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International Law And Rehnquist-Era Reversals, Diane Marie Amann Jun 2006

International Law And Rehnquist-Era Reversals, Diane Marie Amann

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In the last years of Chief Justice Rehnquist's tenure, the Supreme Court held that due process bars criminal prosecution of same-sex intimacy and that it is cruel and unusual to execute mentally retarded persons or juveniles. Each of the later decisions not only overruled precedents set earlier in Rehnquist's tenure, but also consulted international law as an aid to construing the U.S. Constitution. Analyzing that phenomenon, the article first discusses the underlying cases, then traces the role that international law played in Atkins, Lawrence, and Simmons. It next examines backlash to consultation, and demonstrates that critics tended ...


John Paul Stevens, Human Rights Judge, Diane Marie Amann Mar 2006

John Paul Stevens, Human Rights Judge, Diane Marie Amann

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This article explores the nature and origins of Supreme Court Justice John Paul Stevens' engagement with international and foreign law and norms. It first discusses Stevens' pivotal role in the revived use of such norms to aid constitutional interpretation, as well as 1990s opinions testing the extent to which constitutional protections reach beyond the water's edge and 2004 opinions on post-September 11 detention. It then turns to mid-century experiences that appear to have contributed to Stevens' willingness to consult foreign context. The article reveals that as a code breaker Stevens played a role in the downing of the Japanese ...


Labor’S Fragile Freedom Of Association Post-9/11, Ruben J. Garcia Jan 2006

Labor’S Fragile Freedom Of Association Post-9/11, Ruben J. Garcia

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The fragility of civil liberties in the United States became evident after the terrible attacks of September 11, 2001 (9/11). Labor's freedom of association, which is the right to form unions, bargain collectively, and engage in concerted activities, is one of the civil liberties at risk in the post-9/11 period. This Article focuses specifically on post-9/11 limitations of labor's freedom of association conducted by the executive branch and the Congress, and the ways that the courts have adjudicated labor rights in the post-9/11 era. Domestic labor law and constitutional rights alone, however, will not ...


Foreword: Confronting The Rights Deficit At Home And Abroad, Ruben J. Garcia Jan 2006

Foreword: Confronting The Rights Deficit At Home And Abroad, Ruben J. Garcia

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In this foreword, the author introduces the idea of the rights deficit faced by people of color and low socioeconomic status by linking it to related debates—first on the nature of rights and second on whether there are domestic and international “democracy deficits.” Then the author describes the essays from the 2006 Western Law Professors of Color Conference in the three groups in which they appear in the issue. One group of essays focuses on the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina for the domestic rights deficit. In the area of education law and policy, the issue is not just the ...


Supremacy And Diplomacy: The International Law Of The U.S. Supreme Court, Harlan G. Cohen Jan 2006

Supremacy And Diplomacy: The International Law Of The U.S. Supreme Court, Harlan G. Cohen

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In 2003-2004, a Presidential campaign year dominated by debates about international affairs and international law, the U.S. Supreme Court took an unusual number of cases of international import. The Court considered the Alien Tort Claims Act and the future of human rights suits in U.S. courts, the applicability of the Foreign Sovereign Immunity Act to claims involving Nazi-stolen artwork, the applicability of American antitrust law to foreign anticompetitive activity, and the legality of the Guantanamo detentions. A great deal of ink has been spilled analyzing the individual impacts of each of these cases. What has been less considered ...


Frontier Justice: Legal Aid And Unhcr Refugee Status Determination In Egypt, Michael Kagan Jan 2006

Frontier Justice: Legal Aid And Unhcr Refugee Status Determination In Egypt, Michael Kagan

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Where UNHCR conducts refugee status determination (RSD), its reactions to legal aid for asylum-seekers have been mixed. Statistical evidence collected from Egypt in 2002 indicates a correlation between receiving some form of legal aid service and an asylum-seeker's increased chances of gaining refugee protection from UNHCR. Unconventional forms of legal aid, including limited services by supervised non-lawyers (including volunteers from the refugee community) showed a positive impact on first instance cases, while traditional legal aid models showed an impact at the appeal stage. Legal aid should form an essential part of UNHCR's RSD procedures, and NGOs should work ...


The Beleaguered Gatekeeper: Protection Challenges Posed By Unhcr Refugee Status Determination, Michael Kagan Jan 2006

The Beleaguered Gatekeeper: Protection Challenges Posed By Unhcr Refugee Status Determination, Michael Kagan

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The number of individual Refugee Status Determination (RSD) applications received by United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) offices worldwide nearly doubled from 1997 to 2001, while UNHCR’s RSD operations have been criticized for failing to implement basic standards of procedural fairness. Yet, although there is some literature critiquing how UNHCR determines refugee status, there is little literature examining whether UNHCR should do so, and if it should, when, where, and under what conditions.

UNHCR performance of RSD poses protection challenges because it is founded on a basic contradiction. On the one hand, government action is essential for effective ...


International Law In Black And White, Daniel M. Bodansky Jan 2006

International Law In Black And White, Daniel M. Bodansky

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Is the study of international law an art or a science? Can the role of international law be explained by general rules, with predictive value? Or does it require the exercise of judgment, in order to account for the richness and complexity of international life? Traditionally, international lawyers have gravitated to the latter view, analyzing issues in an essentially ad hoc and eclectic manner. In their controversial new book, THE LIMITS OF INTERNATIONAL LAW, Jack Goldsmith and Eric Posner argue forcefully for a more scientific approach, relying on the methodology known as rational choice theory. The article examine the book ...


A Negative Proof Of International Law, Peter J. Spiro Jan 2006

A Negative Proof Of International Law, Peter J. Spiro

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Important legal scholars have launched assaults against both the consequence and legitimacy of international law. These challenges are useful by way of testing international law's theoretical underpinnings, which, in the modern period at least, have never been very secure. With THE LIMITS OF INTERNATIONAL LAW, Jack Goldsmith and Eric Posner have done a service to those who put more faith in international law as a meaningful quantity. Especially in these the field's early renaissance years, understandings of international law should be considerably strengthened by the attack. Though I doubt the authors would thus conceive of their project, THE ...


Does One Need To Be An International Lawyer To Be An International Environmental Lawyer?, Daniel M. Bodansky Jan 2006

Does One Need To Be An International Lawyer To Be An International Environmental Lawyer?, Daniel M. Bodansky

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The question I want to address is whether one can now say that IEL [International Environmental Law] represents a distinct field. Of course, it is a distinct field in the sense that it addresses a distinct set of problems and has developed a wide body of primary rules in response. However, is it a distinct field in the stronger sense of having its own characteristic methodologies and techniques?