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Not All Property Is Created Equal: Why Modern Courts Resist Applying The Takings Clause To Patents, And Why They Are Right To Do So, Davida H. Isaacs Jan 2007

Not All Property Is Created Equal: Why Modern Courts Resist Applying The Takings Clause To Patents, And Why They Are Right To Do So, Davida H. Isaacs

Faculty Scholarship

After a century of disregard, the question of whether patents are entitled to protection under the Fifth Amendment's Takings Clause has recently become a topic of scholarly and judicial debate. While one might have expected this issue to have been settled long before, it is only the recent burgeoning of patentholders' regulatory takings claims that has made this question one of pressing interest. Thus far scholarship on the issue has focused on whether or not patents have historically been characterized as property. Meanwhile, last year's rejection by the Federal Circuit of a patentholder's right to assert a ...


Copyright In An Era Of Information Overload: Toward The Privileging Of Categorizers, Frank Pasquale Jan 2007

Copyright In An Era Of Information Overload: Toward The Privileging Of Categorizers, Frank Pasquale

Faculty Scholarship

Environmental laws are designed to reduce negative externalities (such as pollution) that harm the natural environment. Copyright law should adjust the rights of content creators in order to compensate for the ways they reduce the usefulness of the information environment as a whole. Every new work created contributes to the store of expression, but also makes it more difficult to find whatever work one wants. Such search costs have been well-documented in information economics. Copyright law should take information overload externalities like search costs into account in its treatment of alleged copyright infringers whose work merely attempts to index, organize ...


Intellectual Property From Below: Copyright And Capability For Education, Margaret Chon Jan 2007

Intellectual Property From Below: Copyright And Capability For Education, Margaret Chon

Faculty Scholarship

An approach to intellectual property from within a human development framework can contribute meaningfully to the WIPO Development Agenda, which was approved by the WIPO General Assembly in September 2007. Setting the proper regulatory balance between exclusive rights and access through exceptions and limitations to those rights is key to building national innovation capacity. A human development framework allows intellectual property norm-setters to prioritize the development of healthy and literate populations who are foundational to the functioning knowledge economies that intellectual property already assumes. Building upon an earlier piece in which Professor Chon posited that a substantive equality principle was ...


Slouching Towards Development In International Intellectual Property, Margaret Chon, Denis Borges Barbosa, Andrés Moncayo Von Hase Jan 2007

Slouching Towards Development In International Intellectual Property, Margaret Chon, Denis Borges Barbosa, Andrés Moncayo Von Hase

Faculty Scholarship

An understanding of intellectual property's classic innovation mandate as only one of many cross-cutting development goals should be well-accepted by now within international intellectual property law and policy, given the pervasiveness of development rhetoric at the WTO, WIPO and other regional and bilateral fora. Yet development "walk" lags behind development "talk" on both international and domestic levels. This article focuses on how intellectual property can promote development, not only through innovation, but also by the promotion of broad-based human development implicitly underpinning global knowledge economies. First, we consider the rapidly evolving relationship of development and trade to intellectual property ...


Domain Names, Trademarks, And The First Amendment: Searching For Meaningful Boundaries, Margreth Barrett Jan 2007

Domain Names, Trademarks, And The First Amendment: Searching For Meaningful Boundaries, Margreth Barrett

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Introduction, Joel R. Reidenberg Jan 2007

Introduction, Joel R. Reidenberg

Faculty Scholarship

As a leader in the publication of legal scholarship, the Fordham Intellectual Property, Media and Entertainment Law Journal sought the insights of internationally renowned scholars on critical problems in intellectual property law. In this focused issue, five top scholars tackle timely questions.


The Rule Of Intellectual Property Law In The Internet Economy, Joel R. Reidenberg Jan 2007

The Rule Of Intellectual Property Law In The Internet Economy, Joel R. Reidenberg

Faculty Scholarship

This Article argues that the technological attacks on intellectual property are a movement against democratically chosen intellectual property rules. They form a basic challenge to the rule of law and to the control of the rules wired into the network. In making this argument, the Article first maintains that intellectual property rights have an important public function in democracy in that they mark political, economic, and social boundaries. Next, the Article shows that the public law, as enacted by governments, has reallocated intellectual property rights to adapt to the information economy. While many aspects of this new allocation of rights ...


