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2006

Comparative and Foreign Law

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Legal Reform In Contemporary Japan, Eric Feldman Dec 2006

Legal Reform In Contemporary Japan, Eric Feldman

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

In this chapter I offer a preliminary assessment of a quickly moving target—legal reform and its impact on rights in Japan. Although a broad consensus has emerged among interested parties that at least some degree of reform is desirable, there is significant disagreement about the goals of reform, and also about the likelihood that it will achieve certain objectives. Some commentators believe that the Japanese legal system is on the cusp of a “revolution” that will shore up long-neglected rights and create new entitlements. Others predict that the consequences of reform will be modest; and they despair that aggrieved ...


Comparativa Entre Les Reformes Dels Estatuts D'Autonomia De Catalunya I D'Andalusia [Comparative Analysis Of The Reforms Of The Charters Of Autonomy Of Catalonia And Andalucía], Albert Lamarca-Marquès, Vanessa Casado-Pérez Dec 2006

Comparativa Entre Les Reformes Dels Estatuts D'Autonomia De Catalunya I D'Andalusia [Comparative Analysis Of The Reforms Of The Charters Of Autonomy Of Catalonia And Andalucía], Albert Lamarca-Marquès, Vanessa Casado-Pérez

Faculty Scholarship

En els ordenaments jurídics continentals europeus no és habitual l’admissió d’escrits acadèmics independents adreçats als tribunals de justícia en el marc de procediments de gran importància. En els països del Common Law, especialment en les jurisdiccions nordamericanes, mitjançant el procediment anomenat d’Amicus Curiae es permet d’adreçar aquesta mena d’escrits als tribunals de justícia, que hauran de decidir si els tenen o no en compte. A través de les pàgines d’InDret, hem volgut oferir aquest document de comparació d’ambdós Estatuts per contribuir al debat jurídic en el marc del procés de reforma dels Estatuts ...


Codifying Shari'a: International Norms, Legality & The Freedom To Invent New Forms, Paul H. Robinson, Adnan Zulfiqar, Margaret Kammerud, Michael Orchowski, Elizabeth A. Gerlach, Adam L. Pollock, Thomas M. O'Brien, John C. Lin, Tom Stenson, Negar Katirai, J. John Lee, Marc Aaron Melzer Nov 2006

Codifying Shari'a: International Norms, Legality & The Freedom To Invent New Forms, Paul H. Robinson, Adnan Zulfiqar, Margaret Kammerud, Michael Orchowski, Elizabeth A. Gerlach, Adam L. Pollock, Thomas M. O'Brien, John C. Lin, Tom Stenson, Negar Katirai, J. John Lee, Marc Aaron Melzer

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

The United Nations Development Program and the Republic of the Maldives, a small Muslim country with a constitutional democracy, commissioned this project to craft the country's first system of codified penal law and sentencing guidelines. This Article describes the special challenges and opportunities encountered while drafting a penal code based on Shari'a (Islamic law). On the one hand, such comprehensive codification is more important and more likely to bring dramatic improvements in the quality of justice than in many other societies, due in large part to the problems of assuring fair notice and fair adjudication in the uncodified ...


Charting Developments Concerning Punitive Damages: Is The Tide Changing?, John Y. Gotanda Nov 2006

Charting Developments Concerning Punitive Damages: Is The Tide Changing?, John Y. Gotanda

Working Paper Series

This essay discusses a number of developments outside of the United States concerning punitive damages, which may ultimately signal a change in the way other countries view American awards of such damages.

To date, courts in many countries have refused to recognize and enforce American punitive damages awards on the ground that they violate the host country’s public policy. In most civil law countries, such as France and Germany, penal damages can only be ordered in criminal proceedings; a civil award of such damages has been viewed as contrary to ordre public. In common law countries, while punitive damages ...


