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2006

Contracts

Institution
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Articles 31 - 60 of 79

Full-Text Articles in Law

Intellectual Property: Trade Secrets And The Federal Tort Claims Act/Dd Form 882 Over Substance: Caveat Forfeiture, Katherine E. White Jan 2006

Intellectual Property: Trade Secrets And The Federal Tort Claims Act/Dd Form 882 Over Substance: Caveat Forfeiture, Katherine E. White

Law Faculty Research Publications

No abstract provided.


Waiver Or Modification: That Is The Question, Michael G. Hillinger Jan 2006

Waiver Or Modification: That Is The Question, Michael G. Hillinger

Faculty Publications

The elusive distinction between waiver and contract modification has reared its head in Massachusetts. What's the difference? A party who "waives" a contract term can retract the waiver in the absence of the other party's detrimental reliance, whereas a party cannot unilaterally retract a contract modification. Stating the legal consequences that flow from each event is easy. Figuring out which event has occurred is not.


The Reckless Pursuit Of Dominion: A Situational Analysis Of The Nba And Diminishing Player Autonomy, Michael Mccann Jan 2006

The Reckless Pursuit Of Dominion: A Situational Analysis Of The Nba And Diminishing Player Autonomy, Michael Mccann

Law Faculty Scholarship

This Article examines required genetic testing of NBA players from a situational vantage point, integrating socio-psychological, legal, and ethical analyses. The core argument may be expressed as follows: required genetic testing of NBA players appears consistent with a broader and largely deleterious agenda by the NBA to control players. Since implementation of the rookie wage scale in 1995 through the recent imposition of a paternalistic player dress code, the NBA has increasingly usurped player autonomy. The NBA's capacity to do so largely rests in its adroit manipulation of the situational influences that influence fans and media. For instance, because ...


The Impact Of Eu Unfair Contract Terms Law On U.S. Business-To-Consumer Internet Merchants, Jane K. Winn, Mark Webber Jan 2006

The Impact Of Eu Unfair Contract Terms Law On U.S. Business-To-Consumer Internet Merchants, Jane K. Winn, Mark Webber

Articles

This article focuses on the application of European Union unfair contract terms law to retail Internet transactions that U.S. businesses might engage in with European consumers. It compares attitudes toward consumer protection regulation in the U.S. and the EU to provide some context within which the specific provisions of unfair contract terms law can be understood.

While many lawyers and legal academics in the U.S. who study the development of online markets are aware of the profound differences in U.S. and EU information privacy laws, the magnitude of the divergence in consumer electronic contracting law is ...


The Use Of Mtas To Control Commercialization Of Stem Cell Diagnostics And Therapeutics, Sean O'Connor Jan 2006

The Use Of Mtas To Control Commercialization Of Stem Cell Diagnostics And Therapeutics, Sean O'Connor

Articles

The recent focus on patents as a hindrance to stem cell research may turn out to be a red herring. The real culprits are material transfer agreements (MTAs), which govern the transfer of cell lines and other biological materials. The MTA’s primary purpose in life sciences research is to set contractual rights and obligations between parties where one party transfers biological materials to the other. For example, MTAs often focus on the physical handling, use, and distribution of the materials by the recipient, ensuring that the recipient complies with regulations for research involving humans or animals.

Although these interests ...


Diverging Perspectives On Electronic Contracting In The U.S. And Eu, Jane K. Winn, Brian H. Bix Jan 2006

Diverging Perspectives On Electronic Contracting In The U.S. And Eu, Jane K. Winn, Brian H. Bix

Articles

The focus of this Article is the interrelated set of issues that have arisen, on one hand, from Internet transactions regarding the downloading of free or purchased software, as well as other Internet sales, and on the other hand, the distinctive transactional problems that modern business practices have created under the rubric of "shrink-wrap" or "terms in the box"—a late presentation of terms associated with the sale of computers or the licensing of software (with the terms included in the packaging, rather than presented to the user ahead of time)—but not necessarily confined to those transactions.

Such transactions ...


Judicial Incorporation Of Trade Usages: A Functional Solution To The Opportunism Problem, Juliet P. Kostritsky Jan 2006

Judicial Incorporation Of Trade Usages: A Functional Solution To The Opportunism Problem, Juliet P. Kostritsky

Faculty Publications

Article 2 of the UCC directed courts to look to business norms as a primary means of interpreting contracts. Recently the new formalists have attacked this strategy of norm incorporation as a misguided one that will lead inevitably to significant error costs. Accordingly, they have embraced plain meaning as the preferred interpretive strategy. This article argues that the strategy of rejecting trade usages unless they are part of the express contract is too rigid. The rejection is premised on an overly narrow cost/benefit analysis that fails to account for the functional role that such usages may play in curbing ...