Reconceptualizing Intellectual Property Interests In A Human Rights Framework, Peter K. Yu Jan 2007

Reconceptualizing Intellectual Property Interests In A Human Rights Framework, Peter K. Yu

Faculty Scholarship

Since the establishment of the World Trade Organization and the entering into effect of the TRIPs Agreement, government officials, international bureaucrats, intergovernmental and nongovernmental organizations, courts, and scholars have focused more attention on the interplay of human rights and intellectual property rights. For example, the U.N. Sub-Commission on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights recently noted the considerable tension and conflict between these two sets of rights. To avoid these conflicts, the Sub-Commission recommended the primacy of human rights obligations over economic policies and agreements.

While this hierarchy of rights appears straightforward, the situation is actually more complicated ...


Has India Addressed Its Farmers' Woes? A Story Of Plant Protection Issues, Srividhya Ragavan, Jamie Mayer O'Shields Jan 2007

Has India Addressed Its Farmers' Woes? A Story Of Plant Protection Issues, Srividhya Ragavan, Jamie Mayer O'Shields

Faculty Scholarship

The paper examines issues relating to establishing breeders rights in developing nations by taking India as an example. At the outset, the paper examines the international obligations relating to protecting plant breeder’s rights by examining the requirements under Article 27.3 of the TRIPS agreement. In doing so, the paper examines analyzes what amounts to an effective sui generis system as required under TRIPS.

Further, the paper analyzes the constituents of the models currently touted by developed nations and outlined under the Union for Plant Variety Protection (UPOV, 1991) to determine the model’s ability to fulfill the TRIPS ...


Will Longer Antimicrobial Patents Improve Global Public Health?, Kevin Outterson Jan 2007

Will Longer Antimicrobial Patents Improve Global Public Health?, Kevin Outterson

Faculty Scholarship

The problem of antimicrobial resistance has led some infectious disease experts and their professional societies to propose the use of transferable intellectual property rights (wildcard patents) and patent term extensions as methods to encourage antimicrobial R&D. We evaluate recent approvals of new antimicrobial classes and find the number of new introductions is higher than previously suggested. More importantly, creating new patent rights is shown to be an inefficient and possibly counterproductive response to antimicrobial resistance. Wildcard patents would operate as a more than US$40 billion annual tax on heart disease, hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and depression ...


Contractual Expansion Of The Scope Of Patent Infringement Through Field-Of-Use Licensing , Mark Patterson Jan 2007

Contractual Expansion Of The Scope Of Patent Infringement Through Field-Of-Use Licensing , Mark Patterson

Faculty Scholarship

Patentees sometimes license their inventions through field-of-use licenses, which permit licensees to use the inventions, but only in specified ways. Field-of-use licensing is often procompetitive, because the ability to provide different licensing terms for different users can encourage broader licensing of inventions. But in recent United States cases, the Federal Circuit Court of Appeals and lower courts have upheld field-of-use licenses prohibiting activities that licensees would otherwise have been permitted by patent law, such as the repair and resale of patented products. The recent cases rely on the Federal Circuit's decision in Mallinckrodt, Inc. v. Medipart, Inc., where the ...


The Existing Legal Infrastructure Of Brics: Where Have We Been And Where Are We Going, Robert B. Ahdieh, Zhu Lee, Srividhya Ragavan, Kevin Noonan, Clinton W. Francis Jan 2007

The Existing Legal Infrastructure Of Brics: Where Have We Been And Where Are We Going, Robert B. Ahdieh, Zhu Lee, Srividhya Ragavan, Kevin Noonan, Clinton W. Francis

Faculty Scholarship

The focus of this panel is incrementally shifting from the previous panel. Whereas the previous was looking at public/private issues and issues relating to incentivizing innovation in the subject countries, we're going to take a focus more on, I think it's safe to say, from an external perspective looking at these countries and issues that are confronted by businesses who our either planning to deal with the four subject countries or are concerned about their technologies being used in their four subject countries.

