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2006

Taxation

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Institution
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Articles 1 - 30 of 30

Full-Text Articles in Law

Optimal Tax Compliance And Penalties When The Law Is Uncertain, Kyle D. Logue Dec 2006

Optimal Tax Compliance And Penalties When The Law Is Uncertain, Kyle D. Logue

Law & Economics Working Papers Archive: 2003-2009

This Article examines the optimal level of tax compliance and the optimal penalty for noncompliance in circumstances in which the tax law is substantively uncertain – that is, when the precise application of the Internal Revenue Code to a particular situation is not clear. In such situations, two interesting questions arise: First, as a normative matter, how certain should a taxpayer be before she relies on a particular interpretation of a substantively uncertain tax rule? That is, if a particular position is not clearly prohibited, but neither is it clearly allowed, under the tax law, what is the appropriate threshold of ...


Holding Charities Accountable: Some Thoughts From An Ex-Regulator, Catharine P. Wells Dec 2006

Holding Charities Accountable: Some Thoughts From An Ex-Regulator, Catharine P. Wells

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

This paper recounts a number of lessons learned in the course of serving as the Director of Public Charities for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. It incorporates these lessons into a discussion of the proper analysis of charitable organizations. Should charities be analogized to for-profit firms or are they something that is essentially different? The paper argues that they lack many of the attributes of Coasian firms and that they should be considered as “consumption groups” that have different methods of accountability.


Tax Practice In A Circular Revolution: A Review Of Pli's Circular 230 Deskbook, Bridget J. Crawford Oct 2006

Tax Practice In A Circular Revolution: A Review Of Pli's Circular 230 Deskbook, Bridget J. Crawford

Pace Law Faculty Publications

This short review essay evaluates the Practicing Law Institute's Circular 230 Deskbook by Jonathan G. Blattmachr, Mitchell M. Gans and Damien Rios. For attorneys, accountants and others who "practice" before the IRS, the Circular 230 Deskbook is a masterful analysis and an important guide to the Internal Revenue Service's labyrinthine rules and regulations governing tax penalties, reportable transactions and the conduct of tax practitioners.

Most tax attorneys and accountants have reacted to the recent changes to Circular 230 by appending banner notices to all written communications. Without fully understanding the underlying rules, however, a practitioner cannot be sure ...


Bankruptcy Reform: What's Tax Got To Do With It?, Michelle A. Cecil Oct 2006

Bankruptcy Reform: What's Tax Got To Do With It?, Michelle A. Cecil

Faculty Publications

The article takes a two-pronged approach to the issue. First, it argues that all post-petition appreciation should be taxed to the debtor rather than to the debtor's bankruptcy estate because the debtor enjoys the benefits of the asset's appreciation in value and because, from a tax perspective, the results will be identical irrespective of whether the debtor or the bankruptcy estate is taxed on the asset's post-petition appreciation. Second, the article proposes that the gain accruing before the termination of the bankruptcy proceeding be treated as discharge of indebtedness income so that the debtor can defer recognition ...


Interpretative Theory And Tax Shelter Regulation, Brian D. Galle Oct 2006

Interpretative Theory And Tax Shelter Regulation, Brian D. Galle

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

This Article responds to an important recent essay in the Columbia Law Review by Marvin Chirelstein and Larry Zelenak. Chirelstein and Zelenak propose a dramatic change in tactics in the way that the government attempts to combat tax shelters - that is, efforts by corporations and high-earning individuals to avoid tax by clever manipulations of the technical terms of the Tax Code. For the past seventy years or so, the IRS has responded to these manipulations by urging courts to read the tax statutes purposively, rather than literally, and thus to deny favorable tax treatment to business transactions entered into with ...