Fiduciary Duties And Unincorporated Business Entities: In Defense Of The "Manifestly Unreasonable" Standard, Mark J. Loewenstein Jan 2006

Fiduciary Duties And Unincorporated Business Entities: In Defense Of The "Manifestly Unreasonable" Standard, Mark J. Loewenstein

Articles

This article wades into the debate between contractarians and anti-contractarians over the extent to which statutes on unincorporated business entities should limit the ability of the participants in those entities to contract around fiduciary duties. Statutes enacted in the past several years provide considerable, but not complete, freedom to limit fiduciary duties. Contractarians argue that statutory limitations are inefficient and unnecessary, while anti-contractarians take the view that the statutes provide too much freedom of contract. This article stakes out a middle ground, arguing that the drafters of the statutes got it right and that in the absence of statutory limitations ...


Opting Out Or Copping Out? An Argument For Strict Scrutiny Of Individual Contracts, Charles L. Knapp Jan 2006

Opting Out Or Copping Out? An Argument For Strict Scrutiny Of Individual Contracts, Charles L. Knapp

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Toward Praxis, Emily Houh Jan 2006

Toward Praxis, Emily Houh

Faculty Articles and Other Publications

This Essay, written for a 2005 symposium issue of the U.C. Davis Law Review, responds to an important question posed by the symposium organizers: What is the future of critical race feminism? In this Essay, I use a common law contractual good faith antidiscrimination claim, developed and proposed by me in a series of previously written articles, to help answer that question. While, in the past, my proposed good faith claim aimed principally to operationalize some recurring and foundational insights of critical race theory, such as the race crits' critique of the intentionality requirement in conventional antidiscrimination law, the ...


Boilerplate And Economic Power In Auto Manufacturing Contracts, Omri Ben-Shahar, James J. White Jan 2006

Boilerplate And Economic Power In Auto Manufacturing Contracts, Omri Ben-Shahar, James J. White

Articles

This Article is structured as follows. Part I compares the terms and conditions in the purchase orders of the Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) and highlights important differences in the substance of these boilerplate provisions. It argues that these differences cannot be easily reconciled with the prediction that sophisticated parties draft the most efficient boilerplate terms. Part II examines how these forms are drafted, how their terms are negotiated, and how the OEMs guard their terms from erosion. It provides some insight on how tailoring occurs and how the internal organization of a party to a deal affects the terms that ...


When Are Agreements Enforceable? Giving Consideration To Professor Barnett's Consent Theory Of Contract, James Maxeiner Jan 2006

When Are Agreements Enforceable? Giving Consideration To Professor Barnett's Consent Theory Of Contract, James Maxeiner

All Faculty Scholarship

This address considers five points: (1) the place of theory in American contract law; (2) the basic elements of Professor Barnett's theory are; (3) how these elements are similar to Continental law; (4) what it says about the American legal world that Barnett's theory has been discussed without reference to Continental systems; and, finally, (5) why I believe the American model is not a good one for a future European Civil Code but also hope that such a Code will become law.


Revisiting Austin V. Loral: A Study In Economic Duress, Contract Modification And Framing, Meredith R. Miller Jan 2006

Revisiting Austin V. Loral: A Study In Economic Duress, Contract Modification And Framing, Meredith R. Miller

Scholarly Works

Austin v. Loral, 29 N.Y.2d 124 (1971), is a favorite among Contracts casebooks because the New York Court of Appeals held that it was a "classic" example of economic duress. It involved Austin, a small gear part manufacturer, who had entered into a subcontract to provide gear parts to Loral, a publicly-traded defense industry supplier. Loral had a contract with the U.S. government to supply radar sets, to be used in the U.S. efforts in Vietnam. Midway through performance of the subcontract, Austin apparently refused to continue to deliver the gear parts unless Loral acceded to ...


Why Sell What You Can License?, Contracting Around Statutory Protection Of Intellectual Property, Elizabeth I. Winston Jan 2006

Why Sell What You Can License?, Contracting Around Statutory Protection Of Intellectual Property, Elizabeth I. Winston

Scholarly Articles and Other Contributions

Historically, the transfer of goods has been through sale, a model regulated by public legislation. Increasingly, however, the transfer of goods is occurring through licensing, a model regulated by private legislation. Privately-legislated licenses - for such chattels as musical and written works and agricultural goods - are being used to circumvent publicly-legislated restrictions on intellectual property. Private legislation should not circumvent public legislation, and intellectual property owners should not be allowed to circumvent the statutory scheme for protection of intellectual property. Licenses that augment publicly-legislated protection of intellectual property support the traditional role of contracts and should be enforced. Licenses that circumvent ...


