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Can Gilti + Beat = Globe?, Mindy Herzfeld Jan 2019

Can Gilti + Beat = Globe?, Mindy Herzfeld

UF Law Faculty Publications

The OECD is moving forward with consideration of a minimum tax as part of its solution to taxation of the digital economy. Part of a template for such a minimum tax may be the version enacted by the United States (US) in 2017 as an expansion of its Controlled Foreign Corporation (CFC) regime, known as Global Intangible Low Taxed Income (GILTI). But the OECD version will undoubtedly be different from the US iteration. It’s likely that it would also include some aspects of a minimum tax being proposed by other OECD members such as Germany and France, namely a ...


Wealth Accumulation At Elite Colleges, Endowment Taxation, And The Unlikely Story Of How Donald Trump Got One Thing Right, Mae C. Quinn Jan 2019

Wealth Accumulation At Elite Colleges, Endowment Taxation, And The Unlikely Story Of How Donald Trump Got One Thing Right, Mae C. Quinn

UF Law Faculty Publications

President Donald Trump has declared war on immigrants, diversity, and those who dare to dissent. Rooted in resentments about who people are, where they were born, and what they believe, these executive-led assaults are dangerous developments in the modern era. However, in the course of Trump's many retrograde tirades, he has somehow managed to get one thing right-too many elite private colleges in the United States, considered nonprofit entities, have amassed way too much wealth.
This Article recounts this unlikely story, including how the Trump Administration's 2017 endowment tax could work to advance diversity. The new endowment tax ...


Book Review: International Tax Policy: Between Competition And Cooperation, Yariv Brauner Jan 2019

Book Review: International Tax Policy: Between Competition And Cooperation, Yariv Brauner

UF Law Faculty Publications

The author reviews International Tax Policy: Between Competition and Cooperation. By Tsilly Dagan. Cambridge Tax Law Series, 2018.


2018 Erwin N. Griswold Lecture Before The American College Of Tax Counsel: Tax Policy Elegy, Martin J. Mcmahon Jr. Jan 2018

2018 Erwin N. Griswold Lecture Before The American College Of Tax Counsel: Tax Policy Elegy, Martin J. Mcmahon Jr.

UF Law Faculty Publications

For over four decades there have been unrelenting calls to make the tax code “fair, simple, and efficient.” But despite nine major tax acts between 1969 and 2003, along with many less extensive tax acts, the refrain for a “fair, simple, and efficient” tax code has continued to be heard. This continuing plea is not surprising, because over the decades the tax system has evolved to ask the highest income earners to pay less in taxes, become ever more complex, and eschewed “efficiency” in favor of the allowance of an ever-increasing number of tax preferences. Tax act after tax act ...


Why Examples? Towards More Behaviorally-Intelligent Regulation, Yariv Brauner Jan 2018

Why Examples? Towards More Behaviorally-Intelligent Regulation, Yariv Brauner

UF Law Faculty Publications

Tax regulation authors habitually infuse regulations with explanatory examples. These examples are viewed favorably by both the government that encourages their drafting and the taxpayers who regularly rely on such examples to assist them in dealing with the notoriously complex tax rules. Despite the ubiquity of these examples, there is no published guidance for their drafting, their use, or their interpretation. The first original contribution of this article is the exposition and classification of the advantages and deficiencies in the current use of examples in tax regulations. This article is the first to question the rationale behind the ubiquitous use ...


Recent Developments In Federal Income Taxation: The Year 2016, Martin J. Mcmahon Jr., Bruce A. Mcgovern Jan 2017

Recent Developments In Federal Income Taxation: The Year 2016, Martin J. Mcmahon Jr., Bruce A. Mcgovern

UF Law Faculty Publications

This recent developments outline discusses, and provides context to understand the significance of, the most important judicial decisions and administrative rulings and regulations promulgated by the Internal Revenue Service and Treasury Department during the most recent twelve months—and sometimes a little farther back in time if we find the item particularly humorous or outrageous. Most Treasury Regulations, however, are so complex that they cannot be discussed in detail, and, anyway, only a devout masochist would read them all the way through; just the basic topic and fundamental principles are highlighted—unless one of us decides to go nuts and ...


