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Full-Text Articles in Law

The Definition And Jurisdiction Of The Crime Of Aggression And The International Criminal Court, Buhm-Suk Baek Dec 2006

The Definition And Jurisdiction Of The Crime Of Aggression And The International Criminal Court, Buhm-Suk Baek

Cornell Law School J.D. Student Research Papers

The United Nations Diplomatic Conference of Plenipotentiaries on the Establishment of an International Criminal Court that was held in Rome to establish the International Criminal Court in 1998 finally adopted the Rome Statute with the participation of 160 countries. The Rome Statute of the ICC entered into force on 1 July 2002 and has been ratified by 100 States. What was considered not so long ago merely a dream of a few people has become a reality after the strenuous efforts of the UN over 50 years. However, one central issue still remains unresolved in the Rome Status. It is ...


Making Law, Making War, Making America (Revised 12/6/06), Mary Dudziak Dec 2006

Making Law, Making War, Making America (Revised 12/6/06), Mary Dudziak

University of Southern California Legal Studies Working Paper Series

It is often said that “in times of war, law is silent,” but this essay argues that the experience of the twentieth century provides a sharp contrast to this old saying. It is not just that law was not silent during warfare, but that law provided a language within which war could be seen. War is not a natural category outside the law, but is in part produced by it. Across decades of conflict, law was a marker that defined for the nation some of those times when conflict would be contemplated as a “war,” and helped cabin other uses ...


Torture As A Problem In Ordinary Legal Interpretation, Alan Hyde Nov 2006

Torture As A Problem In Ordinary Legal Interpretation, Alan Hyde

Cornell Law Faculty Publications

American legal discourse on torture takes for granted some, usually all, of the following propositions, that make discussion of torture more difficult than it should be. Torture is assumed to present unusually difficult problems of definition, full of vague concepts, fine lines, gray areas, murky moral dilemmas, "dirty hands." This vagueness is thought to be even more of a problem for the attendant concept of "cruel, inhuman, and degrading treatment." The legal sources of either prohibition are assumed to be dubious under American law. Prohibiting torture is, perhaps for these reasons, thought to require moral justification not necessarily required of ...


Charting Developments Concerning Punitive Damages: Is The Tide Changing?, John Y. Gotanda Nov 2006

Charting Developments Concerning Punitive Damages: Is The Tide Changing?, John Y. Gotanda

Working Paper Series

This essay discusses a number of developments outside of the United States concerning punitive damages, which may ultimately signal a change in the way other countries view American awards of such damages.

To date, courts in many countries have refused to recognize and enforce American punitive damages awards on the ground that they violate the host country’s public policy. In most civil law countries, such as France and Germany, penal damages can only be ordered in criminal proceedings; a civil award of such damages has been viewed as contrary to ordre public. In common law countries, while punitive damages ...


The Tiger Awakens: The Tumultuous Transformation Of India’S Patent System And The Rise Of Indian Pharmaceutical Innovation, Janice M. Mueller Aug 2006

The Tiger Awakens: The Tumultuous Transformation Of India’S Patent System And The Rise Of Indian Pharmaceutical Innovation, Janice M. Mueller

University of Pittsburgh School of Law Working Paper Series

India developed a world-class generic drug manufacturing industry by excluding pharmaceutical products from patent protection in 1972. In 2005, India reintroduced pharmaceutical patenting in order to comply with its obligations as a WTO member. For an emerging superpower still mired in poverty and public health crises, the change did not come quickly or without controversy. This Article provides the first major comparative analysis of India’s new patents regime. Based on the author’s data gathering and interviews in India, the Article evaluates the regime’s first eighteen months. It critiques the new law and the capacity of India’s ...


The Politics Of Memory/Errinerungspolitik And The Use And Propriety Of Law In The Process Of Memory Construction, Vivian Grosswald Curran Aug 2006

The Politics Of Memory/Errinerungspolitik And The Use And Propriety Of Law In The Process Of Memory Construction, Vivian Grosswald Curran

University of Pittsburgh School of Law Working Paper Series

The post-Second World War trial for the crime against humanity from the start assumed pedagogical proportions, with the tribunals involved conscious that their legal verdicts would represent historical pronouncement and national values. The newly defined crime has been asked to institutionalize far more than the traditional task of adjudicating the guilt or innocence of the defendant. The trials themselves are meant to define the past, create and crystallize national memory, and illuminate the foundations of the future. I suggest that, by placing a burden on law that it is not designed to bear, we risk deforming law and legal principle ...