Preventing The Hybrid From Backfiring: Delivery Of Benefits To The Working Poor Through The Tax System, Leslie Book Jul 2006

Preventing The Hybrid From Backfiring: Delivery Of Benefits To The Working Poor Through The Tax System, Leslie Book

Working Paper Series

This article analyzes the government’s increased use of the tax system to deliver benefits to the working poor. The hybrid in this article is the earned income tax credit (EITC), one of the country’s largest anti-poverty programs. The EITC is hybrid in that it is administered in the tax system but is increasingly redistributive, like traditional welfare programs. It reveals that the hybrid tax and welfare nature of the delivery of benefits to the working poor through the tax system results in some significant benefits, such as higher participation and lower administrative costs, but also a weakness in ...


Giving Intellectual Property, Xuan-Thao Nguyen, Jeffrey A. Maine Jun 2006

Giving Intellectual Property, Xuan-Thao Nguyen, Jeffrey A. Maine

Faculty Publications

The interdisciplinarity of intellectual property and taxation poses many challenges to the disparate existing norms in each field of law. This Article identifies and critiques the current tax regime governing the giving of intellectual property as a manifestation of the failure to understand the principles and policies underlying intellectual property and the firm. It proposes an incentives-based system that would encourage firms to extricate part of their repository of residual rights by surrendering their monopolistic ownership of intellectual property for the benefit of charitable organizations and, in turn, the development and growth of society.


Tax Fraud, Money Laundering And The Financing Of Organized Crime, Erin Todisco Apr 2006

Tax Fraud, Money Laundering And The Financing Of Organized Crime, Erin Todisco

Honors Projects Overview

Demonstrates that tax fraud and money laundering are major means of financing organized crime operations and argues that more aggressive enforcement of the tax code and money laundering legislation are necessary to help stop such crime.


Homo Sacer, Homosexual: Some Thoughts On Waging Tax Guerrilla Warfare, Anthony C. Infanti Mar 2006

Homo Sacer, Homosexual: Some Thoughts On Waging Tax Guerrilla Warfare, Anthony C. Infanti

University of Pittsburgh School of Law Working Paper Series

Inspired by Giorgio Agamben’s Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life, this essay raises the question whether lesbians and gay men should fundamentally rethink their relationship with the law. Until now, lesbians and gay men have played by the rules: We bide our time for the appropriate moment to challenge the application of the law, and then do so from within the legal system through impact litigation. Focusing on Agamben’s discussion of Kafka’s parable Before the Law, this essay challenges us to consider whether, instead of engaging the law on its own terms, lesbians and gay men ...


Wheir’S The Beef?: Buffalo Law And Taxation, Erik M. Jensen Feb 2006

Wheir’S The Beef?: Buffalo Law And Taxation, Erik M. Jensen

Faculty Publications

The intersection of buffalo law and taxation hasn't been a busy one, but accidents still happen: not everyone understands that buffalo have the right of way. This article critically analyzes the recent Tax Court summary opinion in Wheir v. Commissioner, which involved a bodybuilder who sought to deduct the cost of an incredible amount of buffalo meat. Along the way, the article brings buffalo law learning up-to-date; revisits some classic, nineteenth-century buffalo law cases; and, most important, considers whether there are important differences between the American bison and American beef cattle - differences that might have relevance to American tax ...


Taxation Of Beards, Erik M. Jensen Feb 2006

Taxation Of Beards, Erik M. Jensen

Faculty Publications

This article makes a compelling case that the United States could learn from the imaginative tax policy-maker Peter the Great and institute a tax on beards. Such a tax could raise a little revenue, decrease scruffiness, and provide a new subject for cutting-edge law review notes.

Note: This a description of the paper and not the actual abstract.


Chickasaw Nation: Interpreting A Broken Statute, Erik M. Jensen Feb 2006

Chickasaw Nation: Interpreting A Broken Statute, Erik M. Jensen

Faculty Publications

This report discusses the Supreme Court's 2001 decision in Chickasaw Nation v. United States, in which the Supreme Court interpreted a provision of the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act that contained contradictory phrases - one suggesting that Indian tribes were exempt from some occupational and excise taxes and one suggesting the contrary. The statute on its face made no sense, and the legislative history was of little help in resolving the ambiguity. Although the statute was clearly broken, the Court concluded that no ambiguity existed and that Congress did not intend to exempt tribes from those various wagering taxes. The author ...