Codifying Castle Harbour, Karen C. Burke, Grayson M.P. Mccouch Jan 2016

Codifying Castle Harbour, Karen C. Burke, Grayson M.P. Mccouch

UF Law Faculty Publications

In this article, Burke and McCouch discuss the 2015 statutory amendment, enacted as part of the last-minute budget deal, that revised and renumbered the family partnership provision of section 704(e)(1). They question whether the change will accomplish its stated purposes of clarifying existing law and raising $1.9 billion in revenue, and they conclude that the 2014 proposals by former House Ways and Means Committee Chair Dave Camp offer a politically expedient source of selective pay-fors for future government spending without actually raising taxes.


Treaties In The Aftermath Of Beps, Yariv Brauner Jan 2016

Treaties In The Aftermath Of Beps, Yariv Brauner

UF Law Faculty Publications

The article argues that, despite the fanfare around it, the outcome of the BEPS project is unlikely to be dramatic, at least in the short term. Beyond a period of increased legal uncertainty and aggressive enforcement by some countries, it expects little substantive change in tax treaties. The challenges to the dominance of the OECD and the richest countries would likely be assuaged with marginal concessions, most or all of which not be affecting tax treaties. Yet, the article sees a silver lining in the non-substantive, structural, and instrumental outcomes of the BEPS project. It argues that even if unintended ...


Unilateral Responses To Tax Treaty Abuse: A Functional Approach, Omri Y. Marian Jan 2016

Unilateral Responses To Tax Treaty Abuse: A Functional Approach, Omri Y. Marian

UF Law Faculty Publications

Recent years have seen a dramatic increase in the attention given to abusive tax schemes that take advantage of bilateral tax treaties. The ensuing discourse tends to view potential responses to treaty abuses as a hierarchical set of options, gradually escalating, in which treaty termination is a last resort option. This article argues that the hierarchical view of unilateral responses to treaty abuse is misguided. Unilateral responses to treaty-based abuse are not hierarchically ordered. Rather, the approach to treaty abuse is (and should be) functional, adopting specific types of unilateral responses based on the type of treaty abuse at issue ...


Of More Than Usual Interest: The Taxing Problem Of Debt Principal, Charlene Luke Oct 2015

Of More Than Usual Interest: The Taxing Problem Of Debt Principal, Charlene Luke

UF Law Faculty Publications

Leverage is an essential but often troubling component of the U.S. market. The financial crisis highlighted the risks and complexity of a leverage web that includes flesh-and-blood people from all walks of life and paper people from all corners of the business and investment world. In the tax area, the potentially problematic incentive effects of interest deductibility have long engaged a wide array of tax commentators and policymakers. While interest deductibility rightly receives widespread scrutiny, a more comprehensive approach to leverage is needed. This Article focuses on the surprisingly complicated tax treatment of cash (and cash equivalent) borrowings. This ...


The Moving Target Of Tax Reform, Karen C. Burke, Grayson M.P. Mccouch Jan 2015

The Moving Target Of Tax Reform, Karen C. Burke, Grayson M.P. Mccouch

UF Law Faculty Publications

In 2000, Professor William Turnier proposed a package of three reforms to make the estate tax more “equitable” and “taxpayerfriendly.” All of his proposals—allowing a surviving spouse to inherit a deceased spouse’s unused exemption, replacing the state death tax credit with a deduction, and indexing the exemption for inflation—were eventually enacted. Today, the estate tax remains on the books, but changes in rates and exemptions have severely curtailed its role in the larger federal tax system. Income tax rate reductions for capital gains and dividends have further lightened the tax burden on capital income, and international pressure ...


Recent Developments In Federal Income Taxation: The Year 2014, Martin J. Mcmahon Jr., Bruce A. Mcgovern, Ira B. Shepard Jan 2015

Recent Developments In Federal Income Taxation: The Year 2014, Martin J. Mcmahon Jr., Bruce A. Mcgovern, Ira B. Shepard

UF Law Faculty Publications

This recent developments outline discusses, and provides context to understand the significance of, the most important judicial decisions and administrative rulings and regulations promulgated by the Internal Revenue Service and Treasury Department during 2014--and sometimes a little farther back in time if we find the item particularly humorous or outrageous. Most Treasury Regulations, however, are so complex that they cannot be discussed in detail and, anyway, only a devout masochist would read them all the way through; just the basic topic and fundamental principles are highlighted-- unless one of us decides to go nuts and spend several pages writing one ...


