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2006

Tax Law

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Replacing The Federal Income Tax With A Postpaid Consumption Tax: Preliminary Thoughts Regarding A Government Matching Program For Wealthy Investors And A New Tax Policy Lens, J. Clifton Fleming Jr. Dec 2006

Replacing The Federal Income Tax With A Postpaid Consumption Tax: Preliminary Thoughts Regarding A Government Matching Program For Wealthy Investors And A New Tax Policy Lens, J. Clifton Fleming Jr.

Faculty Scholarship

In recent years, proposals have been made to replace the federal income tax with a postpaid consumption tax - that is, a federal value added tax ("VAT"), a federal retail sales tax ("RST"), or a federal cash-flow (consumed income) tax. Because these taxes can be constructed so that they are indistinguishable at the level of the ultimate consumer in terms of their principal effects, and because a prominent recent proposal is the RST approach, I have written this article in terms of an RST/income tax comparison. The analysis, however, would be mostly the same if the income tax was compared ...


Optimal Tax Compliance And Penalties When The Law Is Uncertain, Kyle D. Logue Dec 2006

Optimal Tax Compliance And Penalties When The Law Is Uncertain, Kyle D. Logue

Law & Economics Working Papers Archive: 2003-2009

This Article examines the optimal level of tax compliance and the optimal penalty for noncompliance in circumstances in which the tax law is substantively uncertain – that is, when the precise application of the Internal Revenue Code to a particular situation is not clear. In such situations, two interesting questions arise: First, as a normative matter, how certain should a taxpayer be before she relies on a particular interpretation of a substantively uncertain tax rule? That is, if a particular position is not clearly prohibited, but neither is it clearly allowed, under the tax law, what is the appropriate threshold of ...


Taxes And Competitiveness, Michael S. Knoll Dec 2006

Taxes And Competitiveness, Michael S. Knoll

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Around the world, the tax laws are shaped by concerns with competitiveness. This paper provides a general theory of how taxes impact competitiveness. As part of that theory, this paper also introduces the concept of tax-based competitiveness neutrality. A tax system is competitively neutral when taxes do not cause competitors to change their relative valuations of any investments. This paper then uses that theory to evaluate tax policy in two high profile and important areas. The paper begins by describing two models of competitiveness, called the conduit or new money model and the investor or old money model. The central ...


Implementing A Progressive Consumption Tax: Advantages Of Adopting The Vat Credit-Method System, Itai Grinberg Dec 2006

Implementing A Progressive Consumption Tax: Advantages Of Adopting The Vat Credit-Method System, Itai Grinberg

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

A credit–method value–added tax, a payroll tax, and a business–level wage subsidy can approximate the economic and distributional consequences of a subtraction–method X–tax. Such a credit–method progressive consumption tax has administrative advantages as compared to a subtraction–method progressive consumption tax, once certain political factors are taken into account. Further, unlike a subtraction–method system, a credit– method progressive consumption tax could easily interact with other tax systems around the world and comply with World Trade Organization rules without sacrifi cing best practice VAT design features that allow for effective enforcement.


Comparison Of S Corporations And Llcs, Stefan F. Tucker Nov 2006

Comparison Of S Corporations And Llcs, Stefan F. Tucker

William & Mary Annual Tax Conference

No abstract provided.


Business Combinations: Mergers And Sales And Purchases Of Ownership Interests And Entity Assets (Related Articles), Stephen L. Owen Nov 2006

Business Combinations: Mergers And Sales And Purchases Of Ownership Interests And Entity Assets (Related Articles), Stephen L. Owen

William & Mary Annual Tax Conference

No abstract provided.


Business Combinations: Mergers And Sales And Purchases Of Ownership Interests And Entity Assets, Thomas P. Rohman, Stephen L. Owen Nov 2006

Business Combinations: Mergers And Sales And Purchases Of Ownership Interests And Entity Assets, Thomas P. Rohman, Stephen L. Owen

William & Mary Annual Tax Conference

No abstract provided.


S Corporations Redemptions And Divisions, Farhad Aghdami Nov 2006

S Corporations Redemptions And Divisions, Farhad Aghdami

William & Mary Annual Tax Conference

No abstract provided.


Executive Compensation Techniques For Closely-Held Businesses, Jeffrey R. Capwell Nov 2006

Executive Compensation Techniques For Closely-Held Businesses, Jeffrey R. Capwell

William & Mary Annual Tax Conference

No abstract provided.