Living With The Bologna Process: Recommendations To The German Legal Education Community From A U.S. Perspective, Laurel S. Terry Nov 2006

Living With The Bologna Process: Recommendations To The German Legal Education Community From A U.S. Perspective, Laurel S. Terry

Faculty Scholarly Works

The Bologna Process is a dramatic development that is less than ten years old, but already it has significantly reshaped higher education in Germany and in Europe. This article is based on my research regarding the history and objectives of the Bologna Process and Bologna Process implementation in Germany. It contains my reflections about the Bologna Process and German legal education and my recommendations to the German legal education community.


Consumerism Versus Producerism: On The Global Menace Of "Consumerism" And The Mission Of Comparative Law, James Q. Whitman Aug 2006

Consumerism Versus Producerism: On The Global Menace Of "Consumerism" And The Mission Of Comparative Law, James Q. Whitman

Faculty Scholarship Series

This paper aims to develop an analytic comparative law approach to the global spread of "consumerist" law. It expresses dismay at the failure of comparative law to offer any contribution to global debates over the sort of consumerism associated with the practices of firms like Wal-Mart, and proposes that scholars should revive the distinction between "consumerism" and "producerism" that was common in the 1930s. Focusing on questions of competition law, the law of retail and labor law, as well as on Wal-Mart's recent failure to penetrate German markets, it rejects the claim that consumerism is inevitably bound to triumph ...


Internalizing Gender: International Goals, Comparative Realities, Darren Rosenblum Aug 2006

Internalizing Gender: International Goals, Comparative Realities, Darren Rosenblum

Pace Law Faculty Publications

This Article uses the example of international women's political rights to examine the value of comparative methodologies in analyzing the process by which nations internalize international norms. As internalized in Brazil and France, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women suggests possibilities for (and possible limitations of) interdisciplinary comparative and international law scholarship. Indeed, international law scholarship is divided between theories of internalization and neorealist challenges to those theories. Comparative methodologies add crucial complexity to internalization theory, the success of which depends on acknowledging vast differences in national legal cultures. Further, comparative methodologies expose ...


Damages In Lieu Of Performance Because Of Breach Of Contract, John Y. Gotanda Jul 2006

Damages In Lieu Of Performance Because Of Breach Of Contract, John Y. Gotanda

Working Paper Series

In contract disputes between transnational contracting parties, damages are often awarded to compensate a claimant for loss, injury or detriment resulting from a respondent’s failure to perform the agreement. In fact, damages may be the principal means of substituting for performance or they may complement other remedies, such as recision or specific performance.

Damages for breach of contract typically serve to protect one of three interests of a claimant: (1) performance interest (also known as expectation interest); (2) reliance interest; or (3) restitution interest. The primary goal of damages in most jurisdictions is to fulfil a claimant’s performance ...


Can Appropriation Riders Speed Our Exit From Iraq?, Charles Tiefer Jul 2006

Can Appropriation Riders Speed Our Exit From Iraq?, Charles Tiefer

All Faculty Scholarship

To explore the implications of riders - provisions added to appropriation bills that "ride" on the underlying bill - on the United States' continued military force in Iraq, the author draws three hypotheticals, each focusing on the debate surrounding the policy and political disputes raised by the use of such riders. A "withdrawal" rider, which would authorize funding only if there exists a plan to withdraw American ground troops by a set deadline, remains the most important - and controversial - rider. Riders may also significantly affect wartime policies, like those that limit the President's use of reservists in combat so as to ...


We All Fall Down: Self-Fulfilling Prophecies And The Minority Question In China’S Educational Policies, Lauren A. Burke Apr 2006

We All Fall Down: Self-Fulfilling Prophecies And The Minority Question In China’S Educational Policies, Lauren A. Burke

East Asian Languages and Cultures Department Honors Papers

This paper does not have an abstract.


