep 2010

Traveling Concepts: Substantive Equality On The Road, Susanne Baer

Articles

Ideas travel. Even legal concepts migrate on the globe. However, it is a contested issue whether migration is a good idea. We may enjoy traveling ourselves, but many people in the world of law are somewhat worried if we take legal baggage along. Some claim that legal baggage never arrives at its destination and challenge the very possibility of what some call a legal transplant. Others claim that we already live in transnational legal contexts, while still others claim that migration occurs, and that modifies each legal concept on the road in rather significant ways, which may render the project ...


Gay Marriage: The Tide Is Turning And There's No Going Back, Peter Dreier Aug 2010

Gay Marriage: The Tide Is Turning And There's No Going Back, Peter Dreier

UEP Faculty & UEPI Staff Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Book Review, Margot Canaday, The Straight State: Sexuality And Citizenship In Twentieth-Century America, Michael Boucai Aug 2010

Book Review, Margot Canaday, The Straight State: Sexuality And Citizenship In Twentieth-Century America, Michael Boucai

Book Reviews

No abstract provided.


Remarks At Memorial Service For The Honorable Morris E. Lasker, U.S. District Court, Southern District Of New York, Michael B. Mushlin Jul 2010

Remarks At Memorial Service For The Honorable Morris E. Lasker, U.S. District Court, Southern District Of New York, Michael B. Mushlin

Pace Law Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Remarks At Memorial Service For The Honorable Morris E. Lasker, U.S. District Court, Southern District Of New York, Nicholas A. Robinson Jul 2010

Remarks At Memorial Service For The Honorable Morris E. Lasker, U.S. District Court, Southern District Of New York, Nicholas A. Robinson

Pace Law Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Discretionary Pricing, Mortgage Discrimination, And The Fair Housing Act, Robert G. Schwemm, Jeffrey L. Taren Jul 2010

Discretionary Pricing, Mortgage Discrimination, And The Fair Housing Act, Robert G. Schwemm, Jeffrey L. Taren

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

For generations, mortgage lending has always been the gateway to the American dream of homeownership, and, historically, has also been characterized by widespread discrimination against racial and ethnic minorities and their communities. Mortgage discrimination in the modem era has often been accomplished through a technique known as discretionary pricing, in which lenders allow their loan officers and brokers to increase borrowers' costs from an objectively determined base rate. In the past decade alone, discretionary pricing has cost minority homeowners billions of dollars in extra payments, which, in tum, has led these minorities to suffer higher foreclosure rates than whites and ...


Equally Insured? Lasting Insurance Industry Reform Came Only With A Rethinking Of Race, Mary L. Heen Jul 2010

Equally Insured? Lasting Insurance Industry Reform Came Only With A Rethinking Of Race, Mary L. Heen

Law Faculty Publications

Earlier this decade, some of America’s best-known life insurance companies quietly settled multimillion-dollar civil rights lawsuits challenging race-based life insurance rates and benefits. As a result, those companies closed a chapter of American economic history that began after the Civil War with the door-to-door marketing of small individual life insurance policies to poor workers, including former slaves, and their families. The closing of this chapter in history also marked the end of a form of Jim Crow race discrimination largely invisible to the American public.


Accounting For Historical Forces In The Effort To Align Law With Science, Derek W. Black Jul 2010

Accounting For Historical Forces In The Effort To Align Law With Science, Derek W. Black

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Probabilities In Probable Cause And Beyond: Statistical Versus Concrete Harms, Sherry F. Colb Jul 2010

Probabilities In Probable Cause And Beyond: Statistical Versus Concrete Harms, Sherry F. Colb

Cornell Law Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.