Home-Country Effects Of Corporate Inversions, Omri Y. Marian Jan 2015

Home-Country Effects Of Corporate Inversions, Omri Y. Marian

UF Law Faculty Publications

This Article develops a framework for the study of the unique effects of corporate inversions (meaning, a change in corporate residence for tax purposes) in the jurisdictions from which corporations invert ("home jurisdictions"). Currently, empirical literature on corporate inversions overstates its policy implications. It is frequently argued that in response to an uncompetitive tax environment, corporations may relocate their headquarters for tax purposes, which, in turn, may result in the loss of positive economic attributes in the home jurisdiction (such as capital expenditures, research and development activity, and high-quality jobs). The association of tax-residence relocation with the dislocation of meaningful ...


A Conceptual Framework For The Regulation Of Cryptocurrencies, Omri Y. Marian Jan 2015

A Conceptual Framework For The Regulation Of Cryptocurrencies, Omri Y. Marian

UF Law Faculty Publications

This Essay proposes a conceptual framework for the regulation of transactions involving cryptocurrencies. Cryptocurrencies offer tremendous opportunities for innovation and development but are also uniquely suited to facilitate illicit behavior. The regulatory framework suggested herein is intended to support (or at least not impair) cryptocurrencies’ innovative potential. At the same time, it aims to disrupt cryptocurrencies’ criminal utility. To achieve these purposes, this Essay proposes a regulatory framework that imposes costs on the characteristics of cryptocurrencies that make them especially useful for criminal behavior (in particular, anonymity) but does not impose costs on characteristics that are at the core of ...


The Oecd’S Flawed And Dated Approach To Computer Servers Creating Permanent Establishments, Monica Gianni Oct 2014

The Oecd’S Flawed And Dated Approach To Computer Servers Creating Permanent Establishments, Monica Gianni

UF Law Faculty Publications

As the digital economy changes the way that we do business, tax laws have been challenged to adapt appropriately to this nontraditional business method. International tax rules were developed in a different technological era. To accommodate electronic commerce, existing tax rules either have to be applied to electronic-commerce transactions, or new rules have to be developed. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has taken the lead in studying and recommending appropriate international taxation rules for electronic commerce.

This Article focuses on the original central tax issue that the OECD considered—jurisdiction to tax income from electronic commerce based ...


Reconciling Tax Law And Securities Regulation, Omri Y. Marian Oct 2014

Reconciling Tax Law And Securities Regulation, Omri Y. Marian

UF Law Faculty Publications

Issuers in registered securities offerings must disclose the expected tax consequences to investors investing in the offered securities (“nonfinancial tax disclosure”). This Article advances three arguments regarding nonfinancial tax disclosures. First, nonfinancial tax disclosure practice, as the Securities and Exchange Commission (the SEC) has sanctioned it, does not fulfill its intended regulatory purposes. Currently, nonfinancial tax disclosures provide irrelevant information, sometimes fail to provide material information, create unnecessary transaction costs, and divert valuable administrative resources to the enforcement of largely-meaningless requirements. Second, the practical reason for this failure is the SEC and tax practitioners’ unsuccessful attempt to address investors’ heterogeneous ...


Pfics Gone Wild!, Monica Gianni Jan 2014

Pfics Gone Wild!, Monica Gianni

UF Law Faculty Publications

This article discusses the U.S. tax rules for passive foreign investment companies, or PFICs. The historical development leading up to the enactment of the PFIC rules in 1986 is examined. Unexpected tax consequences resulting from the PFIC rules are analyzed in detail. Recommendations to modify the rules so that they do have such onerous consequences follow, concluding that the PFIC rules cannot be sufficiently fixed and should be repealed.


When Subchapter S Meets Subchapter C, Martin J. Mcmahon Jr., Daniel L. Simmons Jan 2014

When Subchapter S Meets Subchapter C, Martin J. Mcmahon Jr., Daniel L. Simmons

UF Law Faculty Publications

It is often said that “an S corporation is a corporation that is taxed like a partnership.” This statement is incorrect. An S corporation resembles a partnership only in that it generally does not pay income taxes and its income and losses pass through to the shareholders and retain their character as they pass through. Also, like a partnership, basis adjustments to an S corporation shareholder's stock reflect allocations of income, expense, loss, and distributions. However, no other rules of subchapter K governing partnership taxation apply to S corporations. Most of the rules governing the relationship between an S ...