Liquidating According To Capital Accounts: Gone With The Wind?, Brian J. O'Connor, Steven R. Schneider Nov 2006

Liquidating According To Capital Accounts: Gone With The Wind?, Brian J. O'Connor, Steven R. Schneider

William & Mary Annual Tax Conference

No abstract provided.


Partnership Tax Allocation Provisions, Brian J. O'Connor Nov 2006

Partnership Tax Allocation Provisions, Brian J. O'Connor

William & Mary Annual Tax Conference

No abstract provided.


Tax Considerations Of Transfers To And Distributions From The C Or S Corporation, C. Wells Hall Iii Nov 2006

Tax Considerations Of Transfers To And Distributions From The C Or S Corporation, C. Wells Hall Iii

William & Mary Annual Tax Conference

No abstract provided.


Property And Liability Transfers To Partnerships: Built-In Gain Or Loss, Boot, And Disguised Sales, Andrea M. Whiteway Nov 2006

Property And Liability Transfers To Partnerships: Built-In Gain Or Loss, Boot, And Disguised Sales, Andrea M. Whiteway

William & Mary Annual Tax Conference

No abstract provided.


Murphy And The Evolution Of "Basis", Deborah A. Geier Nov 2006

Murphy And The Evolution Of "Basis", Deborah A. Geier

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

Marrita Murphy received compensatory damages of $45,000 for emotional distress or mental anguish and $25,000 for injury to professional reputation after bringing a complaint with the Department of Labor under various whistle-blower statutes. A three-judge panel of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit unanimously held, in an opinion written by Chief Judge Douglas Ginsburg, that Murphy's damages were not due to physical injury and thus could not be excluded under the authority of section 104(a)(2) of the Internal Revenue Code but that the government nevertheless could not, under the Constitution ...


Unjust Enrichment And Wrongly Paid Tax, Hang Wu Tang Nov 2006

Unjust Enrichment And Wrongly Paid Tax, Hang Wu Tang

Research Collection School Of Law

Boake Allen Limited v. Revenue and Customs Commissioners [2006] EWCA Civ 25 concerned early payment of Advance Corporation Tax ("ACT"). ACT was normally payable when a company paid dividends to its shareholders, but there was a statutory exception where the company was a subsidiary of a United Kingdom company and both the parent and subsidiary made a group income election. If the tax authorities accepted the election, the obligation to pay ACT would only accrue when the parent company paid dividends. Section 247 of the Income and Corporation Taxes Act 1988 ("ICTA") stipulated that group income elections were only available ...


Tax Practice In A Circular Revolution: A Review Of Pli's Circular 230 Deskbook, Bridget J. Crawford Oct 2006

Tax Practice In A Circular Revolution: A Review Of Pli's Circular 230 Deskbook, Bridget J. Crawford

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This short review essay evaluates the Practicing Law Institute's Circular 230 Deskbook by Jonathan G. Blattmachr, Mitchell M. Gans and Damien Rios. For attorneys, accountants and others who "practice" before the IRS, the Circular 230 Deskbook is a masterful analysis and an important guide to the Internal Revenue Service's labyrinthine rules and regulations governing tax penalties, reportable transactions and the conduct of tax practitioners. Most tax attorneys and accountants have reacted to the recent changes to Circular 230 by appending banner notices to all written communications. Without fully understanding the underlying rules, however, a practitioner cannot be sure ...


Bankruptcy Reform: What's Tax Got To Do With It?, Michelle A. Cecil Oct 2006

Bankruptcy Reform: What's Tax Got To Do With It?, Michelle A. Cecil

Faculty Publications

The article takes a two-pronged approach to the issue. First, it argues that all post-petition appreciation should be taxed to the debtor rather than to the debtor's bankruptcy estate because the debtor enjoys the benefits of the asset's appreciation in value and because, from a tax perspective, the results will be identical irrespective of whether the debtor or the bankruptcy estate is taxed on the asset's post-petition appreciation. Second, the article proposes that the gain accruing before the termination of the bankruptcy proceeding be treated as discharge of indebtedness income so that the debtor can defer recognition ...