Damages In Lieu Of Performance Because Of Breach Of Contract, John Y. Gotanda Jul 2006

Damages In Lieu Of Performance Because Of Breach Of Contract, John Y. Gotanda

Working Paper Series

In contract disputes between transnational contracting parties, damages are often awarded to compensate a claimant for loss, injury or detriment resulting from a respondent’s failure to perform the agreement. In fact, damages may be the principal means of substituting for performance or they may complement other remedies, such as recision or specific performance.

Damages for breach of contract typically serve to protect one of three interests of a claimant: (1) performance interest (also known as expectation interest); (2) reliance interest; or (3) restitution interest. The primary goal of damages in most jurisdictions is to fulfil a claimant’s performance ...


The Future Of International Law Is Domestic (Or, The European Way Of Law), William W. Burke-White, Anne-Marie Slaughter Jul 2006

The Future Of International Law Is Domestic (Or, The European Way Of Law), William W. Burke-White, Anne-Marie Slaughter

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

No abstract provided.


The Transatlantic Gmo Dispute Against The European Communities: Some Preliminary Thoughts, David A. Wirth Jul 2006

The Transatlantic Gmo Dispute Against The European Communities: Some Preliminary Thoughts, David A. Wirth

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

Any day now, a World Trade Organization panel is expected to rule in a dispute between the U.S. and the EU concerning market access for genetically-engineered foods and crops. This piece, written before the release of the WTO panel's report, analyzes novel systemic issues concerning the impact of WTO law on regulatory design, at both the national and international levels, that are raised by this dispute. These include (1) the application of WTO disciplines to regulatory schemes that require prior governmental approval to protect the environment and public health from newly-introduced products and substances; (2) the role of ...


Review Essay: The Limits Of Their World, Robert C. Hockett Jun 2006

Review Essay: The Limits Of Their World, Robert C. Hockett

Cornell Law Faculty Publications

I take a recent monograph on international law, Jack Goldsmith & Eric Posner's "Limits of International Law," as case study in a more general inquiry into the limitations of rational choice and game theoretic accounts of international law. I argue that international law is irreducibly normative in character, and that the task before us is to ensure that it gives expression to the right norms, not to pretend that it gives expression to no norms at all.


Rules Are Made To Be Broken: How The Process Of Expedited Removal Fails Asylum Seekers, Michele R. Pistone, John J. Hoeffner Esq. Jun 2006

Rules Are Made To Be Broken: How The Process Of Expedited Removal Fails Asylum Seekers, Michele R. Pistone, John J. Hoeffner Esq.

Working Paper Series

Immigration inspectors are authorized to deport persons who arrive at U.S. ports without valid travel documents. This process, which usually occurs within 48 hours and does not allow for judicial review, is called expedited removal. This article begins by summarizing the findings of the few studies allowed access to the process. The authors extrapolate from the studies to demonstrate that thousands of genuine asylum seekers have erroneously been deported via expedited removal. The greatest cause of erroneous deportation is a failure by the agency responsible for the process, Customs and Border Protection (CBP), to follow its own rules. The ...


A Gravity Model Of Globalization, Democracy And Transnational Terrorism, S Brock Blomberg, B Peter Rosendorff May 2006

A Gravity Model Of Globalization, Democracy And Transnational Terrorism, S Brock Blomberg, B Peter Rosendorff

University of Southern California Legal Studies Working Paper Series

This paper provides an original study into how democratization and globalization influence transnational terrorism -- examining the motives of terrorists and how democratic institutions and international integration influence non-state economic actors. We employ a gravity model to investigate the relative importance of globalization and democratization on transnational terrorism and external conflict. We construct an original database of over 200,000 observations from 1968-2003 for 189 countries, to examine the extent to which economic, political and historical factors influence the likelihood of citizens from one country to engage in terrorist activities against another. We …nd that the advent of democratic institutions, high ...