The Taxing Power, The Sixteenth Amendment, And The Meaning Of ‘Incomes,’, Erik M. Jensen Feb 2006

The Taxing Power, The Sixteenth Amendment, And The Meaning Of ‘Incomes,’, Erik M. Jensen

Faculty Publications

This article examines the debates leading to the enactment of the 1894 income tax, which the Supreme Court struck down in 1895, and the Sixteenth Amendment, ratified in 1913, and concludes that an income tax and a tax on consumption were understood to be fundamentally different types of taxes. The author argues that the term “taxes on incomes” in the Sixteenth Amendment should be interpreted with that distinction in mind. The Amendment was intended to make a “tax on incomes,” and only a tax on incomes, possible without the apportionment that would otherwise be required for a direct tax. For ...


Ria Federal Tax Handbook 2006 (Book Review), Elizabeth Outler Feb 2006

Ria Federal Tax Handbook 2006 (Book Review), Elizabeth Outler

UF Law Faculty Publications

Review and explanation of the features of the RIA Federal Tax Handbook.


Unapportioned Direct-Consumption Taxes And The Sixteenth Amendment, Erik M. Jensen Feb 2006

Unapportioned Direct-Consumption Taxes And The Sixteenth Amendment, Erik M. Jensen

Faculty Publications

The point of this essay is simple: a direct-consumption tax like the Forbes-Armey-Hall-Rabushka flat tax or the Nunn-Domenici USA tax is not a "tax on incomes" within the meaning of the Sixteenth Amendment. As a result, such a tax would be constitutional only if it were apportioned among the states on the basis of population. And since these taxes would not be apportioned-how could they be and work as they are intended to work?-they would be unconstitutional.


Taxation And The Constitution: How To Read The Direct-Tax Clauses, Erik M. Jensen Jan 2006

Taxation And The Constitution: How To Read The Direct-Tax Clauses, Erik M. Jensen

Faculty Publications

This essay responds to Professor Bruce Ackerman, who had challenged the author's understanding of the Direct-Tax Clauses of the Constitution and the Sixteenth Amendment to that Constitution.


The Control Of Avoidance: The United States Alternative, John Tiley, Erik M. Jensen Jan 2006

The Control Of Avoidance: The United States Alternative, John Tiley, Erik M. Jensen

Faculty Publications

This article, jointly written by a British and an American academic, describes the American experience in identifying and attacking tax avoidance. The article was part of a symposium issue of the British Tax Review, published by Sweet and Maxwell, devoted to tax avoidance issues around the globe.


Domestic Law And Tax Treaties: The United States, Anthony C. Infanti Jan 2006

Domestic Law And Tax Treaties: The United States, Anthony C. Infanti

University of Pittsburgh School of Law Working Paper Series

In this paper, I provide an overview of the interaction between U.S. domestic law and tax treaties. This paper was prepared for, and was presented at, a conference on domestic law and tax treaties that took place in Milan, Italy in November 2005, under the aegis of the Italian Council of Ministers and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. The papers presented at the conference (including this paper) are scheduled to be published in book form---as part of the International Bureau of Fiscal Documentation’s “EC and International Law Series”---in early 2006.

As is the case with ...


Critical Theory And The Loneliness Of The Tax Prof, Erik M. Jensen Jan 2006

Critical Theory And The Loneliness Of The Tax Prof, Erik M. Jensen

Faculty Publications

This essay, prepared for a symposium on critical theory and tax law, has two goals: to suggest why feminist theory and critical race theory are spreading in taxation and to discuss some dangers of that criticism. The author evaluates three examples of the new criticism: an article on critical race theory by Professors Moran and Whitford; an article on feminist statutory interpretation by Professor Handelman; and a book, Taxing Women, by Professor McCaffery.


