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Full-Text Articles in Law

The Greenback, The Humpback, And The Silverback: How A Third Wave Of Federal Water Policy Could Benefit The West, Reed D. Benson Dec 2014

The Greenback, The Humpback, And The Silverback: How A Third Wave Of Federal Water Policy Could Benefit The West, Reed D. Benson

Faculty Scholarship

Proposing any major new federal initiative regarding water in the western United States might seem preposterous, given conventional wisdom and entrenched positions on state control of water resources. But there is a strong rationale, and a growing imperative, for a new federal water .policy for the West. Many river basins face serious problems as limited water supplies are over-allocated, demands continue to increase, and climate change promises to exacerbate the West's perennial problems of scarcity and variability. Solutions to such problems are likely to be expensive and will need to address national interests as well as state and local ...


The United Nations Watercourses Convention On The Dawn Of Entry Into Force, Ryan Stoa Nov 2014

The United Nations Watercourses Convention On The Dawn Of Entry Into Force, Ryan Stoa

Faculty Scholarship

The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Non- Navigational Uses of International Watercourses (Watercourses Convention) entered into force in August 2014. Despite overwhelming support when signed in 1997, the ratification process has been slow. As a binding treaty, the Watercourses Convention provides hope that its provisions will articulate legal principles of transboundary water management capable of promoting cooperation and regional agreements. Despite entry into force, however, global support for the Watercourses Convention is weak, concurrent efforts to develop treaty regimes governing water resources create competition for resources and may obscure understandings of international water law, and the foundational ...


Billionaires, Birds, And Environmental Brawls: Reconceptualizing Energy Easements, Nadia B. Ahmad Oct 2014

Billionaires, Birds, And Environmental Brawls: Reconceptualizing Energy Easements, Nadia B. Ahmad

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Consequences For Cleanup: Epa Gets Serious About Weak Watershed Improvement Plans, Rena I. Steinzor, Anne Havemann Jul 2014

Consequences For Cleanup: Epa Gets Serious About Weak Watershed Improvement Plans, Rena I. Steinzor, Anne Havemann

Faculty Scholarship

In a landmark series of reports issued on June 26, 2014, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) put the seven jurisdictions that pollute the Chesapeake Bay on notice that their plans for reducing nitrogen, phosphorous, and sediment fall short of where they must be to make cleanup by 2025 a reality. By EPA’s reckoning, Pennsylvania and Delaware were furthest off the mark, but Maryland, New York, Virginia, and West Virginia face EPA action if they fail to substantially improve their plans. Of the seven jurisdictions, only Washington, D.C. escaped serious criticism.


Subsidiarity In Principle: Decentralization Of Water Resources Management, Ryan Stoa May 2014

Subsidiarity In Principle: Decentralization Of Water Resources Management, Ryan Stoa

Faculty Scholarship

In this article, three countries' experiences with decentralized water resources management are profiled. Comparative analysis provides an illustration of some of the challenges that countries may face when implementing decentralized water laws and policies. In particular, the case studies demonstrate that income levels and financial resources play a significant role in the success of decentralized water resources management. In Haiti, decentralization policies have been largely ineffective, as statutory authorization for water resources management at both national and local levels has not been coupled with the financial or human resources required to effectively manage water resources. A similar story is being ...


The International Sugar Trade And Sustainable Development: Curtailing The Sugar Rush, Nadia B. Ahmad Jan 2014

The International Sugar Trade And Sustainable Development: Curtailing The Sugar Rush, Nadia B. Ahmad

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


A Step By Step Look At Uarg V. Epa: A New Layer Of Greenhouse Gas Regulation, Kevin O. Leske Jan 2014

A Step By Step Look At Uarg V. Epa: A New Layer Of Greenhouse Gas Regulation, Kevin O. Leske

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Beyond Tax Credits: Smarter Tax Policy For A Cleaner, More Democratic Energy Future, Felix Mormann Jan 2014

Beyond Tax Credits: Smarter Tax Policy For A Cleaner, More Democratic Energy Future, Felix Mormann

Faculty Scholarship

Solar, wind, and other renewable energy technologies have the potential to mitigate climate change, secure America’s energy independence, and create millions of green jobs. In the absence of a price on carbon emissions, however, these long-term benefits will not be realized without near-term policy support for renewables. This Article assesses the efficiency of federal tax incentives for renewables and proposes policy reform to more cost-effectively promote renewable energy through capital markets and crowdfunding.

