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Intra-Group Preferencing: Problems Of Proof In Colorism And Identity Performance Cases, Trina Jones Jan 2011

Intra-Group Preferencing: Problems Of Proof In Colorism And Identity Performance Cases, Trina Jones

Faculty Scholarship

Historically, U.S. anti-discrimination law has been concerned with the total exclusion of certain groups from the workplace or from particular job categories within the workplace. Laws were directed at this across-the-board intolerance. As scholars (including Devon Carbado, Barbara Flagg, Mitu Gulati, Angela Harris and others) have noted, this is not the sole or arguably the primary way in which discrimination operates today. Homogeneous institutions and job categories are now suspicious (and presumably the market will no longer tolerate such places). Thus, instead of the wholesale exclusion of groups, what we are more likely to see is intra-group “screening” or ...


Financing Direct Democracy: Revisiting The Research On Campaign Spending And Citizen Initiatives, John M. De Figueiredo, Chang Ho Ji, Thad Kousser Jan 2011

Financing Direct Democracy: Revisiting The Research On Campaign Spending And Citizen Initiatives, John M. De Figueiredo, Chang Ho Ji, Thad Kousser

Faculty Scholarship

The conventional view in the direct democracy literature is that spending against a measure is more effective than spending in favor of a measure, but the empirical results underlying this conclusion have been questioned by recent research. We argue that the conventional finding is driven by the endogenous nature of campaign spending: initiative proponents spend more when their ballot measure is likely to fail. We address this endogeneity by using an instrumental variables approach to analyze a comprehensive dataset of ballot propositions in California from 1976 to 2004. We find that both support and opposition spending on citizen initiatives have ...


Keynote Address: Identifying And Managing Systemic Risk: An Assessment Of Our Progress, Steven L. Schwarcz Jan 2011

Keynote Address: Identifying And Managing Systemic Risk: An Assessment Of Our Progress, Steven L. Schwarcz

Faculty Scholarship

This short address attempts to provide a succinct overview, critiquing how well the Dodd-Frank Act identifies and manages systemic risk.


What Is The Emperor Wearing? The Secret Lives Of Ecosystem Services, James Salzman Jan 2011

What Is The Emperor Wearing? The Secret Lives Of Ecosystem Services, James Salzman

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Statutory Meanings: Deriving Interpretive Principles From A Theory Of Communication And Lawmaking, Mathew D. Mccubbins, Daniel B. Rodriguez Jan 2011

Statutory Meanings: Deriving Interpretive Principles From A Theory Of Communication And Lawmaking, Mathew D. Mccubbins, Daniel B. Rodriguez

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Guns, Inc.: Citizens United, Mcdonald, And The Future Of Corporate Constitutional Rights, Darrell A. H. Miller Jan 2011

Guns, Inc.: Citizens United, Mcdonald, And The Future Of Corporate Constitutional Rights, Darrell A. H. Miller

Faculty Scholarship

The Supreme Court began its 2009 Term by addressing the constitutional rights of corporations. It ended the Term by addressing the incorporated rights of the Constitution. In Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission, a five-member majority of the Court held that corporations have a First Amendment right to spend their own money on political advocacy. A corporation generally is no different than a natural person when it comes to the First Amendment - at least as it relates to political speech. In McDonald v. City of Chicago, a plurality of the Court held that the Second Amendment to the United States ...


Judging Women, Mitu Gulati, Stephen J. Choi, Mirya Holman, Eric A. Posner Jan 2011

Judging Women, Mitu Gulati, Stephen J. Choi, Mirya Holman, Eric A. Posner

Faculty Scholarship

Judge Sonia Sotomayor’s assertion that female judges might be “better” than male judges has generated accusations of sexism and potential bias. An equally controversial claim is that male judges are better than female judges because the latter have benefited from affirmative action. These claims are susceptible to empirical analysis. Primarily using a dataset of all the state high court judges in 1998-2000, we estimate three measures of judicial output: opinion production, outside state citations, and co-partisan disagreements. We find that the male and female judges perform at about the same level. Roughly similar findings show up in data from ...