Turning Medals Into Metal: Evaluating The Court Of Arbitration For Sport As An International Tribunal, Daniel H. Yi May 2006

Turning Medals Into Metal: Evaluating The Court Of Arbitration For Sport As An International Tribunal, Daniel H. Yi

Student Scholarship Papers

The history of transnational adjudication is littered with failure and disappointment. War crimes tribunals have often become farces, the ICC has exacerbated armed conflicts, and even the venerable ICJ has endured humiliating failures. This piece makes a compelling case for why one international tribunal, the Court of Arbitration for Sport (“CAS”), has managed to flourish in the otherwise depressing landscape of transnational adjudication. Specifically, the article makes a novel argument for 1) why parties are drawn to the CAS, and 2) how the CAS’ speech acts manage to have force.


Saddam Hussein's Trial In Iraq: Fairness, Legitimacy & Alternatives, A Legal Analysis, Christian Eckart May 2006

Saddam Hussein's Trial In Iraq: Fairness, Legitimacy & Alternatives, A Legal Analysis, Christian Eckart

Cornell Law School J.D. Student Research Papers

The paper focuses on Saddam Hussein’s trial in front of the Iraqi High Criminal Court in Baghdad. After providing an overview of the facts surrounding the court’s installation, the applicable international law is identified and the fairness and legitimacy of the current proceedings are analyzed. The paper finishes by considering whether the trial should be relocated and addresses alternative venues that could have been chosen to prosecute Iraq’s ex-dictator.


Terrorism And Asylum Seekers: Why The Real Id Act Is A False Promise, Marisa S. Cianciarulo Apr 2006

Terrorism And Asylum Seekers: Why The Real Id Act Is A False Promise, Marisa S. Cianciarulo

Working Paper Series

The Real ID Act, passed on May 11, 2005, is the first post-September 11 antiterrorism legislation specifically to target a group of vulnerable individuals to whom the United States has historically granted protection: asylum seekers. The passage of the Real ID Act led asylum advocates to wring their hands in despair and immigration restrictionists to clap their hands in glee. This Article argues that both sides of the debate may have been justified in their reactions, but not because of the immediate chilling impact on asylum that they seem to expect. With regard to requirements for establishing asylum eligibility, the ...


New International Human Rights Standards On Unauthorized Immigrant Worker Rights: Seizing An Opportunity To Pull Governments Out Of The Shadows, Beth Lyon Apr 2006

New International Human Rights Standards On Unauthorized Immigrant Worker Rights: Seizing An Opportunity To Pull Governments Out Of The Shadows, Beth Lyon

Working Paper Series

Governments cannot ignore international human rights standards for unauthorized migrant workers forever. This chapter presents a call for comparative work on the issue of the legal regimes affecting unauthorized immigrant workers in order to bring governments into greater awareness and compliance with their obligations to unauthorized immigrant workers.

Global illegal migration by laborers seeking economic opportunities is expanding, resulting in an increasing number of migrants in every country who are working in violation of immigration laws. Unauthorized immigrant workers are numerous enough to form a recognizable group in every major world economy, because most receiving countries have immigration laws that ...


Domestic Law And Tax Treaties: The United States, Anthony C. Infanti Jan 2006

Domestic Law And Tax Treaties: The United States, Anthony C. Infanti

University of Pittsburgh School of Law Working Paper Series

In this paper, I provide an overview of the interaction between U.S. domestic law and tax treaties. This paper was prepared for, and was presented at, a conference on domestic law and tax treaties that took place in Milan, Italy in November 2005, under the aegis of the Italian Council of Ministers and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. The papers presented at the conference (including this paper) are scheduled to be published in book form---as part of the International Bureau of Fiscal Documentation’s “EC and International Law Series”---in early 2006.

As is the case with ...


Why Trade Law Needs A Theory Of Justice, Frank J. Garcia Jan 2006

Why Trade Law Needs A Theory Of Justice, Frank J. Garcia

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

No abstract provided.


Responsibilities Of Judges And Advocates In Civil And Common Law: Some Lingering Misconceptions Concerning Civil Lawsuits, Geoffrey C. Hazard Jr., Angelo Dondi Jan 2006

Responsibilities Of Judges And Advocates In Civil And Common Law: Some Lingering Misconceptions Concerning Civil Lawsuits, Geoffrey C. Hazard Jr., Angelo Dondi

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

No abstract provided.