The Apportionment Of ‘Direct Taxes’: Are Consumption Taxes Constitutional?, Erik M. Jensen Jan 2006

The Apportionment Of ‘Direct Taxes’: Are Consumption Taxes Constitutional?, Erik M. Jensen

Faculty Publications

In debates about reorienting the American revenue system, nearly everyone assumes the Constitution is irrelevant. With few exceptions, the tax provisions in the original Constitution - particularly the direct-tax apportionment rule and the uniformity rule - have been interpreted to be paper tigers. And in only one major case has the Sixteenth Amendment, which excepts "taxes on incomes" from apportionment, been held to limit congressional power.

S Rejecting conventional wisdom, this Article argues that some consumption taxes would violate constitutional norms. The Article focuses on the requirement that “direct taxes” be apportioned among the states on the basis of population. From a ...


Commentary: Food For Thought And Thoughts About Food: Can Meals And Lodging Provided To Domestic Servants Be For The Convenience Of The Employer?, Erik M. Jensen Jan 2006

Commentary: Food For Thought And Thoughts About Food: Can Meals And Lodging Provided To Domestic Servants Be For The Convenience Of The Employer?, Erik M. Jensen

Faculty Publications

This commentary considers one of the least important issues in tax law: whether the value of meals and lodging provided to domestic servants is excludable from the servants' gross income under section 119 of the Internal Revenue Code. Trivial though the issue is, the author goes on and on-and on, arguing that an example in the regulations under section 119, which concludes that the "business premises of the employer" requirement would be satisfied in such a situation, is misleading in its implications. It's not enough that the meals and lodging be provided on the business premises of the employer ...


The Supreme Court And The Timing Of Deductions For Accrual-Basis Taxpayers, Erik M. Jensen Jan 2006

The Supreme Court And The Timing Of Deductions For Accrual-Basis Taxpayers, Erik M. Jensen

Faculty Publications

This article examines the Supreme Court's two decisions in the late 1980s dealing with the timing of deductions, United States v. Hughes Properties (1986) and United States v. General Dynamics Corp. (1987), and finds those decisions wanting. Indeed, it is hard to understand why the Court exercised its discretionary jurisdiction twice in such a short period when the cases involved technicalities that seemed to overwhelm the generalist justices and when subsequent disputes with similar factual situations would be affected by statutory changes.


Taxation, The Student Athlete, And The Professionalization Of College Athletics, Erik M. Jensen Jan 2006

Taxation, The Student Athlete, And The Professionalization Of College Athletics, Erik M. Jensen

Faculty Publications

It has become common to hear critics argue that big-time college athletes are being exploited by their institutions and that they should be paid fair market value for their services. This article argues that such a policy, if adopted, could have some unexpected consequences for the colleges. The traditional justification for not taxing athletic income (basically meaning, for most big-time schools, that from football and basketball) is that the participants are student athletes, that the activities are related to the colleges’ overall educational purposes, and that the athletic revenue is therefore not subject to the tax on unrelated business income ...


The Uneasy Justification For Special Treatment Of Like-Kind Exchanges, Erik M. Jensen Jan 2006

The Uneasy Justification For Special Treatment Of Like-Kind Exchanges, Erik M. Jensen

Faculty Publications

This article considered the traditional justifications for nonrecognition treatment for like-kind exchanges, as provided in section 1031 of the Internal Revenue Code, and found them wanting. The article nevertheless concluded that, even though the justifications are imperfect, section 1031 has some plausibility to it, at least as applied to traditional, simultaneous exchanges.


