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Charting Developments Concerning Punitive Damages: Is The Tide Changing?, John Y. Gotanda Nov 2006

Charting Developments Concerning Punitive Damages: Is The Tide Changing?, John Y. Gotanda

Working Paper Series

This essay discusses a number of developments outside of the United States concerning punitive damages, which may ultimately signal a change in the way other countries view American awards of such damages.

To date, courts in many countries have refused to recognize and enforce American punitive damages awards on the ground that they violate the host country’s public policy. In most civil law countries, such as France and Germany, penal damages can only be ordered in criminal proceedings; a civil award of such damages has been viewed as contrary to ordre public. In common law countries, while punitive damages ...


The Tiger Awakens: The Tumultuous Transformation Of India’S Patent System And The Rise Of Indian Pharmaceutical Innovation, Janice M. Mueller Aug 2006

The Tiger Awakens: The Tumultuous Transformation Of India’S Patent System And The Rise Of Indian Pharmaceutical Innovation, Janice M. Mueller

University of Pittsburgh School of Law Working Paper Series

India developed a world-class generic drug manufacturing industry by excluding pharmaceutical products from patent protection in 1972. In 2005, India reintroduced pharmaceutical patenting in order to comply with its obligations as a WTO member. For an emerging superpower still mired in poverty and public health crises, the change did not come quickly or without controversy. This Article provides the first major comparative analysis of India’s new patents regime. Based on the author’s data gathering and interviews in India, the Article evaluates the regime’s first eighteen months. It critiques the new law and the capacity of India’s ...


The Politics Of Memory/Errinerungspolitik And The Use And Propriety Of Law In The Process Of Memory Construction, Vivian Grosswald Curran Aug 2006

The Politics Of Memory/Errinerungspolitik And The Use And Propriety Of Law In The Process Of Memory Construction, Vivian Grosswald Curran

University of Pittsburgh School of Law Working Paper Series

The post-Second World War trial for the crime against humanity from the start assumed pedagogical proportions, with the tribunals involved conscious that their legal verdicts would represent historical pronouncement and national values. The newly defined crime has been asked to institutionalize far more than the traditional task of adjudicating the guilt or innocence of the defendant. The trials themselves are meant to define the past, create and crystallize national memory, and illuminate the foundations of the future. I suggest that, by placing a burden on law that it is not designed to bear, we risk deforming law and legal principle ...


Damages In Lieu Of Performance Because Of Breach Of Contract, John Y. Gotanda Jul 2006

Damages In Lieu Of Performance Because Of Breach Of Contract, John Y. Gotanda

Working Paper Series

In contract disputes between transnational contracting parties, damages are often awarded to compensate a claimant for loss, injury or detriment resulting from a respondent’s failure to perform the agreement. In fact, damages may be the principal means of substituting for performance or they may complement other remedies, such as recision or specific performance.

Damages for breach of contract typically serve to protect one of three interests of a claimant: (1) performance interest (also known as expectation interest); (2) reliance interest; or (3) restitution interest. The primary goal of damages in most jurisdictions is to fulfil a claimant’s performance ...