Conflict Of Norms Or Conflict Of Laws?: Different Techniques In The Fragmentation Of International Law, Ralf Michaels, Joost H.B. Pauwelyn Jan 2011

Conflict Of Norms Or Conflict Of Laws?: Different Techniques In The Fragmentation Of International Law, Ralf Michaels, Joost H.B. Pauwelyn

Faculty Scholarship

One of the most pressing topics in current international law is fragmentation. Traditionally, most constructive attempts to deal with fragmentation have been based on analogies what one of us, in an earlier book, called "conflicts of norms" - those rules in domestic law that deal with conflicts of norms within one legal system. In this article, we assess under what circumstances a different approach, based on an analogy to conflict of laws - those rules in domestic law that deal with conflicts of norms between different legal systems - yields a more adequate structure. The result is that public international law conflicts are ...


Unconstitutionally Male?: The Story Of United States V. Virginia, Katharine T. Bartlett Jan 2011

Unconstitutionally Male?: The Story Of United States V. Virginia, Katharine T. Bartlett

Faculty Scholarship

This article tracks the different views of gender equality reflected in United States v. Virginia, from trial through the various appeals, including the 1996 opinion of the United States Supreme Court, and through the actual integration of women into VMI. It highlights the fact that while many views of equality were represented in the case throughout its history, no party and no court addressed what is arguably the most objectionable feature of VMI, which was not that it excluded women, but that its "unique" pedagogical method was based on an explicitly demeaning and subordinating view of women.


Comparing Regulatory Oversight Bodies Across The Atlantic: The Office Of Information And Regulatory Affairs In The Us And The Impact Assessment Board In The Eu, Jonathan B. Wiener, Alberto Alemanno Jan 2011

Comparing Regulatory Oversight Bodies Across The Atlantic: The Office Of Information And Regulatory Affairs In The Us And The Impact Assessment Board In The Eu, Jonathan B. Wiener, Alberto Alemanno

Faculty Scholarship

‘Quis custodiet ipsos custodes?’ asked the Roman poet Juvenal – ‘who will watch the watchers, who will guard the guardians?’ As legislative and regulatory processes around the globe progressively put greater emphasis on impact assessment and accountability, we ask: who oversees the regulators? Although regulation can often be necessary and beneficial, it can also impose its own costs. As a result, many governments have embraced, or are considering embracing, regulatory oversight--frequently relying on economic analysis as a tool of evaluation. We are especially interested in the emergence over the last four decades of a new set of institutional actors, the Regulatory ...


Empagran’S Empire: International Law And Statutory Interpretation In The Us Supreme Court Of The 21st Century, Ralf Michaels Jan 2011

Empagran’S Empire: International Law And Statutory Interpretation In The Us Supreme Court Of The 21st Century, Ralf Michaels

Faculty Scholarship

In its Empagran decision in 2004, the US Supreme Court decided that purchasers on foreign markets could not invoke US antitrust law even against a global cartel that affects also the United States. The article, forthcoming in a volume dedicated to the history on international law in the US Supreme Court, presents three radically different readings of the opinion. The result is that Empagran is a decision that is transnationalist in rhetoric, isolationist in application, and hegemonial in its effect. A decision with a seemingly straightforward argument is found riddled in the conflict between these different logics. A decision with ...


Good Faith And Law Evasion, Samuel W. Buell Jan 2011

Good Faith And Law Evasion, Samuel W. Buell

Faculty Scholarship

Laws imposing sanctions can be self-defeating by supplying incentive and guidance for actors engaged in socially undesirable activities to reshape conduct to avoid penalties. Sometimes this is deterrence. But if the new activity, as much as the old, contravenes the normative stance of the legal project, it is a failure of law. The problem of evasion warrants response in many fields - not least in criminal law despite the frequent and too simple assumption that legality-related values require narrow prohibitions that unavoidably permit evasion. Three common responses to evasion have serious deficits. Foregoing control of evasion is a mistake if large ...