Federal support for renewable energy projects today comes primarily in the form of tax incentives such as accelerated depreciation and, critically, tax credits. Empirical evidence reveals ...


Reaching Out For Green Policies: National Environmental Policies In The Wto Legal Order, Petros C. Mavroidis Jan 2014

Reaching Out For Green Policies: National Environmental Policies In The Wto Legal Order, Petros C. Mavroidis

Faculty Scholarship

The WTO does not squarely address the issue of jurisdictional ambit of national policies (affecting trade). And yet, absent some agreement as to what trading nations can and cannot do, the WTO loses much of its effectiveness. In the absence of explicit regulation of the issue in the WTO contract, one would reasonably expect WTO Members to behave in line with the postulates governing allocation of jurisdiction embedded in public international law. WTO practice evidences neither an explicit acceptance nor a refusal of these rules.


A Turquoise Mess: Green Subsidies, Blue Industrial Policy And Renewable Energy: The Case For Redrafting The Subsidies Agreement Of The Wto, Aaron Cosbey, Petros C. Mavroidis Jan 2014

A Turquoise Mess: Green Subsidies, Blue Industrial Policy And Renewable Energy: The Case For Redrafting The Subsidies Agreement Of The Wto, Aaron Cosbey, Petros C. Mavroidis

Faculty Scholarship

Canada-Renewable Energy presented the WTO Panel and Appellate Body (AB) with a novel issue: at the heart of the dispute was a measure adopted by the province of Ontario whereby producers of renewable energy would be paid a premium relative to conventional power producers. Some WTO Members complained that the measure was a prohibited subsidy because payments were conditional upon using Canadian equipment for the production of renewable energy. The AB gave them right only in part: it found that a local content requirement had indeed been imposed, but also found that it lacked evidence to determine whether a subsidy ...


Legal & Scientific Integrity In Advancing A "Land Degradation Neutral World", Shelley Welton, Michela Biasutti, Michael Gerrard Jan 2014

Legal & Scientific Integrity In Advancing A "Land Degradation Neutral World", Shelley Welton, Michela Biasutti, Michael Gerrard

Faculty Scholarship

It is no secret that the fight against desertification isn't going well. In the two decades since the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) came into force, desertification has worsened considerably. Many within the desertification community and beyond are calling for a fresh approach to the problem: the establishment of a global goal to achieve a "land-degradation neutral world." However, the call for land degradation neutrality has not been universally celebrated, particularly given the questionable track record of past "no net loss" policies. This article looks at ways to advance global land degradation neutrality into a concept – and ...


Solving The Cso Conundrum: Green Infrastructure And The Unfulfilled Promise Of Federal-Municipal Cooperation, Casswell F. Holloway, Carter H. Strickland Jr., Michael B. Gerrard, Daniel M. Firger Jan 2014

Solving The Cso Conundrum: Green Infrastructure And The Unfulfilled Promise Of Federal-Municipal Cooperation, Casswell F. Holloway, Carter H. Strickland Jr., Michael B. Gerrard, Daniel M. Firger

Faculty Scholarship

Faced with mounting infrastructure construction costs and more frequent and severe weather events due to climate change, cities across the country are managing the water pollution challenges of stormwater runoff and combined sewer overflows through new and innovative "green infrastructure" mechanisms that mimic, maintain, or restore natural hydrological features in the urban landscape. When utilized properly, such mechanisms can obviate the need for more expensive pipes, storage facilities, and other traditional "grey infrastructure" features, so named to acknowledge the vast amounts of concrete and other materials with high embedded energy necessary in their construction. Green infrastructure can also provide substantial ...