We have four panelists, and each of them is going to speak to one ...


Claim Construction, Appeal, And The Predictability Of Interpretive Regimes, Jeffrey A. Lefstin Jan 2007

Claim Construction, Appeal, And The Predictability Of Interpretive Regimes, Jeffrey A. Lefstin

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


International Enclosure, The Regime Complex, And Intellectual Property Schizophrenia, Peter K. Yu Jan 2007

International Enclosure, The Regime Complex, And Intellectual Property Schizophrenia, Peter K. Yu

Faculty Scholarship

The year 2005 marked the tenth anniversary of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights. Since it entered into effect on January 1, 1995, the Agreement has impacted a wide variety of areas, including agriculture, health, the environment, education, culture, competition, free speech, democracy, and the rule of law. Today, intellectual property protection has been considered a major issue in both the domestic and international policy debates, and policymakers have actively explored intellectual property issues in many different international regimes. These regimes range from public health to human rights and from biological diversity to information and communications.

As ...


Synthetic Biology: The Intellectual Property Puzzle, Arti K. Rai, Sapna Kumar Jan 2007

Synthetic Biology: The Intellectual Property Puzzle, Arti K. Rai, Sapna Kumar

Faculty Scholarship

Synthetic biology, which operates at the intersection of biotechnology and information technology, has the potential to raise, in a particularly acute manner, the intellectual property problems that exist in both fields. A preliminary patent landscape reveals problematic foundational patents that could, if licensed and enforced inappropriately, impede the potential of the technology. The landscape also reveals a proliferation of patents on basic synthetic biology "parts" that could create transaction cost heavy patent thickets. Both foundational patents and patent thickets are likely to be particularly problematic to the extent they read on standards that synthetic biologists would like to establish. Synthetic ...


The Demise And Rebirth Of Plant Variety Protection: A Comment On Technological Change And The Design Of Plant Variety Protection Regimes, Laurence R. Helfer Jan 2007

The Demise And Rebirth Of Plant Variety Protection: A Comment On Technological Change And The Design Of Plant Variety Protection Regimes, Laurence R. Helfer

Faculty Scholarship

In 'Technological Change and the Design of Plant Variety Protection Regimes', Mark Janis and Stephen Smith make two novel and provocative claims. They first argue that the legal regime for protecting new plant varieties has become hopelessly outdated in light of recent changes in technology. They next assert that the fate of the plant variety protection (PVP) system illustrates a broader and more disturbing phenomenon in intellectual property law: the potential for sui generis, industry-specific intellectual property regimes to become increasingly ineffective over time. In this brief essay, I offer three points to amplify the authors' contributions and highlight the ...


Race-Ing Patents/Patenting Race: An Emerging Political Geography Of Intellectual Property In Biotechnology, Jonathan Kahn Jan 2007

Race-Ing Patents/Patenting Race: An Emerging Political Geography Of Intellectual Property In Biotechnology, Jonathan Kahn

Faculty Scholarship

This article applies insights from critical race theory to examine an emerging phenomenon in biotechnology research and product development. The strategic use of race as a genetic category to obtain patent protection and drug approval. A dramatic rise in the use of race in biotechnology patents indicates that researchers and affiliated commercial enterprises are coming to see social categories of race as presenting opportunities for gaining, extending, or protecting monopoly market protection for an array of biotechnological products and services. Racialized patents are also providing the basis for similarly race-based clinical trial designs, drug development, capital raising and marketing strategies ...