Patent Donations And Tax Policy, Xuan-Thao Nguyen, Jeffrey A. Maine Jan 2006

Patent Donations And Tax Policy, Xuan-Thao Nguyen, Jeffrey A. Maine

Faculty Publications

To achieve the policy goals of ultimate innovation, the government should provide incentives to encourage the patentees to donate, rather than abandon, their "orphan" patents to universities, hospitals, and other nonprofit organizations with research and development facilities that can properly exploit the patents. The authors advocate for the implementation of incentives that would encourage donors to surrender their monopolistic ownership of patents for the benefit of charitable organizations and, in tum, the development and growth of society.


Taxing Trademarks And Domain Names, Xuan-Thao Nguyen, Jeffrey A. Maine Jan 2006

Taxing Trademarks And Domain Names, Xuan-Thao Nguyen, Jeffrey A. Maine

Faculty Publications

With the arrival of global electronic commerce transactions on the Internet, new forms of intellectual property rights, such as Internet domain names, have emerged. Today, Internet domain names are some companies' most valuable assets. Yet law professors, attorneys, and judges struggle with the legal nature of domain names, which is far from settled. Questions drawing recent attention include: How should domain names be valued? Can domain names be used as collateral in secured transactions, and how does one perfect a security interest in domain names? What will happen to domain names in bankruptcy?


Assessing Internal Revenue Code Section 132 After Twenty Years, Wayne M. Gazur Jan 2006

Assessing Internal Revenue Code Section 132 After Twenty Years, Wayne M. Gazur

Articles

In 1984, Congress enacted Internal Revenue Code section 132 to bring more certainty to the taxation of employee fringe benefits. This article examines the impact of the legislation from the standpoint of administrative pronouncements and taxpayer litigation. The article concludes that section 132 has produced little litigation, but primarily because it has played the role of increasing exclusions. It remains unclear whether section 132 has also contained the growth of new forms of nonstatutory fringe benefits.


Recent Developments In Federal Income Taxation: The Year 2005, Martin J. Mcmahon Jr., Ira B. Shepard Jan 2006

Recent Developments In Federal Income Taxation: The Year 2005, Martin J. Mcmahon Jr., Ira B. Shepard

UF Law Faculty Publications

This recent developments outline discusses, and provides context to understand, the significance of, the most important judicial decisions and administrative rulings and regulations promulgated by the Internal Revenue Service and Treasury Department during 2005 - and sometimes a little farther back in time if we find the item particularly humorous or outrageous. Most Treasury Regulations, however, are so complex that they cannot be discussed in detail and, anyway, only a devout masochist would read them all the way through; just the basic topic and fundamental principles are highlighted. Amendments to the Internal Revenue Code generally are not discussed except to the ...


Do Attorneys Do Their Clients Justice? An Empirical Study Of Lawyers' Effects On Tax Court Litigation Outcomes, Leandra Lederman, Warren B. Hrung Jan 2006

Do Attorneys Do Their Clients Justice? An Empirical Study Of Lawyers' Effects On Tax Court Litigation Outcomes, Leandra Lederman, Warren B. Hrung

Articles by Maurer Faculty

Do attorneys really add value or can unrepresented parties achieve equivalent results? This fundamental question ordinarily is difficult to answer empirically. An equally important question both for attorneys and the justice system is whether attorneys prolong disputes or instead facilitate expeditious resolution of cases.

Fortunately, there is a federal court that provides an excellent laboratory in which to test and answer these questions. In the United States Tax Court (Tax Court), where most federal tax cases are litigated, the government always is represented by Internal Revenue Service attorneys but a large portion of the taxpayer litigants proceed pro se. In ...


The Heroic Nature Of Tax Lawyers, Erik M. Jensen Jan 2006

The Heroic Nature Of Tax Lawyers, Erik M. Jensen

Faculty Publications

This essay uses John Grisham’s monumental work, 'The Firm,' to refute the notion that tax lawyers are nerds. A tax lawyer himself, the author challenges anyone who disagrees with him to a duel with broadswords.