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Full-Text Articles in Law

Developing Communities Of Dialogue, Jonathan R. Cohen Jan 2018

Developing Communities Of Dialogue, Jonathan R. Cohen

UF Law Faculty Publications

We live in an age where American political discourse has become highly antagonistic. Such hostile discourse may influence not just our politics but also our private lives, for the abrasiveness that we witness in political life can readily spill over into our homes, our schools, and the other realms that we inhabit. How can we resist the spread of such antagonism? This Essay makes two basic claims. First, it is important that we consider dialogue as both an individual phenomenon and as a community-based phenomenon. How we speak with one another is a function of both our individual proclivities and ...


A Genesis Of Conflict: The Zero-Sum Mindset, Jonathan R. Cohen Jan 2016

A Genesis Of Conflict: The Zero-Sum Mindset, Jonathan R. Cohen

UF Law Faculty Publications

Parties in conflict often operate under the assumption that for one party to win, the other party must lose. This concept, known as the “zero-sum mindset,” can lead to undesirable results, both because it can make disputes harder to resolve and because people holding such beliefs are more likely to get into conflicts to begin with. Over the past several decades, legal educators specializing in dispute resolution have worked hard to challenge that mindset. This task is not simple, for framing conflict in zero-sum terms has very deep cultural roots tracing back at least to the Biblical stories in Genesis ...


Beginning With Yes: A Review Essay On Michael Wheeler's The Art Of Negotiation: How To Improvise Agreement In A Chaotic World, Leonard L. Riskin Jan 2015

Beginning With Yes: A Review Essay On Michael Wheeler's The Art Of Negotiation: How To Improvise Agreement In A Chaotic World, Leonard L. Riskin

UF Law Faculty Publications

Michael Wheeler's The Art of Negotiation: How to Improvise Agreement in a Chaotic World stands on the shoulders of a number of previous books on negotiation by Wheeler's colleagues in the Program on Negotiation at Harvard Law School (PON), and others, but not because it needs their support. Instead, The Art of Negotiation illuminates the principal models in such books, by showing why, when, and how to improvise in relation to them. Some standard models of negotiation seem static, Wheeler tells us, whereas negotiation mastery requires dealing with the ‘inherent uncertainty‘ of almost any negotiation, and that calls ...


Open-Minded Listening, Jonathan R. Cohen Jan 2014

Open-Minded Listening, Jonathan R. Cohen

UF Law Faculty Publications

Parties in conflict do not typically listen to one another well. On a physical level they hear what their counterparts say, but on a deeper level they do not truly absorb or think seriously about their counterparts’ words. If they listen at all, they listen with an ear toward how they can refute rather than toward what they may learn. This article explores how we might change this. In contrast to prior research examining external aspects of listening (e.g., how being listened to influences the speaker), this article probes the internal side of listening, specifically, whether the listener will ...


Managing Inner And Outer Conflict: Selves, Subpersonalities, And Internal Family Systems, Leonard L. Riskin Jan 2013

Managing Inner And Outer Conflict: Selves, Subpersonalities, And Internal Family Systems, Leonard L. Riskin

UF Law Faculty Publications

This article describes potential benefits of considering certain processes within an individual that take place in connection with external conflict as if they might be negotiations or other processes that are routinely used to address external disputes, such as mediation or adjudication. In order to think about internal processes in this way, it is necessary to employ a model of the mind that includes entities capable of engaging in such processes. The Internal Family Systems (IFS) model, developed by Richard C. Schwartz, works well for this purpose. The IFS model is grounded on the construct that the mind is composed ...


Annual Saltman Lecture: Further Beyond Reason: Emotions, The Core Concerns, And Mindfulness In Negotiation, Leonard L. Riskin Jan 2013

Annual Saltman Lecture: Further Beyond Reason: Emotions, The Core Concerns, And Mindfulness In Negotiation, Leonard L. Riskin

UF Law Faculty Publications

This article focuses on one particularly common problem: Sometimes people who understand the Core Concerns System, know how to use it, and intend to employ it in a particular negotiation, either fail to do so or fail to do so skillfully; when they review the negotiation, they regret not having used the Core Concerns System, and believe that using it would have produced a better process and outcome. When this occurs, it often results from deficits or faults in the negotiator's awareness.