“An Ingenious Man Enabled By Contract”: Entrepreneurship And The Rise Of Contract, Catherine Fisk Jan 2007

“An Ingenious Man Enabled By Contract”: Entrepreneurship And The Rise Of Contract, Catherine Fisk

Faculty Scholarship

A legal ideology emerged in the 1870s that celebrated contract as the body of law with the particular purpose of facilitating the formation of productive exchanges that would enrich the parties to the contract and, therefore, society as a whole. Across the spectrum of intellectual property, courts used the legal fiction of implied contract, and a version of it particularly emphasizing liberty of contract, to shift control of workplace knowledge from skilled employees to firms while suggesting that the emergence of hierarchical control and loss of entrepreneurial opportunity for creative workers was consistent with the free labor ideology that dominated ...


Software Patents, Incumbents, And Entry, John R. Allison, Abe Dunn, Ronald J. Mann Jan 2007

Software Patents, Incumbents, And Entry, John R. Allison, Abe Dunn, Ronald J. Mann

Faculty Scholarship

Software patents have been controversial since the days when "software" referred to the crude programs that came free with an IBM mainframe. Different perspectives have been presented in judicial, legislative, and administrative fora over the years, and the press has paid as much attention to this issue as it has to any other intellectual property topic during this time. Meanwhile, a software industry developed and has grown to a remarkable size, whether measured by revenues or profitability, number of firms or employees, or research expenditures. The scope of software innovation has become even broader, as an increasing number of devices ...


The Disputed Quality Of Software Patents, John R. Allison, Ronald J. Mann Jan 2007

The Disputed Quality Of Software Patents, John R. Allison, Ronald J. Mann

Faculty Scholarship

We analyze the characteristics of the patents held by firms in the software industry. Unlike prior researchers, we rely on the examination of individual patents to determine which patents involve software inventions. This method of identifying the relevant patents is more laborious than the methods that previous scholars have used, but it produces a data set from which we can learn more about the role of patents in the software industry. In general, we find that patents the computer technology firms obtain on software inventions have more prior art references, claims, and forward citations than the patents that the same ...


The Pros And Cons Of Strengthening Intellectual Property Protection: Technological Protection Measures And Section 1201 Of The Us Copyright Act, Jane C. Ginsburg Jan 2007

The Pros And Cons Of Strengthening Intellectual Property Protection: Technological Protection Measures And Section 1201 Of The Us Copyright Act, Jane C. Ginsburg

Faculty Scholarship

The recent announcement (in late November 2006) of the Copyright Office's triennial rulemaking to identify "classes of works" exempt from the § 1201(a)(1) prohibition on circumvention of a technological measure controlling access to copyrighted works in part occasions this assessment of the judicial and administrative construction of this chapter of the 1998 Digital Millennium Copyright Act. The current Rulemaking appears more innovative than its predecessors, particularly in defining the exempted class of works by reference to the characteristics of the works' users. Copyright owner overreaching or misuse may also underlie the relative vigor of this Rulemaking: if producers ...


The Disputed Quality Of Software Patents, John R. Allison, Ronald J. Mann Jan 2007

The Disputed Quality Of Software Patents, John R. Allison, Ronald J. Mann

Faculty Scholarship

We analyze the characteristics of the patents held by firms in the software industry. Unlike prior researchers, we rely on examination of the individual patents to determine which patents involve software inventions. This method of identifying the relevant patents is more laborious than the methods that previous scholars have used, but it produces a dataset from which we can learn more about the role of patents in the software industry. In general, we find that the patents computer technology firms obtain on software inventions have more prior art references, claims, and forward citations than the patents the same firms obtain ...


On Copyright's Authorship Policy, Tim Wu Jan 2007

On Copyright's Authorship Policy, Tim Wu

Faculty Scholarship

It has long been the stated aspiration of copyright to make authors the masters of their own destiny. Yet more often than not, the real subject of American copyright is distributors, book publishers, record labels, broadcasters, and others, who control the rights, bring the lawsuits, and take copyright as their industries' 'life-sustaining protection.' This paper offers a new theory and defense of the role of authors and authorial copyright in the copyright system. I argue that the device of making authors rights-bearers can seed new modes of production in the industries under copyright. Rights-bearing authors can, in other words, help ...


