Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Law Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Series

2001

Discipline
Institution
Keyword
Publication
File Type

Articles 4081 - 4110 of 4140

Full-Text Articles in Law

William Warren, Lance Liebman Jan 2001

William Warren, Lance Liebman

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Divisional Arrangement For The Federal Appeals Courts, Carl W. Tobias Jan 2001

Divisional Arrangement For The Federal Appeals Courts, Carl W. Tobias

Law Faculty Publications

The 106th Congress seriously considered proposed legislation that could profoundly affect the federal appellate courts, and the 107th Congress may well do so. The Commission on Structural Alternatives for the Federal Courts of Appeals, which performed a rather comprehensive, albeit incomplete, study of the tribunals, recommended this bill as the centerpiece of its report for Congress. The commissioners prescribed regionally-based adjudicative divisions for the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit and for the remaining appellate courts when the courts increase in size, even as the commission decisively rejected the possibility of splitting the Ninth Circuit into multiple ...


The Ali Principles: A Farewell To Fault--But What Remedy For The Egregious Marital Misconduct Of An Abusive Spouse, Peter N. Swisher Jan 2001

The Ali Principles: A Farewell To Fault--But What Remedy For The Egregious Marital Misconduct Of An Abusive Spouse, Peter N. Swisher

Law Faculty Publications

The fundamental premise of this commentary is that the ALl has erred in not including appropriate nonfinancial fault-based factors in the Principles for three major reasons: 1) other no-fault laws, including no-fault automobile insurance law, no-fault workers compensation law, and strict liability in tort law, have all incorporated a number of fault-based exceptions to their general no-fault framework for serious or egregious conduct, and American divorce law should likewise have a similar fault-based exception for serious or egregious marital misconduct; 2) a substantial number of states continue to recognize and utilize a number of fault-based statutory factors in divorce for ...


The Practical Scholar, David G. Epstein Jan 2001

The Practical Scholar, David G. Epstein

Law Faculty Publications

Larry King was "the practical scholar" for bankruptcy. In 1992, Harry Edwards, a District of Columbia Court of Appeals judge who has been a lecturer at New York University Law School since 1989, provided a definition of "practical scholarship" that defines Larry's scholarship: "[I]t analyzes the law and the legal system with an aim to instruct attorneys in their consideration of legal problems; to guide judges and other decisionmakers in their resolution of legal disputes; and to advise legislators and other policymakers on law reform.


The 2000 Federal Civil Rules Revisions, Carl W. Tobias Jan 2001

The 2000 Federal Civil Rules Revisions, Carl W. Tobias

Law Faculty Publications

During April 2000, the United States Supreme Court prescribed a comparatively thorough set of amendments to the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. These amendments took effect in December 2000. That development represented the culmination of a rule revision proceeding commenced in 1996 by the Judicial Conference of the United States Advisory Committee on Civil Rules (Advisory Committee). Because certain provisos that the Supreme Court included in the 2000 amendments are rather controversial and could alter significant features of modern federal civil litigation primarily involving discovery, these revisions deserve assessment. This Essay undertakes that effort by emphasizing changes in mandatory prediscovery ...


Fatal Attraction? The Uneasy Courtship Of Brady And Plea Bargaining, John G. Douglass Jan 2001

Fatal Attraction? The Uneasy Courtship Of Brady And Plea Bargaining, John G. Douglass

Law Faculty Publications

Part I of this Article discusses the natural attraction between Brady-a rule requiring disclosure of evidence favorable to a defendant-and plea bargaining-a practice where such information is at a premium for defendants. Part II describes how an increasing number of courts have adapted Brady to fit in the world of a plea bargain, in the process changing Brady's point of reference from the jury's verdict to the defendant's tactical decision to plead guilty. Part ill argues that this change in focus narrows Brady's substantive coverage and renders the rule practically unenforceable following most guilty pleas. Part ...


Confronting The Reluctant Accomplice, John G. Douglass Jan 2001

Confronting The Reluctant Accomplice, John G. Douglass

Law Faculty Publications

The Supreme Court treats the Confrontation Clause as a rule of evidence that excludes unreliable hearsay. But where the hearsay declarant is an accomplice who refuses to testify at defendant's trial, the Court's approach leads prosecutors and defendants to ignore real opportunities for confrontation, while they debate the reliability of hearsay. And even where the Court's doctrine excludes hearsay, it leads prosecutors to purchase the accomplice's testimony through a process that raises equally serious questions of reliability. Thus, the Court's approach promotes neither reliability nor confrontation. This Article advocates an approach that applies the Confrontation ...