Recent Developments In Federal Income Taxation: The Year 2013, Martin J. Mcmahon Jr., Ira B. Shepard, Daniel L. Simmons Jan 2014

Recent Developments In Federal Income Taxation: The Year 2013, Martin J. Mcmahon Jr., Ira B. Shepard, Daniel L. Simmons

UF Law Faculty Publications

This recent developments outline discusses, and provides context to understand the significance of, the most important judicial decisions and administrative rulings and regulations promulgated by the Internal Revenue Service and Treasury Department during 2013 – and sometimes a little farther back in time if we find the item particularly humorous or outrageous. Most Treasury Regulations, however, are so complex that they cannot be discussed in detail and, anyway, only a devout masochist would read them all the way through; just the basic topic and fundamental principles are highlighted – unless one of us decides to go nuts and spend several pages writing ...


Are Cryptocurrencies 'Super' Tax Havens?, Omri Y. Marian Oct 2013

Are Cryptocurrencies 'Super' Tax Havens?, Omri Y. Marian

UF Law Faculty Publications

I describe the mechanisms by which cryptocurrencies — a subcategory of virtual currencies — could replace tax havens as the weapon-of-choice for tax-evaders. I argue such outcome is reasonably expected in the foreseeable future due to the contemporary convergence of two processes. The first process is the increasing popularity of cryptocurrencies, of which Bitcoin is the most widely recognized example. The second process is the transformation of financial intermediaries to agents in the service of tax authorities, as part of the fight against offshore tax evasion. Financial institutions are faced with increased governmental pressure to deliver information about account holders, to withhold ...


The Relevance Games: Congress's Choices For Economic Substance Gamemakers, Charlene Luke Apr 2013

The Relevance Games: Congress's Choices For Economic Substance Gamemakers, Charlene Luke

UF Law Faculty Publications

Codification of the economic substance doctrine in 2010 ushered in a new phase in the debate regarding the meaning and reach of the doctrine. The main statutory hint as to the intended scope of the codified economic substance doctrine is ambiguous, providing, “The determination of whether the economic substance doctrine is relevant to a transaction shall be made in the same manner as if this subsection had never been enacted.” This Article argues that this language should be read in light of the codification history, which stretches back for over ten years before enactment. This history suggests that the relevance ...


Recent Developments In Federal Income Taxation: The Year 2012, Martin J. Mcmahon Jr., Ira B. Shepard, Daniel L. Simmons Jan 2013

Recent Developments In Federal Income Taxation: The Year 2012, Martin J. Mcmahon Jr., Ira B. Shepard, Daniel L. Simmons

UF Law Faculty Publications

This recent developments outline discusses, and provides context to understand the significance of, the most important judicial decisions and administrative rulings and regulations promulgated by the Internal Revenue Service and Treasury Department during the most recent twelve months - and sometimes a little farther back in time if we find the item particularly humorous or outrageous. Most Treasury Regulations, however, are so complex that they cannot be discussed in detail and, anyway, only a devout masochist would read them all the way through; just the basic topic and fundamental principles are highlighted - unless one of us decides to go nuts and ...


Jurisdiction To Tax Corporations, Omri Y. Marian Jan 2013

Jurisdiction To Tax Corporations, Omri Y. Marian

UF Law Faculty Publications

Corporate tax residence is fundamental to our federal income tax system. Whether a corporation is classified as “domestic” or “foreign” for U.S. federal income tax purposes determines the extent of tax jurisdiction the United States has over the corporation and its affiliates. Unfortunately, tax scholars seem to agree that the concept of corporate tax residence is “meaningless.” Underlying this perception are the ideas that corporations cannot have “real” residence because they are imaginary entities and because taxpayers can easily manipulate corporate tax residence tests. Commentators try to deal with the perceived meaninglessness by either trying to identify a normative ...


Passthrough Entities: The Missing Element In Business Tax Reform, Karen C. Burke Jan 2013

Passthrough Entities: The Missing Element In Business Tax Reform, Karen C. Burke

UF Law Faculty Publications

Reform of the U.S. corporate tax system is again on the agenda. Despite important differences, many current proposals share two common goals: (1) reducing the statutory corporate tax rate to improve U.S. “international competitiveness” and (2) broadening the corporate tax base by reducing or eliminating business expenditures to offset revenue losses. Given the significance of the passthrough sector and the relationship between individual and corporate taxes, however, such reforms need to be considered within a broader context. Part I of this article discusses the growing significance of the passthrough sector, which now accounts for roughly half of net ...