A Diversity Theory Of Charitable Tax Exemption—Beyond Efficiency, Through Critical Race Theory, Toward Diversity, David A. Brennen Oct 2006

A Diversity Theory Of Charitable Tax Exemption—Beyond Efficiency, Through Critical Race Theory, Toward Diversity, David A. Brennen

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

What is the normative rationale for the federal income tax exemption for nonprofit charitable corporations? Even though the exemption dates back to 1894, Congress has failed to fully rationalize it. Though scholars and courts have attempted over the years to come up with a coherent rationale for the charitable tax exemption, their attempts are focused almost exclusively on economic efficiency. Thus, the charitable tax exemption is typically framed by noted tax scholars like Boris Bittker, Henry Hansmann, and others as an economically efficient means of providing certain goods and services to the public. Rationalizing the charitable tax exemption in economic ...


A Diversity Theory Of Charitable Tax Exemption -- Beyond Efficiency, Through Critical Race Theory, Toward Diversity, David A. Brennen Oct 2006

A Diversity Theory Of Charitable Tax Exemption -- Beyond Efficiency, Through Critical Race Theory, Toward Diversity, David A. Brennen

Scholarly Works

Part I of the article presents Robin Paul Malloy's Law and Market Economy Theory (“LMT”) as an example of the basis for a normative explanation of the charitable tax exemption. LMT addresses the relationship among law, markets, and culture. Thus, using LMT, this part demonstrates how traditional law and economic analysis, premised on self-interest and wealth maximization, simply does not capture the essence of the many values that impact the marketplace and the market exchange process. Instead, LMT approaches legal analysis in a broader market context and is premised on the need to promote a process of sustainable wealth ...


Swallows As It Might Have Been: Regulations Revising Case Law, Steve R. Johnson Aug 2006

Swallows As It Might Have Been: Regulations Revising Case Law, Steve R. Johnson

Scholarly Publications

This is the second of two reports on the Swallozvs Holding decision. 1 In that case, the Tax Court, over three dissenting opinions, invalidated a timing rule contained in a Treasury regulation under IRC section 882. That timing rule provided that some foreign corporations could not claim otherwise available deductions if their returns for the tax year were filed outside an 18-month grace period. The majority and the dissenters clashed over which line of authority – Chevron 2 or the pre-Chevron tax-specific line of decisions typified by National Muffier3 – provides the governing standard for evaluating the validity of general authority ...


Drawing The Line: One Taxpayer's Economic Development Incentive Is Often Another's Discriminatory Tax, Walter Hellerstein Aug 2006

Drawing The Line: One Taxpayer's Economic Development Incentive Is Often Another's Discriminatory Tax, Walter Hellerstein

Popular Media

Shackelford Professor Walter Hellerstein shares his opinions regarding Congress' need to define more clearly what types of state and local tax incentives are legal. Prof. Hellerstein was asked to provide testimony on these issues at a U.S. Senate hearing before the Subcommittee on International Trade of the Committee on Finance. He also testified on this topic before a U.S. House of Representatives subcommittee and provided an overview of the American debate to the United Kingdom’s Treasury Department, which faces similar issues in relation to Member States of the European Union seeking to encourage economic growth and productivity ...


Swallows Holding As It Is: The Distortion Of National Muffler, Steve R. Johnson Jul 2006

Swallows Holding As It Is: The Distortion Of National Muffler, Steve R. Johnson

Scholarly Publications

I like big ideas. The opportunity to work with them, and hopefully to add to them, is one of the joys of academic life. But perspective also is required. Not everything genuinely presents "macro" issues. As Freud supposedly said, “Sometimes a cigar is just a cigar.”

In Swallows Holding Ltd. v. Commissioner, the Tax Court, over three dissenting opinions, invalidated a return-filing timing rule in a Treasury regulation under section 882 of the !RC. It is clear that what drove the majority opinion was the perception that the timing rule was contrary to many previous cases interpreting the statute. As ...


Preventing The Hybrid From Backfiring: Delivery Of Benefits To The Working Poor Through The Tax System, Leslie Book Jul 2006

Preventing The Hybrid From Backfiring: Delivery Of Benefits To The Working Poor Through The Tax System, Leslie Book

Working Paper Series

This article analyzes the government’s increased use of the tax system to deliver benefits to the working poor. The hybrid in this article is the earned income tax credit (EITC), one of the country’s largest anti-poverty programs. The EITC is hybrid in that it is administered in the tax system but is increasingly redistributive, like traditional welfare programs. It reveals that the hybrid tax and welfare nature of the delivery of benefits to the working poor through the tax system results in some significant benefits, such as higher participation and lower administrative costs, but also a weakness in ...