Disintermediating Avarice: A Legal Framework For Commercially Sustainable Microfinance, Steven L. Schwarcz Jan 2011

Disintermediating Avarice: A Legal Framework For Commercially Sustainable Microfinance, Steven L. Schwarcz

Faculty Scholarship

Although microfinance is emerging as a key tool to alleviate poverty, the need for microfinance lending vastly exceeds the amount of funds that can be raised from charitable donors. Commercial bank lending is supplementing donor money, but microfinance loans made by banks are extremely expensive and sometimes even exploitive. This article examines how innovative legal structures can enable microfinance loans to be funded directly from lower-cost, and virtually limitless, capital market sources by removing, or “disintermediating,” the need for a bank intermediary. In that context, the article identifies and attempts to resolve the resulting law-and-business issues of first impression and ...


Emergency And Escape: Explaining Derogations From Human Rights Treaties, Laurence R. Helfer, Emilie M. Hafner-Burton, Christopher J. Fariss Jan 2011

Emergency And Escape: Explaining Derogations From Human Rights Treaties, Laurence R. Helfer, Emilie M. Hafner-Burton, Christopher J. Fariss

Faculty Scholarship

Several prominent human rights treaties attempt to minimize violations during emergencies by authorizing states to “derogate”—that is, to suspend certain civil and political liberties—in response to crises. The drafters of these treaties envisioned that international restrictions on derogations and international notification and monitoring mechanisms would limit rights suspensions during emergencies. This article analyzes the behavior of derogating countries using new global datasets of derogations and states of emergency from 1976 to 2007. We argue that derogations are a rational response to domestic political uncertainty. They enable governments facing serious threats to buy time and legal breathing space from ...


The New Old Legal Realism, Mitu Gulati, Tracey E. George, Ann Mcginley Jan 2011

The New Old Legal Realism, Mitu Gulati, Tracey E. George, Ann Mcginley

Faculty Scholarship

Do the decisions of appellate courts matter in the real world? The American judicial system, legal education, and academic scholarship are premised on the view that they do. The authors want to reexamine this question by taking the approach advocated by the original Legal Realists. The current project seeks to add to our knowledge of the relevance of case law by focusing on an area that has received little examination: how pronouncements about employment discrimination law by appellate courts translate into understandings and behavior at the ground level. As our lens, we use evidence of how people talk about the ...


The Conundrum Of Covered Bonds, Steven L. Schwarcz Jan 2011

The Conundrum Of Covered Bonds, Steven L. Schwarcz

Faculty Scholarship

Covered bonds, which have been part of European fi nance since the time of Frederick the Great, are now being widely touted as the answer to securitization’s imperfections. There is great confusion, though, about the nature of covered bonds and their relationship to secured bond fi nancing and securitization. This article attempts to demystify covered bonds, examining how they fi t within a larger fi nancing framework, analyzing their legal rights and obligations, and comparing their costs and benefi ts. The benefi ts of covered bonds are similar to those of securitization; both can access low-cost capital market funding ...


Reverse Incorporation Of State Constitutional Law, Joseph Blocher Jan 2011

Reverse Incorporation Of State Constitutional Law, Joseph Blocher

Faculty Scholarship

State supreme courts and the United States Supreme Court are the independent and final arbiters of their respective constitutions, and may therefore take different approaches to analogous state and federal constitutional issues. Such issues arise often, because the documents were modeled on each other and share many of the same guarantees. In answering them, state courts have, as a matter of practice, generally adopted federal constitutional doctrine as their own. Federal courts, by contrast, have largely ignored state constitutional law when interpreting the federal constitution. In McDonald v. Chicago, to take only the most recent example, the Court declined to ...