Too Clever By Half: The Problem With Novelty In Constitutional Law, Suzanna Sherry Jan 2001

Too Clever By Half: The Problem With Novelty In Constitutional Law, Suzanna Sherry

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

As Robert Bennett's article illustrates, the "counter-majoritarian difficulty" remains--some forty years after its christening--a central theme in constitutional scholarship. [See Robert W. Bennett, "Counter-Conversationalism and the Sense of Difficulty", 95 NW. U. L. Rev. 845 (2001) ] Indeed, one might say that reconciling judicial review and democratic institutions is the goal of almost every major constitutional scholar writing today, including Bennett himself. I have suggested elsewhere that scholars as diverse as Richard Epstein, Antonin Scalia, and Robert Bork on the one hand, and Akhil Amar, Bruce Ackerman, and Ronald Dworkin on the other, are all motivated by a desire to ...


The Promise Of Certainty In The Law Of Pre-Incorporation Contracts, Poonam Puri Jan 2001

The Promise Of Certainty In The Law Of Pre-Incorporation Contracts, Poonam Puri

Articles & Book Chapters

In practice, most pre-incorporation contracts cause no difficulty for the parties who intend to benefit directly from them. In the normal course of events, once the corporation is incorporated, both the corporation and the third party perform on the contract: However, when the corporation does not come into existence, or comes into existence but refuses to adopt a contract, difficult legal issues arise in relation to the rights and liabilities of the parties? In these situations, the following questions must be -resolved: To what extent is the promoter liable on,the contract? To what extent is the corporation liable on ...


Nixon V. Shrink Missouri Government Pac: The Beginning Of The End Of The Buckley Era?, Richard Briffault Jan 2001

Nixon V. Shrink Missouri Government Pac: The Beginning Of The End Of The Buckley Era?, Richard Briffault

Faculty Scholarship

In Nixon v. Shrink Missouri Government PAC, the Supreme Court emphatically reaffirmed a key element of the campaign finance doctrine first articulated in Buckley v. Valeo a quarter-century earlier that governments may, consistent with the First Amendment, impose limitations on the size of contributions to election campaigns. Shrink Missouri was significant because the Eighth Circuit decision reversed by the Supreme Court had sought to strengthen the constitutional protection provided to contributions and had invalidated limitations on donations to Missouri state candidates that were actually higher than the limits on donations to federal candidates that the Supreme Court had previously upheld ...


The Dynamic Analytics Of Property Law, Michael Heller Jan 2001

The Dynamic Analytics Of Property Law, Michael Heller

Faculty Scholarship

The standard property trilogy of private, commons, and state has become so outdated that it now impedes imagination and innovation at the frontiers of ownership. This essay suggests two approaches – creating new ideal types and synthesizing existing ones – that may help update our static property metaphors. Using these dynamic approaches to property analytics, legal theory can move beyond polarizing oppositions that have made jurisprudential debates unsolvable and rendered concrete problems invisible.


Unocal Fifteen Year Later (And What We Can Do About It), Ronald J. Gilson Jan 2001

Unocal Fifteen Year Later (And What We Can Do About It), Ronald J. Gilson

Faculty Scholarship

The coincidence of the new millennium and the fifteenth anniversary of the Delaware Supreme Court's announcement of a new approach to takeover law provides an occasion to evaluate a remarkable experiment in corporate law; the Delaware Supreme Court's development of an intermediate standard of review for appraising defensive tactics. This assessment reveals that Unocal has developed into an unexplained and likely inexplicable preference that control contests be resolved through elections rather than through market transactions. In doing so, the remarkable struggle between the chancery court and the supreme court for Unocal's soul is canvassed. The author also ...


The Acquiescent Gatekeeper: Reputational Intermediaries, Auditor Independence And The Governance Of Accounting, John C. Coffee Jr. Jan 2001

The Acquiescent Gatekeeper: Reputational Intermediaries, Auditor Independence And The Governance Of Accounting, John C. Coffee Jr.