It follows that a negotiator can enhance his ability to employ the Core Concerns System through improving ...


Article Iii Judicial Power And The Federal Arbitration Act, Roger J. Perlstadt Jan 2012

Article Iii Judicial Power And The Federal Arbitration Act, Roger J. Perlstadt

UF Law Faculty Publications

Arbitrators determine facts and apply law to those facts to bindingly resolve disputes between two or more parties, a task normally reserved for judges. The Federal Arbitration Act (FAA) makes agreements to arbitrate disputes enforceable, including disputes that would normally be heard by an Article III judge, such as those arising under federal law or between parties of diverse citizenship. Accordingly, disputes subject to an arbitration agreement brought before a federal court for adjudication must instead, pursuant to the FAA, be resolved by an arbitrator. Yet, while Article III ostensibly mandates that life-tenured and salary-protected judges decide such disputes, arbitrators ...


Conflicts As Inner Trials: Transitions For Clients, Ideas For Lawyers, Jonathan R. Cohen Jan 2012

Conflicts As Inner Trials: Transitions For Clients, Ideas For Lawyers, Jonathan R. Cohen

UF Law Faculty Publications

As times of transition, conflicts often produce significant inner trials for parties. This paper categorizes some of the more common inner trials parties in conflict face (e.g., coping with loss, strong emotions, uncertainty, etc.) and suggests that, as liminal times in people’s lives, some conflicts may also hold within them important opportunities for learning, growth and self-definition. This paper also offers some ideas for how lawyers might best assist clients during such transitions.


Fostering Race-Related Dialogue: Lessons From A Small Seminar, Jonathan R. Cohen Jan 2011

Fostering Race-Related Dialogue: Lessons From A Small Seminar, Jonathan R. Cohen

UF Law Faculty Publications

People frequently shy away from discussing race. Yet, for many reasons, discussing race is extremely important. Drawing upon my experience of teaching a small seminar that addressed race through the lens of reconciliation, in this essay I offer several suggestions for fostering constructive race-related dialogue. I begin by identifying some factors that can make race-related dialogue difficult. I then suggest five steps that may facilitate constructive dialogue: (1) establish trust and good conversational dynamics before discussing race, (2) prompt the discussion with a reading or other informative stimulus, (3) listen to others with the goal of understanding their thoughts, (4 ...


Expanding The Nafta Chapter 19 Dispute Settlement System: A Way To Declaw Trade Remedy Laws In A Free Trade Area Of The Americas?, Stephen J. Powell Apr 2010

Expanding The Nafta Chapter 19 Dispute Settlement System: A Way To Declaw Trade Remedy Laws In A Free Trade Area Of The Americas?, Stephen J. Powell

UF Law Faculty Publications

Chapter 19 of the NAFTA transfers judicial review of U.S., Canadian, and Mexican government investigations under the controversial anti-dumping and countervailing duty (AD/CVD) laws from national courts to binational panels of private international law experts. The system stands as a unique surrender of judicial sovereignty to an international body, a hybrid of national courts and international dispute settlement with as yet no parallel in the world of international trade or other international law regimes. Binational panel decisions have been controversial because agencies chafe at their intimate examination of agency findings and supporting evidence. Panels also are viewed as ...


It Takes Two To Tango, And To Mediate: Legal Cultural And Other Factors Influencing United States And Latin American Lawyers’ Resistance To Mediating Commercial Disputes, Don C. Peters Jan 2010

It Takes Two To Tango, And To Mediate: Legal Cultural And Other Factors Influencing United States And Latin American Lawyers’ Resistance To Mediating Commercial Disputes, Don C. Peters

UF Law Faculty Publications

This article examines legal cultural and other factors influencing the resistance to mediating commercial disputes displayed by U.S. and Latin American lawyers. After surveying current contexts in which commercial mediation occurs in the United States and in Latin American countries and summarizing data regarding commercial actors’ knowledge of the benefits of mediating, it analyzes the relatively infrequent use of mediation despite its potential advantages over adjudicating. Focusing on lawyers, the article next explores factors that influence U.S. and Latin American lawyers when they converse with commercial clients about selecting dispute resolution methods.