The Ethics Of Invalid And 'Iffy' Contract Clauses, In Symposium: Contracting Out Of The Uniform Commercial Code, Christina L. Kunz Jan 2006

The Ethics Of Invalid And 'Iffy' Contract Clauses, In Symposium: Contracting Out Of The Uniform Commercial Code, Christina L. Kunz

Faculty Scholarship

This Symposium focuses on the extent to which attorneys can use agreed terms to supplant or “bump” the provisions of the Uniform Commercial Code (UCC). The articles in this Symposium demonstrate that the degree to which attorneys customarily “contract out” varies considerably from UCC article to article. In reality, though, the issues surrounding contracting out of UCC provisions are not limited to the UCC, statutes, or other codified rules. Most “repeat players” in the market periodically ask their lawyers to redraft their standard-form contracts in ways that increasingly favor the drafter. Some of these lawyers may intentionally draft clauses that ...


You Don’T Have To Be Ludwig Wittgenstein’: How Llewellyn’S Concept Of Agreement Should Change The Law Of Open-Quantity Contracts, Henry Allen Blair Jan 2006

You Don’T Have To Be Ludwig Wittgenstein’: How Llewellyn’S Concept Of Agreement Should Change The Law Of Open-Quantity Contracts, Henry Allen Blair

Faculty Scholarship

In this article, Professor Allen Blair examines the preeminent role of exclusivity in open-quantity contracts under the Uniform Commercial Code (“UCC”). Although the text of the UCC does not mandate that open-quantity contracts be exclusive, the vast majority of courts considering the issue have held that exclusivity is necessary to prevent such contracts from failing for lack of mutuality of obligation. The Article traces the historic development of open-quantity agreements, focusing on pre-Code cases recognizing the commercial utility of such agreements but struggling with how to accommodate them under a classical model of contract formation. It was in this historic ...


Penalty Defaults In Family Law: The Case Of Child Custody, Margaret F. Brinig Jan 2006

Penalty Defaults In Family Law: The Case Of Child Custody, Margaret F. Brinig

Journal Articles

This paper considers whether an amendment to state divorce laws that strengthens its joint custody preference operates as a traditional default rule, specifying what most divorcing couples would choose or as a penalty default rule the parties will attempt to contract around.

While the Oregon statutes that frame our discussion here, like most state laws, do not state an explicit preference for joint custody, shared custody is certainly encouraged by Section 107.179, which refers cases in which the parties cannot agree on joint custody to mediation and by Section 107.105, which requires the court to consider awarding custody ...


On The Stickiness Of Default Rules, Omri Ben-Shahar, John A. E. Pottow Jan 2006

On The Stickiness Of Default Rules, Omri Ben-Shahar, John A. E. Pottow

Articles

It was once perceived, and still is commonly taught, that default rules in contract law must mimic efficient arrangements. Otherwise, these rules impose needless transaction costs upon parties who seek to opt out of them to reach more efficient positions. In settings where these costs are high, parties might find themselves "stuck" in a default, unable to reach the outcome that they prefer. The strong version of this account-that the only factor that can make an inefficient default rule stick is the direct cost of drafting a tailored provision-has been gradually reappraised. It is by now recognized that factors beyond ...


Friendship & The Law, Ethan J. Leib Jan 2006

Friendship & The Law, Ethan J. Leib

Faculty Scholarship

This Article's central argument is that the law needs to do a better job of recognizing, protecting, respecting, and promoting friendships. The law gives pride of place to other statuses--family and special professional relationships are obvious ones--but the status of the friend is rarely relevant to legal decisionmaking and public policymaking in a consistent way. After defining the concept of the friend, I offer a normative argument for why the law should promote a public policy of friendship facilitation and for why the law ignores friendships only at its peril. I highlight how the law already finds friendship relevant ...


Foreword [To Boilerplate: Foundations Of Market Contracts Symposium], Omri Ben-Shahar Jan 2006

Foreword [To Boilerplate: Foundations Of Market Contracts Symposium], Omri Ben-Shahar

Articles

It is tempting to open this symposium with yet another "boilerplate" salute to the challenge that standard-form contracts pose for contract law doctrine. You may have seen many tributes to this fundamental problem. If I were to offer my own variation on this familiar introduction, I would have perhaps tried to come up with an original spin to induce you to read forward another paragraph or two. I would probably have talked about a major divide within contract law between the "law of negotiations" and "product regulation." The former is the body of doctrines that determine the legal consequences of ...


Comparative Study Of The Formation Of Electronic Contracts In American Law With References To International Law, Roberto Rosas Jan 2006

Comparative Study Of The Formation Of Electronic Contracts In American Law With References To International Law, Roberto Rosas

Faculty Articles

An understanding of the basic principles that regulate contract formation is of great importance when deciphering the most appropriate ways of fom1ing a new contract or when assessing the legality of an already existing contract. While the basic rules of contract formation are generally applicable to all types of contracts regardless of the method utilized in their creation, there are some juridical rules that apply specifically to electronically created contracts.