Faculty Scholarship

The role of "gatekeepers" as reputational intermediaries who can be more easily deterred than the principals they serve has been developed in theory, but less often examined in practice. Initially, this article seeks to define the conditions under which gatekeeper liability is likely to work – and, correspondingly, the conditions under which it is more likely to fail. Then, after reviewing the recent empirical literature on earnings management, it concludes that the independent auditor does not today satisfy the conditions under which gatekeeper liability should produce high law compliance. A variety of explanations – poor observability, implicit collusion, and high agency costs ...


Competition Among Securities Markets: A Path Dependent Perspective, John C. Coffee Jr. Jan 2001

Competition Among Securities Markets: A Path Dependent Perspective, John C. Coffee Jr.

Faculty Scholarship

Today, there are an estimated 150 securities exchanges trading stocks around the world. Tomorrow (or at least within the reasonably foreseeable future), this number is likely to shrink radically. The two great forces reshaping the contemporary world – globalization and technology – impact the world of securities markets in a similar and mutually reinforcing fashion:

  1. they force local and regional markets into more direct competition with distant international markets;
  2. they increase overall market capitalization and lower the cost of equity capital, as issuers are enabled to access multiple markets; and
  3. they permit order flow and liquidity to migrate quickly from local markets ...


A Defense Of Shareholder Favoritism, Stephen J. Choi, Eric L. Talley Jan 2001

A Defense Of Shareholder Favoritism, Stephen J. Choi, Eric L. Talley

Faculty Scholarship

This paper considers the efficiency implications of managerial "favoritism" towards block shareholders of public corporations. While favoritism can take any number of forms (including the payment of green-mail, diversion of opportunities, selective information disclosure, and the like), each may have the effect (if not the intent) of securing a block shareholder's loyalty in order to entrench management. Accordingly, the practice of making side payments is commonly perceived to be contrary to other shareholders' interests and, more generally, inefficient. In contrast to this received wisdom, we argue that when viewed ex ante, permissible acts of patronage toward block shareholders may ...


Publication Rules In The Rulemaking Spectrum: Assuring Proper Respect For An Essential Element, Peter L. Strauss Jan 2001

Publication Rules In The Rulemaking Spectrum: Assuring Proper Respect For An Essential Element, Peter L. Strauss

Faculty Scholarship

The American rulemaking spectrum ranges from one Constitution, through hundreds of congressional statutes, thousands of administrative regulations, and tens of thousands of important guidance documents to innumerable more casual agency documents such as press releases or letters of advice. Our legal system treats constitutions, statutes and regulations, if valid, as binding text, subject only to the requirements that they be authorized by the superior authority and appropriately adopted following designated procedures; if valid, each of them has legislative effect on government and citizen alike, until displaced by another text validly adopted at the same or a higher level. The innumerable ...


Credit Cards And Debit Cards In The United States And Japan, Ronald J. Mann Jan 2001

Credit Cards And Debit Cards In The United States And Japan, Ronald J. Mann

Faculty Scholarship

This article is an exploration in the tradition of new institutional economics of the possibility that institutional conditions have a significant role in determining the success of credit cards and debit cards. The article examines differences in credit-card and debit-card usage between the United States and Japan. Although I do not doubt that social and psychological factors have some significance, I contend that three institutional factors also have useful explanatory power: the freedom of banks to enter the industry; low telecommunication costs, and the size of the market.

The article provides a detailed description of card usage in the two ...


Interpreting Intervention, Craig Scott Jan 2001

Interpreting Intervention, Craig Scott

Articles & Book Chapters

The present article, written in May 2001, discusses the significance for the doctrine of humanitarian intervention of the normative signaling practices that transpired throughout the 1990s with respect to the use of military force outside of explicit authorization by UN Security Council resolutions. The first part of the article analyses the sociological and legal-theoretical dimensions of the relationship between interpretation of Security Council resolutions and the interpretive evolution of the UN Charter. Iraq and Kosovo then provide the focus for contextualizing the analysis. The article ends with an account of the interplay of the powers of the General Assembly and ...