Viewpoint Neutrality And Government Speech, Joseph Blocher Jan 2011

Viewpoint Neutrality And Government Speech, Joseph Blocher

Faculty Scholarship

Government speech creates a paradox at the heart of the First Amendment. To satisfy traditional First Amendment tests, the government must show that it is not discriminating against a viewpoint. And yet if the government shows that it is condemning or supporting a viewpoint, it may be able to invoke the government speech defense and thereby avoid constitutional scrutiny altogether. Government speech doctrine therefore rewards what the rest of the First Amendment forbids: viewpoint discrimination against private speech. This is both a theoretical puzzle and an increasingly important practical problem. In cases like Pleasant Grove City, Utah v. Summum, the ...


Government Property And Government Speech, Joseph Blocher Jan 2011

Government Property And Government Speech, Joseph Blocher

Faculty Scholarship

The relationship between property and speech is close but complicated. Speakers use places and things to deliver their messages, and rely on property rights both to protect expressive acts and to serve as an independent means of expression. And yet courts and scholars have struggled to make sense of the property-speech connection. Is property merely a means of expression, or can it be expressive in and of itself? And what kind of “property” do speakers need to have – physical things, bundles of rights, or something else entirely?

In the context of government property and government speech, the ill-defined relationship between ...


Compensating Market Value Losses: Rethinking The Theory Of Damages In A Market Economy, Steven L. Schwarcz Jan 2011

Compensating Market Value Losses: Rethinking The Theory Of Damages In A Market Economy, Steven L. Schwarcz

Faculty Scholarship

The BP Deepwater Horizon spill and the Toyota car recalls have highlighted an important legal anomaly that has been overlooked by scholars — judicial inconsistency and confusion in ruling whether to compensate for the loss in market value of wrongfully affected property. This article seeks to understand the anomaly and, in the process, to build a stronger foundation for enabling courts to decide when — and in what amounts — to award damages for market value losses. To that end, the Article analyzes the normative rationales for generally awarding damages, adapting those rationales to derive a theory of damages that covers market value ...


Adaptive Regulation In The Amoral Bazaar, Lawrence G. Baxter Jan 2011

Adaptive Regulation In The Amoral Bazaar, Lawrence G. Baxter

Faculty Scholarship

Twelfth Oliver Schreiner Memorial Lecture,delivered on 20 October 2010 at the School of Law, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. Many gradual changes in science, law and society are crystallizing to shape a significant transformation in administrative law. The doctrinal framework within which Justice Schreiner himself attempted to modernize how law should regulate government and private economic activity seems from our vantage point to be quite antiquated. In explaining why, my examples will come from the world of financial services, but they could easily be found anywhere in the area of law and regulation. First I will outline ...


Who Pays? Who Benefits? Unfairness In American Health Care, Clark C. Havighurst, Barak D. Richman Jan 2011

Who Pays? Who Benefits? Unfairness In American Health Care, Clark C. Havighurst, Barak D. Richman

Faculty Scholarship

American-style health insurance greatly amplifies price-gouging opportunities for health care providers, who inflate prices both to enrich themselves and to subsidize and expand the nation’s health care enterprise. To the extent that lower- and middle-income Americans with private health coverage pay premiums that go to support and expand the system, they are subject to an unfair (regressive) “head tax” levied by unaccountable entities for ostensibly public but also private purposes. Lower-income premium payers also often pay for costly health coverage designed to suit the economic interests and values of professional and other elites rather than their own. They also ...


Legal Integration In The Andes: Law-Making By The Andean Tribunal Of Justice, Laurence R. Helfer, Karen J. Alter Jan 2011

Legal Integration In The Andes: Law-Making By The Andean Tribunal Of Justice, Laurence R. Helfer, Karen J. Alter

Faculty Scholarship

The Andean Tribunal of Justice (ATJ) is a copy of the European Court of Justice (ECJ), and the third most active international court. This article reviews our findings based on an original coding of all ATJ preliminary rulings from 1984 to 2007, and over forty interviews in the region. We then compare Andean and European jurisprudence in three key areas: whether the tribunals treat the founding integration treaties as constitutions for their respective communities, whether the ATJ and ECJ have implied powers for community institutions that are not expressly enumerated in the founding treaties, and how the tribunals conceive of ...