Law In Books, Law In Action And Society, Alan Watson Apr 2006

Law In Books, Law In Action And Society, Alan Watson

Colloquia

I consider myself a comparative legal historian and range widely over time and space. My interest is in private law. My general conclusions, developed over years, on law in society are three and are interconnected and are as follows: 1) Governments are not much interested in developing law especially not private law. They generally leave this to subordinate law makers to whom, however, they do not grant power to make law; 2) Even when famous legislators emerge, they are seldom interested in inserting a particular social message or even certainty into their laws; 3) Borrowing is the name of the ...


Comparative Chart Of “Right-To-Ask” Laws In The U.S. And Abroad, Workplace Flexibility 2010, Georgetown University Law Center Apr 2006

Comparative Chart Of “Right-To-Ask” Laws In The U.S. And Abroad, Workplace Flexibility 2010, Georgetown University Law Center

Charts and Summaries of State, U.S., and Foreign Laws and Regulations

No abstract provided.


What's Your Sign? -- International Norms, Signals, And Compliance, Charles K. Whitehead Apr 2006

What's Your Sign? -- International Norms, Signals, And Compliance, Charles K. Whitehead

Cornell Law Faculty Publications

This Article proposes a new approach to analyzing state compliance with international obligations, positing that increased interaction among the world's regulators has reinforced norms within cross-border regulatory networks, influencing the actions of senior regulators who are network members and, in turn, affecting levels of state compliance.

Network norms help define what state actions constitute signals and the meanings of those signals. Certain actions, such as implementing a substantive network standard, may be considered a concrete expression of an abstract network norm. States that fail to implement that standard risk failing to send the right signal, potentially incurring significant network ...


The Culture Of Legal Change: A Case Study Of Tobacco Control In Twenty-First Century Japan, Eric Feldman Apr 2006

The Culture Of Legal Change: A Case Study Of Tobacco Control In Twenty-First Century Japan, Eric Feldman

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This Article argues that the interaction of international norms and local culture is a central factor in the creation and transformation of legal rules. Like Alan Watson's influential theory of legal transplants, it emphasizes that legal change is frequently a consequence of learning from other jurisdictions. And like those who have argued that rational, self-interested lawmakers responding to incentives such as reelection are the engine of legal change, this Article treats incentives as critical motivators of human behavior. But in place of the cutting-and-pasting of black-letter legal doctrine it highlights the cross-border flow of social norms, and rather than ...


Of The Inequals Of The Uruguay Round, Srividhya Ragavan Mar 2006

Of The Inequals Of The Uruguay Round, Srividhya Ragavan

Faculty Scholarship

Ten years ago, the TRIPs Agreement set a distinct tone in international law by requiring members to prioritize international trade obligations as a means to achieve national goals. Within the next five years, the AIDS crisis highlighted that compromising pressing national responsibilities - like a looming public health crisis - to fulfill international obligations may, in fact, detrimentally affect international trade. Meanwhile, access to medication continues to be an unresolved issue even as we celebrate the tenth anniversary of TRIPs and the end of the transitional period. This Article suggests that the success of TRIPs depends on its ability to address national ...


A Ferenj Observer In The Horn Of Africa -- Perspectives On Cultural Relativity, Zygmunt J.B. Plater Feb 2006

A Ferenj Observer In The Horn Of Africa -- Perspectives On Cultural Relativity, Zygmunt J.B. Plater

Boston College Law School Lectures and Presentations

A Speech by Prof. Zygmunt Plater delivered at the Harvard African Law Association (HALA) and the Harvard Black Law Students Association (BLSA) Conference "Ethiopia: Prospects for Democracy."


Examining A Comparative Law Myth: Two Hundred Years Of Riparian Misconception, Andrea B. Carroll Feb 2006

Examining A Comparative Law Myth: Two Hundred Years Of Riparian Misconception, Andrea B. Carroll

Journal Articles

This article is a first step in an effort to critically examine - and to debunk - some of the myths that persist about the degree to which the common and civil law systems differ. Specifically, the article questions the validity of recent scholarly commentary suggesting that the primary differences between the systems can be found in their substantive legal rules or in their respective "spirits." A relatively narrow issue of riparian access perfectly highlights the problem. Nearly all of the high courts in the United States that have examined this particular riparian issue have chosen to adopt either the so-called "common ...