The Internet In Light Of Traditional Public And Private International Law Principles And Rules Applied In Canada, Jean-Gabriel Castel Jan 2001

The Internet In Light Of Traditional Public And Private International Law Principles And Rules Applied In Canada, Jean-Gabriel Castel

Articles & Book Chapters

In general, the jurisdiction of a state to prescribe, to adjudicate, and to enforce' is related to physical location. Yet, physical location is foreign to the Internet, which can be defined as the electronic medium of worldwide computer networks within which online communication takes place. The absence of physical location calls into question the applicability of the traditional public and private international law principles and rules that are based primarily on territoriality, in order to delineate the jurisdiction of states and their courts over the Internet and its users.


In The Name Of The International: The Supreme Court Of Canada And The Internationalist Transformation Of Canadian Private International Law, Robert Wai Jan 2001

In The Name Of The International: The Supreme Court Of Canada And The Internationalist Transformation Of Canadian Private International Law, Robert Wai

Articles & Book Chapters

Globalization and internationalization are pervasive in contemporary cultural, political, and economic policy discourses. Not surprisingly, a concern with internationalization and globalization increasingly characterizes the policy discourses of law. While the law often operates at a lag to broader social trends, it is sometimes more active in constituting such trends. This article is concerned with a striking episode of legal change oriented towards the perceived new realities of the international system, which occurred in the unlikely venue of private international law in Canada.


A Government Of Laws And Also Of Men: Judge William K. Thomas, R. Lawrence Dessem Jan 2001

A Government Of Laws And Also Of Men: Judge William K. Thomas, R. Lawrence Dessem

Faculty Publications

Judge William K. Thomas served for more than forty years as a common pleas judge and as a judge for the United States District Court for the Northern District of Ohio. During his service on the state and federal bench, Judge Thomas epitomized the qualities of fairness, integrity, justice, and compassion that we expect in our judiciary. This article highlights some of the qualities that made Judge Thomas a truly great judge, as well as some of the highlights of his judicial career. It is written as a memorial tribute by one of his former law clerks.


The Capital Markets Perspective On A National Securities Regulator, Poonam Puri Jan 2001

The Capital Markets Perspective On A National Securities Regulator, Poonam Puri

Articles & Book Chapters

The purpose of this paper is to provide an empirical foundation from a capital markets perspective to ground the discussion and analysis on the constitutionality of a national securities regulator. Based on the data, the case for a national securities regulator for Canada is more evident now than it has ever been. This paper first explores the academic and empirical literature on the relationship between regulation and the strength of that jurisdiction’s capital markets, as measured by the cost of capital, liquidity and investor protection. Studies have found that Canadian companies have a higher cost of capital than their ...


Carbon Sinks Science And The Preservation Of Old Growth Forests Under The Kyoto Protocol, Dayna Scott Jan 2001

Carbon Sinks Science And The Preservation Of Old Growth Forests Under The Kyoto Protocol, Dayna Scott

Articles & Book Chapters

The structure of the mechanisms in the Kyoto Protocol with respect to "carbon sinks," may be integrated so as to place incentives on national governments that counter recent progress made towards the preservation of old-growth forests. A focus on the element carbon fails to recognize values other than sequestration that standing forests can provide. For example, an approach that strictly seeks to increase the rate of fixation of atmospheric carbon will favour replacing old-growth forests with monocultural plantations of trees. The international community, in implementing these mechanisms, may frustrate other environmental initiatives such as the conservation of endangered species habitat ...


Crosby And The "One-Voice" Myth In U.S. Foreign Relations, Sarah H. Cleveland Jan 2001

Crosby And The "One-Voice" Myth In U.S. Foreign Relations, Sarah H. Cleveland

Faculty Scholarship

In Crosby v. National Foreign Trade Council, the Supreme Court invalidated a Massachusetts government procurement statute that barred state entities from doing business with companies that did business in Burma. The plaintiffs, an organization of private companies with foreign operations, challenged the law on constitutional and statutory preemption grounds, arguing that it improperly conflicted with federal foreign relations authority. The Supreme Court limited its holding to implied statutory preemption, finding that the Massachusetts provision improperly compromised the President's ability "to speak for the Nation with one voice." Crosby thus joined a long line of decisions in which the Supreme ...