Software Patents, Incumbents, And Entry, John R. Allison, Abe Dunn, Ronald J. Mann Jan 2007

Software Patents, Incumbents, And Entry, John R. Allison, Abe Dunn, Ronald J. Mann

Faculty Scholarship

Software patents have been controversial since the days when "software" referred to the crude programs that came free with an IBM mainframe. Different perspectives have been presented in judicial, legislative, and administrative fora over the years, and the press has paid as much attention to this issue as it has to any other intellectual property topic during this time. Meanwhile, a software industry developed and has grown to a remarkable size, whether measured by revenues or profitability, number of firms or employees, or research expenditures. The scope of software innovation has become even broader, as an increasing number of devices ...


Of Mutant Copyrights, Mangled Trademarks, And Barbie's Beneficence: The Influence Of Copyright On Trademark Law, Jane C. Ginsburg Jan 2007

Of Mutant Copyrights, Mangled Trademarks, And Barbie's Beneficence: The Influence Of Copyright On Trademark Law, Jane C. Ginsburg

Faculty Scholarship

In Dastar Corp. v. Twentieth Century Fox Film Corp. Justice Scalia colorfully warned against resort to trademarks law to achieve protections unattainable by copyright, lest these claims generate "a species of mutant copyright law that limits the public's 'federal right to "copy and to use,"' expired copyrights." The facts of that controversy, in which the claimant appeared to be invoking time-unlimited trademark protection to end-run the exhausted (unrenewed) copyright term in a motion picture, justified the apprehension that unbridled trademark rights might stomp, Godzilla-like, over more docile copyright prerogatives. Unfortunately, in the Court's eagerness to forestall Darwinian disaster ...


A Marriage Of Convenience? A Comment On The Protection Of Databases, Jane C. Ginsburg Jan 2007

A Marriage Of Convenience? A Comment On The Protection Of Databases, Jane C. Ginsburg

Faculty Scholarship

Daniel Gervais concluded his analysis of the protection of databases with three options for the future. I would like to examine a fourth. Let us assume no future flurry of national or supranational legislative activity because the content of databases is in fact already being protected. Not through copyright or sui generis rights, but through other means. Databases are an object of economic value, and they will conveniently wed whatever legal theory or theories will achieve the practical objective of preventing unauthorized exploitation of the works' contents. To beat the marriage metaphor into the ground, I'd like to suggest ...


Ten Common Questions About Intellectual Property And Human Rights, Peter K. Yu Jan 2007

Ten Common Questions About Intellectual Property And Human Rights, Peter K. Yu

Faculty Scholarship

With the continuous expansion of intellectual property rights, there is a growing need for the development of a human rights framework for intellectual property rights. Such a framework is not only socially beneficial, but will enable the development of a balanced intellectual property system that takes human rights obligations into consideration. Developing such a framework, however, is not easy and has raised many difficult questions. Some of these questions are foundational, some of them conceptual, and the remainder merely implementational.

This article tackles in turn ten questions the author has frequently encountered when he discusses the development of a human ...


The Measure Of The Doubt: Dissent, Indeterminacy, And Interpretation At The Federal Circuit, Jeffrey A. Lefstin Jan 2007

The Measure Of The Doubt: Dissent, Indeterminacy, And Interpretation At The Federal Circuit, Jeffrey A. Lefstin

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


The International Enclosure Movement, Peter K. Yu Jan 2007

The International Enclosure Movement, Peter K. Yu

Faculty Scholarship

Most of the recent intellectual property literature concerns the enclosure of the public domain or the one-way ratchet of intellectual property protection. While these concerns are significant and rightly placed, a different, and perhaps more important, enclosure movement is currently taking place at the international level. Instead of the public domain, this concurrent movement encloses the policy space of individual countries and requires them to adopt one-size-fits-all legal standards that ignore their local needs, national interests, technological capabilities, institutional capacities, and public health conditions. As a result of this enclosure, countries are forced to adopt inappropriate intellectual property systems, and ...


Knowledge Commons: The Case Of The Biopharmaceutical Industry, Arti K. Rai Jan 2007

Knowledge Commons: The Case Of The Biopharmaceutical Industry, Arti K. Rai

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.