No Laughing Matter: The Controversial Danish Cartoons Depicting The Prophet Mohammed, And Their Broader Meaning For The Europe’S Public Square, Ruti G. Teitel Feb 2006

No Laughing Matter: The Controversial Danish Cartoons Depicting The Prophet Mohammed, And Their Broader Meaning For The Europe’S Public Square, Ruti G. Teitel

Other Publications

No abstract provided.


Land Titling: A Mode Of Privatization With The Potential To Deepen Democracy, Bernadette Atuahene Feb 2006

Land Titling: A Mode Of Privatization With The Potential To Deepen Democracy, Bernadette Atuahene

All Faculty Scholarship

Land titling is a form of privatization in that public assets are transferred to private families and individuals. This is unlike other forms of privatization, however, because there is a systematic diffusion of economic and decision making power down to indigent populations rather than out of the country or up to its local elites. In light of this uniqueness, the question I will grapple with in this Article is, can property ownership, achieved through land titling programs, bolster democracy? First, using Peru as an example, I explain the context that necessitated the creation of land titling and the process by ...


Select Foreign Exto Laws: By Country, Workplace Flexibility 2010, Georgetown University Law Center Jan 2006

Select Foreign Exto Laws: By Country, Workplace Flexibility 2010, Georgetown University Law Center

Charts and Summaries of State, U.S., and Foreign Laws and Regulations

No abstract provided.


Select Foreign Exto Laws: By Topic, Workplace Flexibility 2010, Georgetown University Law Center Jan 2006

Select Foreign Exto Laws: By Topic, Workplace Flexibility 2010, Georgetown University Law Center

Charts and Summaries of State, U.S., and Foreign Laws and Regulations

No abstract provided.


Summary Comparison Of Select Foreign Exto Laws, Workplace Flexibility 2010, Georgetown University Law Center Jan 2006

Summary Comparison Of Select Foreign Exto Laws, Workplace Flexibility 2010, Georgetown University Law Center

Charts and Summaries of State, U.S., and Foreign Laws and Regulations

No abstract provided.


Enforcement Of Arbitral Awards Against Foreign States Or State Agencies, S. I. Strong Jan 2006

Enforcement Of Arbitral Awards Against Foreign States Or State Agencies, S. I. Strong

Faculty Publications

Britain's Lord Denning once said that “as a moth is drawn to the light, so is a litigant drawn to the United States.” Certainly, as a pro-arbitration state and a signatory to various international conventions concerning the enforcement of foreign arbitral awards, the United States seems a natural place to bring an action to enforce an arbitral award against a foreign state or state agency. However, suing a sovereign has not traditionally been a simple task in the United States or elsewhere. Most nations grant foreign states the presumption of immunity, thus denying that their domestic courts have jurisdiction ...


"The Most Extraordinarily Powerful Court Of Law The World Has Ever Known"? - Judicial Review In The United States And Germany, Peter E. Quint Jan 2006

"The Most Extraordinarily Powerful Court Of Law The World Has Ever Known"? - Judicial Review In The United States And Germany, Peter E. Quint

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Leading A Constitutional Court: Perspectives From The Federal Republic Of Germany, Peter E. Quint Jan 2006

Leading A Constitutional Court: Perspectives From The Federal Republic Of Germany, Peter E. Quint

Faculty Scholarship

This article, which was a contribution to a Symposium on the office of the Chief Justice of the United States, compares that office with the office of President of the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany. The article concludes that, while the American Chief Justice possesses more authority in most formal respects, the President of the German Court has on occasion exercised an informal public or private influence that goes well beyond anything of the sort that has been attempted (recently at least) by the American Chief Justice.