The Role And Reality Of Emotions In Law, Carol Sanger Jan 2001

The Role And Reality Of Emotions In Law, Carol Sanger

Faculty Scholarship

It is a great pleasure to participate in the celebration and exploration of Susan Bandes' The Passions of Law in this symposium on emotion and gender jurisprudence. It may be worth reminding today's law students that when Professor Bandes and I were classmates at the University of Michigan Law School in the mid-1970s, there were no such conferences. Jurisprudence existed, but the concept of gender had not yet emerged; we were still too busy defining feminism. Emotions were something we dutifully suppressed as we tried to assimilate into the legal profession.

This is not to say we were wholly ...


Moral Pluck: Legal Ethics In Popular Culture, William H. Simon Jan 2001

Moral Pluck: Legal Ethics In Popular Culture, William H. Simon

Faculty Scholarship

Favorable portrayals of lawyers in popular culture tend to adopt a distinctive ethical perspective. This perspective departs radically from the premises of the "Conformist Moralism" exemplified by the official ethics of the American bar and the arguments of the proponents of President Clinton's impeachment. While Conformist Moralism is strongly authoritarian and categorical, popular culture exalts a quality that might be called "Moral Pluck " – a combination of resourcefulness and transgression in the service of basic but informal values. This Essay traces the theme of Moral Pluck through three of the most prominent fictional portrayals of lawyers in recent years – the ...


Lucas Rosa V. Park West Bank And Trust Company, Katherine M. Franke Jan 2001

Lucas Rosa V. Park West Bank And Trust Company, Katherine M. Franke

Faculty Scholarship

In July of 1998 something rather mundane happened: Lucas Rosa walked into Park West Bank in Holyoke, Massachusetts and asked for a loan application. Since it was a warm summer day, and because she wanted to look credit-worthy, Rosa wore a blousey top over stockings. Suddenly, the mundane transformed into the exceptional: When asked for some identification, Rosa was told that no application would be forthcoming until and unless she went home, changed her clothes and returned attired in more traditionally masculine/male clothing. Rosa, a biological male who identifies herself as female was, it seems, denied a loan application ...


Amicus Curiae Brief Of Now Legal Defense And Education Fund And Equal Rights Advocates In Support Of Plaintiff-Appellant And In Support Of Reversal, Katherine M. Franke Jan 2001

Amicus Curiae Brief Of Now Legal Defense And Education Fund And Equal Rights Advocates In Support Of Plaintiff-Appellant And In Support Of Reversal, Katherine M. Franke

Faculty Scholarship

NOW Legal Defense and Education Fund ("NOW LDEF") is a leading national non-profit civil rights organization that performs abroad range of legal and educational services in support of efforts to eliminate sex-based discrimination" and secure equal rights. NOW LDEF was founded in 1970 by leaders of the National Organization for Women as a separate organization. NOW LDEF has appeared as amicus in numerous cases involving sex stereotyping as a form of sex discrimination, including Price Waterhouse v. Hopkins, and Fisher v. Vassar College.

Equal Rights Advocates ("ERA") is one of the oldest public interest law firms specializing in educational and ...


Frictions As A Constraint On Tax Planning, David M. Schizer Jan 2001

Frictions As A Constraint On Tax Planning, David M. Schizer

Faculty Scholarship

The government often uses narrow tax reforms to target specific planning strategies. Sometimes the targeted transaction is stopped. But in other cases, taxpayers press on, tweaking the deal just enough to sidestep the reform. The difference often lies in transaction costs, financial accounting, and other 'frictions, " which are constraints on tax planning external to the tax law.

This Article contributes a methodology for determining whether frictions will block end runs, and illustrates the effect of frictions by comparing the constructive sale rule of section 1259 with the constructive ownership rule of section 1260. These reforms use the same statutory language ...


Through The Lens Of The Sequence, Ellen Wright Clayton Jan 2001

Through The Lens Of The Sequence, Ellen Wright Clayton

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

The completion of the rough draft of the human genome is a scientific feat worthy of celebration. But the media attention that has been devoted to the Human Genome Project demonstrates that most people are not as interested in what the sequence is as in what it means for individuals and for society, for good or for ill. My purpose in writing this essay is to discuss how the project was conducted here in the United States, and some of the implications of knowing the sequence (or more aptly, a sequence).