Meaningless Comparisons: Corporate Tax Reform Discourse In The United States, Omri Y. Marian Jan 2012

Meaningless Comparisons: Corporate Tax Reform Discourse In The United States, Omri Y. Marian

UF Law Faculty Publications

This article examines the role that international comparisons play in current corporate tax reform discourse in the United States. Citing the need to make the U.S. corporate tax system more competitive, comparisons are frequently used to assess other jurisdictions' tax-competitiveness, and many legislative proposals are supported by such comparative arguments. Examining such discourse against the background of several theoretical approaches to comparative law, this article argues that, to the extent that comparisons are aimed at providing guidance for prospective reform, this purpose is not well served. Participants in the corporate tax reform discourse, from both sides of the aisle ...


Understanding Consolidated Returns, Martin J. Mcmahon Jr. Jan 2012

Understanding Consolidated Returns, Martin J. Mcmahon Jr.

UF Law Faculty Publications

Section 1501 allows all of the members of an affiliated group of corporations to elect to file a consolidated return. A consolidated return permits the includible members of an affiliated group of corporations to combine their incomes into a single return. The detailed rules for filing consolidated returns are found in regulations promulgated pursuant to a broad delegation of authority in section 1502 of the Internal Revenue Code. In general, the regulations reflect a “single entity” approach that attempts to treat the several members of a consolidated group in the same manner as divisions of a single corporation. This article ...


Recent Developments In Federal Income Taxation: The Year 2011, Martin J. Mcmahon Jr., Ira B. Shepard, Daniel L. Simmons Jan 2012

Recent Developments In Federal Income Taxation: The Year 2011, Martin J. Mcmahon Jr., Ira B. Shepard, Daniel L. Simmons

UF Law Faculty Publications

This recent developments outline discusses, and provides context to understand the significance of, the most important judicial decisions and administrative rulings and regulations promulgated by the Internal Revenue Service and Treasury Department during the most recent twelve months - and sometimes a little farther back in time if we find the item particularly humorous or outrageous. Most Treasury Regulations, however, are so complex that they cannot be discussed in detail and, anyway, only a devout masochist would read them all the way through; just the basic topic and fundamental principles are highlighted - unless one of us decides to go nuts and ...


Managing The Next Deluge: A Tax System Approach To Flood Insurance, Charlene Luke, Aviva Abramovsky Jan 2012

Managing The Next Deluge: A Tax System Approach To Flood Insurance, Charlene Luke, Aviva Abramovsky

UF Law Faculty Publications

The National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) has fallen short in fulfilling its promise as a social safety net for flood loss victims. In place of the NFIP, this Article proposes a mandatory social insurance plan that would harness the strengths of the federal taxing authority to provide basic relief for flood losses occurring at an individual’s primary residence. Any plan for addressing flood loss must navigate hotly debated, competing views about government intervention, redistribution, private markets, environmental protection, and property rights. This Article argues that government intervention in flood loss relief is inevitable, at least in the foreseeable future ...


Reframing Economic Substance, Karen C. Burke Oct 2011

Reframing Economic Substance, Karen C. Burke

UF Law Faculty Publications

Under the economic substance doctrine as codified in 26 U.S.C. § 7701(o), legislatively unintended tax benefits may be disallowed if a transaction lacks a substantial business purpose or fails to accomplish a meaningful change in the taxpayer's economic position. In a recent article on framing the “transaction” in economic substance cases, David Hariton makes three interrelated points. First, he observes that even though the judicial outcome may depend largely on how the relevant transaction is framed, few courts have explicitly focused on the framing issue. Second, he proposes that courts should presumptively frame the underlying transaction broadly ...


What Would Henry Simons Do?: Using An Ideal To Shape And Explain The Economic Substance Doctrine, Charlene Luke Jan 2011

What Would Henry Simons Do?: Using An Ideal To Shape And Explain The Economic Substance Doctrine, Charlene Luke

UF Law Faculty Publications

The law and policy governing tax shelters is incomplete, sometimes contradictory, and occasionally incoherent. Indeed, consensus has yet to emerge even as to which transactions should bear the tax shelter label. Often reform efforts are grounded in theories that are largely external to tax law—for example, economic theory relating to incentives. Fewer approaches rely on intrinsic tax policies, including that most fundamental of income tax principles—the Schanz-Haig-Simons income concept ("H-S"). Under H-S, an income tax base should be expansive, requiring inclusion of an individual's increases in wealth and allowing reductions only for non-personal costs that reduce wealth ...