Giving Intellectual Property, Xuan-Thao Nguyen, Jeffrey A. Maine Jun 2006

Giving Intellectual Property, Xuan-Thao Nguyen, Jeffrey A. Maine

Faculty Publications

The interdisciplinarity of intellectual property and taxation poses many challenges to the disparate existing norms in each field of law. This Article identifies and critiques the current tax regime governing the giving of intellectual property as a manifestation of the failure to understand the principles and policies underlying intellectual property and the firm. It proposes an incentives-based system that would encourage firms to extricate part of their repository of residual rights by surrendering their monopolistic ownership of intellectual property for the benefit of charitable organizations and, in turn, the development and growth of society.


Using State Fraudulent Conveyance Law To Collect Federal Taxes, Steve R. Johnson Jun 2006

Using State Fraudulent Conveyance Law To Collect Federal Taxes, Steve R. Johnson

Scholarly Publications

The I.R.S. has an imposing armamentarium of means by which to collect unpaid taxes. They include the general tax lien, various special tax liens, administrative levy and sale, and judicial sale. There are many administrative and judicial protections for taxpayers and third parties against the overly zealous application of these and other devices. Nonetheless, the I.R.S.’s collection options are of imposing breadth and power, considerably exceeding collection options available to private creditors.

Confronted by these collection devices, those who owe taxes and are determined not to pay them sometimes resort to transferring their assets to ...


Hearing On Corporate Tax Reform: Hearing Before The Subcomm. On Select Revenue Measures Of The H. Comm. On Ways And Means, 109th Cong., May 9, 2006 (Statement Of Professor Ronald A. Pearlman, Geo. U. L. Center), Ronald A. Pearlman May 2006

Hearing On Corporate Tax Reform: Hearing Before The Subcomm. On Select Revenue Measures Of The H. Comm. On Ways And Means, 109th Cong., May 9, 2006 (Statement Of Professor Ronald A. Pearlman, Geo. U. L. Center), Ronald A. Pearlman

Testimony Before Congress

No abstract provided.


Lipstick, Light Beer, And Backloaded Savings Accounts, Karen C. Burke, Grayson M.P. Mccouch Apr 2006

Lipstick, Light Beer, And Backloaded Savings Accounts, Karen C. Burke, Grayson M.P. Mccouch

UF Law Faculty Publications

The article addresses current proposals for expanding tax-preferred individual savings accounts and their implications for retirement security and tax policy. The authors argue that the yield-exempt approach embraced by the Bush Administration in its proposals is likely to generate enormous long-term revenue losses, exacerbate inequalities in income and wealth, and erode broad-based coverage under employer-sponsored retirement plans. In addition to these fiscal and distributional concerns, they conclude that the proposals pose a serious obstacle to fundamental tax reform.


Reforming The Branch Profits Tax To Advance Neutrality, Fred B. Brown Apr 2006

Reforming The Branch Profits Tax To Advance Neutrality, Fred B. Brown

All Faculty Scholarship

Congress enacted the branch profits tax in order to reduce the disparity between the taxation of U.S. subsidiaries and U.S. branches of foreign corporations. The branch profits tax attempts to promote neutrality by subjecting the U.S. branch earnings of a foreign corporation to a second level of U.S. tax upon the deemed remittance of the earnings outside of the U.S. branch. This is to approximate the second-level tax that occurs in the subsidiary setting when a U.S. subsidiary pays dividends to its foreign parent. Unlike the dividend tax in the subsidiary setting, however, the ...


Tax Fraud, Money Laundering And The Financing Of Organized Crime, Erin Todisco Apr 2006

Tax Fraud, Money Laundering And The Financing Of Organized Crime, Erin Todisco

Honors Projects Overview

Demonstrates that tax fraud and money laundering are major means of financing organized crime operations and argues that more aggressive enforcement of the tax code and money laundering legislation are necessary to help stop such crime.


Homo Sacer, Homosexual: Some Thoughts On Waging Tax Guerrilla Warfare, Anthony C. Infanti Mar 2006

Homo Sacer, Homosexual: Some Thoughts On Waging Tax Guerrilla Warfare, Anthony C. Infanti

University of Pittsburgh School of Law Working Paper Series

Inspired by Giorgio Agamben’s Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life, this essay raises the question whether lesbians and gay men should fundamentally rethink their relationship with the law. Until now, lesbians and gay men have played by the rules: We bide our time for the appropriate moment to challenge the application of the law, and then do so from within the legal system through impact litigation. Focusing on Agamben’s discussion of Kafka’s parable Before the Law, this essay challenges us to consider whether, instead of engaging the law on its own terms, lesbians and gay men ...