Note, Sisyphus In A Coal Mine: Responses To Slave Labor In Japan And The United States, Timothy Webster Jan 2006

Note, Sisyphus In A Coal Mine: Responses To Slave Labor In Japan And The United States, Timothy Webster

Faculty Publications

This Note argues that the recent wave of litigation brought by former Chinese slave laborers, while important in its own right, highlights the need for a more comprehensive solution. Although ideally the Japanese Diet will devise its own response to the problem of compensation, the experiences arising from the Holocaust litigation in the United States provide a meaningful yardstick for comparison. In the United States, a large-scale settlement scheme followed, and finalized, numerous lawsuits brought by former forced and slave laborers from World War II Europe. The American response, though based on different circumstances, led to a multibillion-dollar fund that ...


Note: Legal Excisions: The Rights Of Foreigners In Japan, Timothy Webster Jan 2006

Note: Legal Excisions: The Rights Of Foreigners In Japan, Timothy Webster

Faculty Publications

This article examines various moments in the constitutional rights of foreigners in Japan. Beginning with the drafting of the Japanese Constitution, it shows how Japanese members of the drafting committee did not passively accept whatever their American counterparts “foisted” on them, but quite deliberately sculpted and limited the reach of the Constitution through word choice and selective translation. It then examines several lawsuits, from the 1970s to the 2000s, where foreigners have asserted various rights in Japanese courts. In the absence of constitutional rights, foreigners must rely on Japanese statutory law, guided by international law, to buttress their claims to ...


How To Deal With Multi-Party Nominations Of Arbitrators In International Commercial Arbitration - A Comparative Study Of Appointment Procedures With Emphasis On U.S.-European Commerce Between Private Entities, Marie-Beatrix Tupy Jan 2006

How To Deal With Multi-Party Nominations Of Arbitrators In International Commercial Arbitration - A Comparative Study Of Appointment Procedures With Emphasis On U.S.-European Commerce Between Private Entities, Marie-Beatrix Tupy

LLM Theses and Essays

The nomination procedure for the Arbitral Tribunal in commercial arbitration is one of the crucial points in the arbitral procedure. Parties have to have in mind the provisions of the New York Convention regarding the setting aside of an award in case of a failure during the nomination procedure of the tribunal. Besides from the famous Dutco case on multi-party arbitrations and their nomination procedures have received highest interest within the international arbitral world. As the thesis will comparatively show, all major arbitral institutions have updated their Rules, countries have even rendered new legislation with respect to the nomination procedure ...


Balancing Regulations And Incentives For Foreign Direct Investment: A Case Study Of Mexico And Kazakhstan, Dauren B. Tynybekov Jan 2006

Balancing Regulations And Incentives For Foreign Direct Investment: A Case Study Of Mexico And Kazakhstan, Dauren B. Tynybekov

LLM Theses and Essays

Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) has a global character. As globalization grows, foreign direct investment grows. This research analyses the relationship between foreign direct investment and developing countries. The main contributors to foreign direct investment are multinational corporations and this research will show the impact of this kind of investment on the economy of developing countries. The research will show the way the developing countries try to benefit from FDI in order to complement their economic growth. This thesis will analyze the incentives and regulations the developing countries use to attract FDI and what needs to be done to make this ...


A Comparative Study On The Trade Barriers Regulation And Foreign Trade Barriers Investigation Rules, Junrong Song Jan 2006

A Comparative Study On The Trade Barriers Regulation And Foreign Trade Barriers Investigation Rules, Junrong Song

LLM Theses and Essays

The Trade Barriers Regulation and Foreign Trade Barriers Investigation Rules are enacted in the European Union and China respectively. Both of them establish a procedure for the private sector to petition the government to challenge foreign trade barriers. Through the comparative study on the two pieces of law, this paper intends to dig out the similarities and differences between them and develop some suggestions for the improvement of them.