The Durham Statement Two Years Later: Open Access In The Law School Journal Environment, Richard A. Danner, Kelly Leong, Wayne V. Miller Jan 2011

The Durham Statement Two Years Later: Open Access In The Law School Journal Environment, Richard A. Danner, Kelly Leong, Wayne V. Miller

Faculty Scholarship

The Durham Statement on Open Access to Legal Scholarship, drafted by a group of academic law library directors, was promulgated in February 2009. It calls for two things: (1) open access publication of law school–published journals; and (2) an end to print publication of law journals, coupled with a commitment to keeping the electronic versions available in “stable, open, digital formats.” The two years since the Statement was issued have seen increased publication of law journals in openly available electronic formats, but little movement toward all-electronic publication. This article discusses the issues raised by the Durham Statement, the current ...


The Psychology Of Trial Judging, Neil Vidmar Jan 2011

The Psychology Of Trial Judging, Neil Vidmar

Faculty Scholarship

Trial court judges play a crucial role in the administration of justice for both criminal and civil matters. Although psychologists have studied juries for many decades, they have paid relatively little attention to judges. Recent writings, however, suggest that there is increasing interest in the psychology of judicial decision making. In this article, I review several selected areas of judicial behavior in which decisions appear to be influenced by psychological dispositions, but I caution that a mature psychology of judging field will need to consider the influence of the bureaucratic court setting in which judges are embedded, judges’ legal training ...


Crisis In The Legal Profession: Don’T Mourn, Organize!, Michael E. Tigar Jan 2011

Crisis In The Legal Profession: Don’T Mourn, Organize!, Michael E. Tigar

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


How Trade Secrecy Law Generates A Natural Semicommons Of Innovative Know-How, Jerome H. Reichman Jan 2011

How Trade Secrecy Law Generates A Natural Semicommons Of Innovative Know-How, Jerome H. Reichman

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


State Enforcement Of Federal Law, Margaret H. Lemos Jan 2011

State Enforcement Of Federal Law, Margaret H. Lemos

Faculty Scholarship

Federal law is enforced through a combination of public and private efforts. Virtually all federal civil statutes vest enforcement authority in a federal agency; some also create private rights of action that permit private parties to sue to enforce federal law. Decades of commentary on the choice between public and private enforcement have generated a remarkably stable set of arguments about the strengths and weaknesses of each type. But the conventional wisdom tells only part of the story, as it ignores variations within the category of public enforcement. In fact, there are two distinct types of public enforcement. Many federal ...


Reasoning About The Irrational: The Roberts Court And The Future Of Constitutional Law, H. Jefferson Powell Jan 2011

Reasoning About The Irrational: The Roberts Court And The Future Of Constitutional Law, H. Jefferson Powell

Faculty Scholarship

Commentary on the future direction of the Roberts Court generally falls along lines that correlate with the commentators' political views on the desirability of the Court's recent decisions. A more informative approach is to look for opinions suggesting changes in the presuppositions with which the Justices approach constitutional decision making. In footnote 27 in his opinion for the Court in the District of Columbia v. Heller Second Amendment decision, Justice Scalia suggested a fundamental revision of the Court's assumptions about the role of judicial doctrine, and the concept of rationality, in constitutional law. Justice Scalia would eliminate the ...


The Regrettable Clause: United States V. Comstock And The Powers Of Congress, H. Jefferson Powell Jan 2011

The Regrettable Clause: United States V. Comstock And The Powers Of Congress, H. Jefferson Powell

Faculty Scholarship

In this Article, Powell argues that in Comstock, the Court encountered one of the oldest and most basic constitutional issues about the scope of congressional power-whether there are justiciable limits to the range of legitimate ends Congress may pursue. The Justices, without fully recognizing the fact, were taking sides in an ancient debate, and in doing so, they inadvertently reopened an issue that ought to be deemed long settled. Part II of the Article first addresses the question before the Court in Comstock, which was limited to a pure question of Article I law: is a specific provision of a ...