Comparative Study Of The Formation Of Electronic Contracts In American Law With References To International Law, Roberto Rosas Jan 2006

Comparative Study Of The Formation Of Electronic Contracts In American Law With References To International Law, Roberto Rosas

Faculty Articles

No abstract provided.


Commodification And Contract Formation: Placing The Consideration Doctrine On Stronger Foundations, David Gamage, Allon Kedem Jan 2006

Commodification And Contract Formation: Placing The Consideration Doctrine On Stronger Foundations, David Gamage, Allon Kedem

Articles by Maurer Faculty

Under the traditional consideration doctrine, a promise is only legally enforceable if it is made in exchange for something of value. This doctrine lies at the heart of contract law, yet it lacks a sound theoretical justification a fact that has confounded generations of scholars and created a mess of case law.

This article argues that the failure of traditional justifications for the doctrine comes from two mistaken assumptions. First, previous scholars have assumed that anyone can back a promise with nominal consideration if they wish to do so. We show how social norms against commodification limit the availability of ...


Cisg Article 31: When Substantive Law Rules Affect Jurisdictional Results, Ronald A. Brand Jan 2006

Cisg Article 31: When Substantive Law Rules Affect Jurisdictional Results, Ronald A. Brand

Articles

No abstract provided.


Contracting Out Of Article 2: Minimizing The Obligation Of Performance & Liability For Breach, Sarah Howard Jenkins Jan 2006

Contracting Out Of Article 2: Minimizing The Obligation Of Performance & Liability For Breach, Sarah Howard Jenkins

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Contracting Out Of The Ucc, Sarah Howard Jenkins Jan 2006

Contracting Out Of The Ucc, Sarah Howard Jenkins

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Formalism In American Contract Law: Classical And Contemporary, Mark L. Movsesian Jan 2006

Formalism In American Contract Law: Classical And Contemporary, Mark L. Movsesian

Faculty Publications

It is a universally acknowledged truth that we live in a formalist era—at least when it comes to American contract law. Much more than the jurisprudence of a generation ago, today's cutting-edge work in American contract scholarship values the formalist virtues of bright-line rules, objective interpretation, and party autonomy. Policing bargains for substantive fairness seems more and more an outdated notion. Courts, it is thought, should refrain from interfering with market exchanges. Private arbitration has displaced courts in the context of many traditional contract disputes. Even adhesion contracts find their defenders, much to the chagrin of communitarian scholars ...


Contract Law, Chee Ho Tham, Pearlie Koh, Pey Woan Lee Jan 2006

Contract Law, Chee Ho Tham, Pearlie Koh, Pey Woan Lee

Research Collection School Of Law

The issue of contract formation arose in the unusual context of civil procedure in Wellmix Organics (International) Pte Ltd v Lau Yu Man [2006] 2 SLR 117 (see also para 10.60 on “Mistake”). The plaintiff in this case unsuccessfully sought to enforce a consent unless order against the defendant. Andrew Phang Boon Leong J (as he then was) emphasised that, keeping in view its very drastic consequence of depriving a party of his cause of action, such an order will only be established where the terms of the agreement are clear and unambiguous. It was clear on the facts ...


What Default Rules Teach Us About Corporations; What Understanding Corporations Teaches Us About Default Rules, Tamar Frankel Jan 2006

What Default Rules Teach Us About Corporations; What Understanding Corporations Teaches Us About Default Rules, Tamar Frankel

Faculty Scholarship

This Essay addresses corporate law's Default Rules, which allow corporations to waive their directors' liability for damages for breach of their fiduciary duty of care. Most large corporations have adopted such a waiver. This Essay distinguishes Private Contracts from Public Contracts. Public Contracts include legislation, referendums, and votes on specific outcomes, such as union members' votes on the contracts that their representatives agreed upon with management. This Essay shows that the courts view corporations and corporate articles as Public Contracts. In some Public Contracts gap-filling rules limit the scope of the Public Contracts to the information that the voters ...


Crossing Judge Parker’S Luten Bridge: Partisan Politics, Economic Visions, And Government Reform In Retrospect And Prospect, Peter G. Fish Jan 2006

Crossing Judge Parker’S Luten Bridge: Partisan Politics, Economic Visions, And Government Reform In Retrospect And Prospect, Peter G. Fish

Faculty Scholarship

Commentary on, Barak D. Richman, Jordi Weinstock & jason Mehta, A Bridge, a Tax Revolt, and the Struggle to Industrialize: The Story and Legacy of 'Rockingham County v. Luten Bridge Co.', 84 North Carolina Law Review 1841-1912 (2006)