Awareness And Ethics In Dispute Resolution And Law: Why Mindfulness Tends To Foster Ethical Behavior, Leonard L. Riskin Apr 2009

Awareness And Ethics In Dispute Resolution And Law: Why Mindfulness Tends To Foster Ethical Behavior, Leonard L. Riskin

UF Law Faculty Publications

This paper is an extended version of a luncheon presentation given at the Symposium, Ethics in the Expanding World of ADR: Considerations, Conundrums, and Conflicts, sponsored by South Texas College of Law in Houston, Texas, on Nov. 2, 2007.


Is That All There Is? "The Problem" In Court-Oriented Mediation, Leonard L. Riskin, Nancy A. Welsh Jun 2008

Is That All There Is? "The Problem" In Court-Oriented Mediation, Leonard L. Riskin, Nancy A. Welsh

UF Law Faculty Publications

The alternative process of mediation is now well-institutionalized and widely (though not universally) perceived to save time and money and satisfy lawyers and parties. However, the process has failed to meet important aspirations of its early proponents and certain expectations and needs of one-shot players. In particular, court-oriented mediation now reflects the dominance and preferences of lawyers and insurance claims adjusters. These repeat players understand the problem to be addressed in personal injury, employment, contract, medical malpractice and other ordinary civil non-family disputes as a matter of merits assessment and litigation risk analysis. Mediation is structured so that litigation issues ...


Tort Arbitrage, Robert J. Rhee Jan 2008

Tort Arbitrage, Robert J. Rhee

UF Law Faculty Publications

The economic models of bargaining and tort law have not been integrated into a coherent theory that reflects the empirical world. This Article models the interaction of settlement dynamics and the theory of negligence. It shows that tort claims are systematically devalued during settlement relative to the legal standard. Central to this thesis is a proper conception and accounting of cost. Cost is typically viewed as the transaction cost of litigation processing. Cost, however, encompasses more than this. Each dispute has a cost of resolution, defined as the discounting effect of risk on legal valuation. A spread between the parties ...


Coping With Lasting Social Injustice, Jonathan R. Cohen Apr 2007

Coping With Lasting Social Injustice, Jonathan R. Cohen

UF Law Faculty Publications

Sometimes we experience poetry in human life -- a sense of joy and wonder, connectedness and meaning, and occasionally even transcendence. Sometimes we do not. This is, I believe, a general aspect of the human condition. Such generality notwithstanding, different persons face different obstacles to hearing that poetry. Some obstacles are internal, rooted in an individual's personality. Others are external, deriving from an individual's family, community, or society. This essay explores one distinctive and particularly difficult external obstacle to that poetic joy: lasting social subordination. How does lasting social subordination affect a subordinated person's ability to hear that ...


Eleven Big Ideas About Conflict: A Superficial Guide For The Thoughtful Journalist, Leonard L. Riskin Jan 2007

Eleven Big Ideas About Conflict: A Superficial Guide For The Thoughtful Journalist, Leonard L. Riskin

UF Law Faculty Publications

When Professor Richard Reuben asked me to speak about the most basic ideas in conflict resolution to a group that included renowned journalists and journalism scholars, I balked. Surely these notions would seem too obvious, mundane, or superficial. But Richard - a practicing journalist for many years as well as an expert on conflict - assured me that the audience would find most of them surprising and useful. I hope he is correct.

I plan to present eleven ideas from the dispute resolution literature that I find particularly helpful in my work and life and which I think any journalist would benefit ...


When Lawyers Move Their Lips: Attorney Truthfulness In Mediation And A Modest Proposal, Donald C. Peters Jan 2007

When Lawyers Move Their Lips: Attorney Truthfulness In Mediation And A Modest Proposal, Donald C. Peters

UF Law Faculty Publications

This article examines whether the punch line that you can tell when lawyers are lying by confirming that their lips are moving applies to their conduct when negotiating in mediations. General surveys of lawyer honesty suggest that this perception probably does apply to the way lawyers negotiate in mediations. Only 20% of people surveyed in a 1993 American Bar Association poll described the legal profession as honest, and that number fell to 14% in a 1998 Gallup poll. However, research demonstrates a connection between honest negotiating and perceived effectiveness. A study of 5,000 Denver and Phoenix lawyers found that ...


