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Medellin, Delegation And Conflicts (Of Law), Peter B. Rutledge Oct 2009

Medellin, Delegation And Conflicts (Of Law), Peter B. Rutledge

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The case of Medellin v. Texas presented the Supreme Court with a recurring question that has bedeviled judges, legal scholars, and political scientists-what effect, if any, must a United States court give to the decision of an international tribunal, particularly where, during the relevant time, the United States was party to a treaty protocol that bound it to that tribunal's judgments. While the Supreme Court held that the International Court of Justice's ("ICJ") decision was not enforceable federal law, its decision reflected an important recognition that the issues presented in that case were not limited to the specific ...


Human Rights And Military Decisions: Counterinsurgency And Trends In The Law Of, Dan E. Stigall, Christopher L. Blakesley, Chris Jenks Jul 2009

Human Rights And Military Decisions: Counterinsurgency And Trends In The Law Of, Dan E. Stigall, Christopher L. Blakesley, Chris Jenks

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The past several decades have seen a Copernican shift in the paradigm of armed conflict, which the traditional Law of International Armed Conflict (LOIAC) canon has not fully matched. Standing out in stark relief against the backdrop of relative inactivity in LOIAC, is the surfeit of activity in the field of international human rights law, which has become a dramatic new force in the ancient realm of international law. Human rights law, heretofore not formally part of the traditional juridico-military calculus, has gained ever increasing salience in that calculus. Indeed, human rights law has ramified in such a manner that ...


Historical American Perspectives On International Law, Harlan G. Cohen Apr 2009

Historical American Perspectives On International Law, Harlan G. Cohen

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The United States’ relationship with international law, although oft-discussed, is poorly understood. Depictions of the relationship are often little more than caricatures. Depending on when the caricature is drawn, the United States may be a longstanding “champion” of international law, an “exceptionalist” defender of American values, or a hypocritical opponent of international governance. Many traditional histories do little to complicate these views. Focused primarily on foreign affairs law and constitutional war powers, these histories highlight moments of tension between the United States and international law. Missing from these histories of American diplomacy and warcraft, foreign affairs caselaw and doctrinal development ...


Soft Law As Delegation, Timothy L. Meyer Feb 2009

Soft Law As Delegation, Timothy L. Meyer

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This article examines one of the most important trends in international legal governance since the end of the Second World War: the rise of "soft law," or legally non-binding instruments. Scholars studying the design of international agreements have long puzzled over why states use soft law. The decision to make an agreement or obligation legally binding is within the control of the states negotiating the content of the legal obligations. Basic contract theory predicts that parties to a contract would want their agreement to be as credible as possible, to ensure optimal incentives to perform. It is therefore odd that ...


Can International Law Work? A Constructivist Expansion, Harlan G. Cohen Jan 2009

Can International Law Work? A Constructivist Expansion, Harlan G. Cohen

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An increasing number of scholars have begun to apply rational choice methodologies to the study of international law. Earlier rational choice scholarship voicing skepticism about international law’s true force has since been followed by sophisticated rational choice defenses of international law. This review essay focuses on Andrew Guzman’s recent book HOW INTERNATIONAL LAW WORKS: A RATIONAL CHOICE THEORY (2008), one of the best of those defenses. In that book, Guzman develops an elegant and sophisticated account of 'reputation' and the role it can play in encouraging rational compliance with international law. Based on this account, Guzman makes a ...


International Common Law: The Soft Law Of International Tribunals, Timothy L. Meyer, Andrew T. Guzman Jan 2009

International Common Law: The Soft Law Of International Tribunals, Timothy L. Meyer, Andrew T. Guzman

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Rising legalization in the international community has lead to greater use of international tribunals and soft law. This paper explores the intersection of these instruments. The decision of an international tribunal interprets binding legal obligations but is not itself legally binding except, in some instances, as between the parties. The broader, and often more important function of a tribunal's decision - its influence on state behavior beyond the particular case and its impact on perceptions regarding legal obligations - is best characterized as a form of soft law.

Despite its inability to bind states, a tribunal can influence state behavior by ...


Cross-Border Injunctions In U.S. Patent Cases And Their Enforcement Abroad, Marketa Trimble Jan 2009

Cross-Border Injunctions In U.S. Patent Cases And Their Enforcement Abroad, Marketa Trimble

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In surveying recent literature on difficulties with cross-border injunctions in patent cases, one may conclude that the problem appears to be limited to the phenomenon of pan-European injunctions granted by some courts in Europe in cases concerning infringements of foreign patents. However, even in cases concerning domestic patents, injunctions reaching beyond national borders can be issued; the empirical evidence presented in the paper demonstrates a variety of such instances in U.S. patent cases. Certainly the existence of such injunctions in the U.S. raises concerns about their enforceability in other countries, particularly when they are issued against a foreign ...


When Does Might Make Right? Using Force For Regime Change, John Linarelli Jan 2009

When Does Might Make Right? Using Force For Regime Change, John Linarelli

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Should states use force to bring about regime change? International law recognizes no such grounds. This paper seeks to provide guidance from moral theory. The aim of this paper is to identify the moral grounds for the use of armed force by one state or a group of states, against another state, when the intention of the intervening states is to achieve a fundamental change in the character of the political and legal institutions of the other state. Lawyers tend to place the argument for regime change intervention within putative humanitarian intervention doctrines. The moral justification for humanitarian intervention is ...


Ica And The Writing Requirement: Following Modern Trends Towards Liberalization Or Are We Stuck In 1958?, Jack Graves Jan 2009

Ica And The Writing Requirement: Following Modern Trends Towards Liberalization Or Are We Stuck In 1958?, Jack Graves

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Article 7 of the Model Law was revised in 2006 to liberalize any requirements of form, consistent with modern commercial practices and modern legal trends reflected in national laws. To the extent adopted by national legislatures, either of the two available options under this revision will effectively eliminate any requirement of a “record of consent,” thus making arbitration agreements more easily enforceable in the adopting jurisdiction. However, any such revision of national laws on arbitration based on the revisions of Article 7 of the Model Law will not necessarily have any effect on enforcement of awards in other jurisdictions under ...


The Public Policy Exception To Recognition And Enforcement Of Judgments In Cases Of Copyright Infringement, Marketa Trimble Jan 2009

The Public Policy Exception To Recognition And Enforcement Of Judgments In Cases Of Copyright Infringement, Marketa Trimble

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In recent years proposals have been made for an international convention that would facilitate a smooth recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments in intellectual property matters. Like all of these proposals, the American Law Institute’s preliminary version, short titled "Draft Principles" published in March 2007, strives to eliminate most hurdles to recognition and enforcement by providing rules for jurisdiction, choice of law and coordination of multi-territorial actions. As long as the rules are applied by the court that issues a judgment (the “rendering court”), most of the obstacles to recognition and enforcement − differing jurisdictional rules and choice of law ...


Toward Global Corporate Citizenship: Reframing Foreign Direct Investment Law, Rachel J. Anderson Jan 2009

Toward Global Corporate Citizenship: Reframing Foreign Direct Investment Law, Rachel J. Anderson

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This article argues that modern foreign direct investment law is a vestige of the colonial era during which early forms of transnational corporations emerged. Unlike international trade law and despite the dramatic developments of the twentieth century, foreign direct investment law remains largely unchanged. Due to a lack of political will, prior multilateral efforts to implement comprehensive foreign direct investment law reforms have been largely unsuccessful. However, in recent years, growing political will has emerged under the umbrella of Global Corporate Citizenship and related movements. This article posits that Global Corporate Citizenship is an opportunity to reframe and reform foreign ...