Gender Equality And Women's Solidarity Across Religious, Ethnic And Class Difference In The Kenyan Constitutional Review Process, Athena D. Mutua Jan 2006

Gender Equality And Women's Solidarity Across Religious, Ethnic And Class Difference In The Kenyan Constitutional Review Process, Athena D. Mutua

Journal Articles

This paper examines Kenyan's women's struggle to gain new legal authority for gender equality and women's empowerment in the Kenya Constitutional Review process. Specifically it examines the efforts of the campaign to "safeguard the gains of women in the Draft Constitution," a campaign launched by a coalition of four civil society organizations in Kenya after the release of a new Draft constitution in 2002. Its focus is the 2002 Draft, the Draft's relationship to the current Kenyan Constitution and to recent constitutional proposals, from a gender perspective.

The constitutional review process is part of a larger ...


The Proliferation Security Initiative And The Evolution Of The Law On The Use Of Force, Mark R. Shulman Jan 2006

The Proliferation Security Initiative And The Evolution Of The Law On The Use Of Force, Mark R. Shulman

Pace Law Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Supremacy And Diplomacy: The International Law Of The U.S. Supreme Court, Harlan G. Cohen Jan 2006

Supremacy And Diplomacy: The International Law Of The U.S. Supreme Court, Harlan G. Cohen

Scholarly Works

In 2003-2004, a Presidential campaign year dominated by debates about international affairs and international law, the U.S. Supreme Court took an unusual number of cases of international import. The Court considered the Alien Tort Claims Act and the future of human rights suits in U.S. courts, the applicability of the Foreign Sovereign Immunity Act to claims involving Nazi-stolen artwork, the applicability of American antitrust law to foreign anticompetitive activity, and the legality of the Guantanamo detentions. A great deal of ink has been spilled analyzing the individual impacts of each of these cases. What has been less considered ...


Counterintuitive: Intelligence Operations And International Law, Glenn Sulmasy, John Yoo Jan 2006

Counterintuitive: Intelligence Operations And International Law, Glenn Sulmasy, John Yoo

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


International Law In Black And White, Daniel M. Bodansky Jan 2006

International Law In Black And White, Daniel M. Bodansky

Scholarly Works

Is the study of international law an art or a science? Can the role of international law be explained by general rules, with predictive value? Or does it require the exercise of judgment, in order to account for the richness and complexity of international life? Traditionally, international lawyers have gravitated to the latter view, analyzing issues in an essentially ad hoc and eclectic manner. In their controversial new book, THE LIMITS OF INTERNATIONAL LAW, Jack Goldsmith and Eric Posner argue forcefully for a more scientific approach, relying on the methodology known as rational choice theory. The article examine the book ...


A Negative Proof Of International Law, Peter J. Spiro Jan 2006

A Negative Proof Of International Law, Peter J. Spiro

Scholarly Works

Important legal scholars have launched assaults against both the consequence and legitimacy of international law. These challenges are useful by way of testing international law's theoretical underpinnings, which, in the modern period at least, have never been very secure. With THE LIMITS OF INTERNATIONAL LAW, Jack Goldsmith and Eric Posner have done a service to those who put more faith in international law as a meaningful quantity. Especially in these the field's early renaissance years, understandings of international law should be considerably strengthened by the attack. Though I doubt the authors would thus conceive of their project, THE ...


International Law And The Rise Of China, Eric A. Posner, John Yoo Jan 2006

International Law And The Rise Of China, Eric A. Posner, John Yoo

Faculty Scholarship

The standard example is that of Germany, whose economic and military might increased rapidly after unification in 1871, resulting in expansionist tendencies that were resisted by the status quo powers-France, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union.4 The basic strategic problem for the US is that it must yield to China as China's power increases, but it should not yield too much. Relatively minor incidents-America's accidental bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade in 1999 and China's capture of an American spy plane in 2001-provoked extreme public reactions in China.5 China's leaders have shown themselves ...


From The Exile Files: An Essay On Trading Justice For Peace, Michael P. Scharf Jan 2006

From The Exile Files: An Essay On Trading Justice For Peace, Michael P. Scharf

Faculty Publications

In the spring and summer of 2003, the United States offered exile in lieu of invasion and prosecution to two rogue leaders accused of committing international crimes - Iraqi President Saddam Hussein (who declined) and Liberian President Charles Taylor (who accepted). In this essay, the author argues that the offer to Hussein was inappropriate, as it violated international treaties requiring prosecution, but that the offer to Taylor was permissible under international law. The essay examines the costs and benefits of amnesty and exile-for-peace deals and the limited nature of the international duty to prosecute. Where the duty to prosecute does apply ...