A Price Theory Of Legal Bargaining: An Inquiry Into The Selection Of Settlement And Litigation Under Uncertainty, Robert J. Rhee Jan 2006

A Price Theory Of Legal Bargaining: An Inquiry Into The Selection Of Settlement And Litigation Under Uncertainty, Robert J. Rhee

UF Law Faculty Publications

Conventional wisdom says that economic surplus is created when the cost of litigation is foregone in favor of settlement, a theory flowing from the Coase Theorem. The cost-benefit analysis weighs settlement against the expected value of litigation net of transaction cost. This calculus yields the normative proposition that settlement is a superior form of dispute resolution and so most trials are considered errors. While simple in concept, the prevailing economic model is flawed. This article is a theoretical inquiry into the selection criteria of settlement and trial. It applies principles of financial economics to construct a pricing theory of legal ...


The Immorality Of Denial, Jonathan R. Cohen Mar 2005

The Immorality Of Denial, Jonathan R. Cohen

UF Law Faculty Publications

This article is the first of a two-part series critically examining the role of lawyers in assisting clients in denying responsibility for harms they have caused. If a person injures another, the moral response is for the injurer actively to take responsibility for what he has done. In contrast, the common practice within our legal culture is for injurers to deny responsibility for harms they commit. The immoral, in other words, has become the legally normal. In this Article, Professor Cohen analyzes the moral foundations of responsibility-taking. He also explores the moral, psychological, and spiritual risks to injurers who knowingly ...


To Sue Is Human; To Settle Divine: Intercultural Collaborations To Expand The Use Of Mediation In Costa Rica, Donald C. Peters Jan 2005

To Sue Is Human; To Settle Divine: Intercultural Collaborations To Expand The Use Of Mediation In Costa Rica, Donald C. Peters

UF Law Faculty Publications

Virtually all societies have developed non-adjudicative methods to resolve disputes. Third party intervention to help resolve disputes consensually, typically called mediation or conciliation, occurs in all cultures throughout the world. It now occurs in Costa Rica only voluntarily and primarily in family, community, labor, agricultural, and trade contexts.

Connecting mediation or conciliation to court systems provides a comparatively new use of third party interventions not involving adjudication through arbitration or litigation. This typically occurs by referring matters for mediation services provided by state-funded programs, private centers, and private mediators. Florida, the first American state to authorize courts to order mediation ...


The Culture Of Legal Denial, Jonathan R. Cohen Jan 2005

The Culture Of Legal Denial, Jonathan R. Cohen

UF Law Faculty Publications

The goals of this essay are twofold. The first is to examine critically the practice of lawyers assisting clients in denying harms they commit and suggest some ways of changing that practice. Lawyers commonly presume that their clients' interests are best served by denial. Yet such a presumption is not warranted. Given the moral, psychological, relational, and sometimes even economic risks of denial to the injurer, lawyers should consider discussing responsibility taking more often with clients. The second is to explore several structural or systemic factors that may reinforce the practice of denial seen day in and day out within ...


Mindfulness: Foundational Training For Dispute Resolution, Leonard L. Riskin Mar 2004

Mindfulness: Foundational Training For Dispute Resolution, Leonard L. Riskin

UF Law Faculty Publications

This Article addresses the problem of mindlessness in counseling, negotiating, and mediating, and offers potential solutions and recommendations for developing foundational capacities through training in mindfulness meditation.


Damages: Using A Case Study To Teach Law, Lawyering, And Dispute Resolution, Leonard L. Riskin Jan 2004

Damages: Using A Case Study To Teach Law, Lawyering, And Dispute Resolution, Leonard L. Riskin

UF Law Faculty Publications

Seven law school faculty members and one practicing attorney recently developed and taught a wholly new kind of law course based on an already published case study, Damages: One Family's Legal Struggles in the World of Medicine, by Barry Werth, an investigative reporter who spent several years researching to write the book. Damages, an in-depth account of a medical malpractice case, presents the perspectives of the injured family, the defendant physician, the lawyers, and the three mediators. In this Symposium Introduction, the authors provide a summary of Werth's book, explain why they decided to create a course based ...


Creating And Certifying The Professional Mediator -- Education And Credentialing, Joseph B. Stulberg, Donald C. Peters, Tracy L. Allen, Judith P. Meyer Jan 2004

Creating And Certifying The Professional Mediator -- Education And Credentialing, Joseph B. Stulberg, Donald C. Peters, Tracy L. Allen, Judith P. Meyer

UF Law Faculty Publications

Existing and pending law school mediation programs, post-graduate mediator training programs, mentorship programs, credentialing movements, and continuing mediation education were examined by a panel and speakers directly involved in those fields. Are we effectively training new mediators in law schools and post-graduate programs? Should we, and how can we, "credential" mediators? Do good mediators need to be re-trained? How would continuing mediation educational requirements be implemented?


Teaching And Learning From The Mediations In Barry Werth's Damages, Leonard L. Riskin Jan 2004

Teaching And Learning From The Mediations In Barry Werth's Damages, Leonard L. Riskin

UF Law Faculty Publications

This essay is based primarily on materials the author developed for courses taught at the University of Missouri-Columbia, School of Law, in the winter 2002 and 2003 semesters, based on Barry Werth's book, "Damages."


Decision-Making In Mediation: The New Old Grid And The New New Grid System, Leonard L. Riskin Dec 2003

Decision-Making In Mediation: The New Old Grid And The New New Grid System, Leonard L. Riskin

UF Law Faculty Publications

This Article reviews the author's previous mediator-orientation models and proposes a new system for understanding the range of mediator orientations based on substantive, procedural, and meta-procedural decision-making grids.


Let's Put Ourselves Out Of Business: On Respect, Responsibility, And Dialogue In Dispute Resolution, Jonathan R. Cohen Jul 2003

Let's Put Ourselves Out Of Business: On Respect, Responsibility, And Dialogue In Dispute Resolution, Jonathan R. Cohen

UF Law Faculty Publications

This Essay works in two steps. I want to daydream with you about the future, or what I hope will someday be the future, of our dispute resolution movement. I want to then use these imaginings to reflect upon where we are today. I want to suggest something that may at first seem odd: Our ultimate goal should be to put ourselves, or virtually put ourselves, out of business. Eventually, I hope the time will come when we live in a society where the expert services of dispute resolution professionals, including not only lawyers and judges but also mediators and ...


Dr Ethics Book Brings It All Together, Jonathan R. Cohen Jul 2002

Dr Ethics Book Brings It All Together, Jonathan R. Cohen

UF Law Faculty Publications

Dispute resolution practice has changed dramatically over the past several decades. The traditional litigation model has increasingly given way to a “multi-door” vision of varied dispute resolution practices. With that functional change in how we process disputes has come a pressing need to address the varied ethical challenges of these varied practices. Dispute Resolution Ethics is a marvelous contribution toward that effort.


The Contemplative Lawyer: On The Potential Contributions Of Mindfulness Meditation To Law Students, Lawyers, And Their Clients, Leonard L. Riskin Apr 2002

The Contemplative Lawyer: On The Potential Contributions Of Mindfulness Meditation To Law Students, Lawyers, And Their Clients, Leonard L. Riskin

UF Law Faculty Publications

This Article proposes that introducing mindfulness meditation into the legal profession may improve practitioners' well-being and performance and weaken the dominance of adversarial mind-sets. By enabling some lawyers to make more room for - and act from - broader and deeper perspectives, mindfulness can help lawyers provide more appropriate service (especially through better listening and negotiation) and gain more personal satisfaction from their work.

Part I of this article describes a number of problems associated with law school and law practice. Part II sets forth a variety of ways in which lawyers, law schools, and professional organizations have tried to address these ...


Legislating Apology: The Pros And Cons, Jonathan R. Cohen Apr 2002

Legislating Apology: The Pros And Cons, Jonathan R. Cohen

UF Law Faculty Publications

Should apologies be admissible into evidence as proof of fault in civil cases? While this question is a simple one, its potential ramifications are great, and legislative and scholarly interest in the admissibility of apologies has exploded. Shortly after the idea of excluding apologies from admissibility into evidence was raised in academic circles three years ago, it rapidly spread to the policy arena. For example, California and Florida enacted laws in 2000 and 2001 respectively excluding from admissibility apologetic expressions of sympathy ("I'm sorry that you are hurt") but not fault-admitting apologies ("I'm sorrythat I injured you") after ...