Tribal Environmental Programs: Providing Meaningful Involvement And Fair Treatment, Jeanette Wolfley Jan 2014

Tribal Environmental Programs: Providing Meaningful Involvement And Fair Treatment, Jeanette Wolfley

Faculty Scholarship

Tribal governments are developing and implementing federally authorized and/or approved tribal environmental programs in the areas of water quality, air quality, and solid waste. As part of this federal delegation process there are federal requirements relating to due process and fair treatment of the public and stakeholders who may be affected by the tribal environmental laws and regulations. This article explores and examines public participation and due process within the tribal context and proposes tribal institutions are in the best position to articulate the tribal cultural and social norms of public participation and fair treatment. It is through this ...


Creatures Of Circumstance: Conflicts Over Local Government Regulation Of Oil And Gas, Alex Ritchie Jan 2014

Creatures Of Circumstance: Conflicts Over Local Government Regulation Of Oil And Gas, Alex Ritchie

Faculty Scholarship

Scholars periodically note the impending upsurge in local oil and gas regulation, offering various reasons for increased local action. Papers written only a few years ago attribute greater local action in the West to population growth, increased urbanization, and increased demand for energy. Consider, however, more recent phenomena. First, population migration from more liberal states to more traditionally conservative producing states likely plays a role, as new residents [11-4] bring perspectives opposing drilling activity. Second, while the suburbs continue to expand into the oil patch, the oil patch has expanded into the suburbs and urban areas as well. Hydraulic fracturing ...


Florida Water Management Districts And The Florida Water Resources Act: The Challenges Of Basin-Level Management, Ryan Stoa Jan 2014

Florida Water Management Districts And The Florida Water Resources Act: The Challenges Of Basin-Level Management, Ryan Stoa

Faculty Scholarship

Florida’s plentiful freshwater resources are indispensable to the state’s municipal, agricultural, and environmental interests. As such, decision makers presiding over complex water management decisions wield extraordinary powers. The Water Resources Act of Florida vests these powers in five water management districts drawn according to hydrological, not political, boundaries. The water management districts have robust technical, financial, and regulatory powers, and hold the key to Florida’s sustainable development. With the stakes so high, Florida’s water management districts are at the center of a broad fight for control of water resources. In particular, transboundary water conflicts, political pressure ...


Importing Energy, Exporting Regulation, James W. Coleman Jan 2014

Importing Energy, Exporting Regulation, James W. Coleman

Faculty Scholarship

This Article identifies and addresses a growing contradiction at the heart of United States energy policy. States are the traditional energy regulators and energy policy innovators — a role that has only grown more important without a settled federal climate policy. But federal regulators and market pressures are increasingly demanding integrated national and international energy markets. Deregulation, the rise of renewable energy, the shale revolution, and new sources of motor fuel precursors like crude and ethanol have all increased interstate energy trade.

The Article shows how integrated national energy markets are driving states to regulate imported fuel and electricity based on ...


Unilateral Climate Regulation, James W. Coleman Jan 2014

Unilateral Climate Regulation, James W. Coleman

Faculty Scholarship

It is now plain that decades of negotiation toward a binding global climate treaty have failed. Yet, at the same time, many nations are adopting a range of unilateral policies to address climate change. The existing literature on climate policy neglects these unilateral climate regulations because it focuses on the necessity and possible design of a multilateral climate treaty. But these domestic regulations present a unique puzzle: given that climate outcomes are determined by global emissions, and that unilateral regulations inevitably influence incentives to regulate elsewhere, how can domestic action achieve the greatest marginal reduction in global emissions? In other ...


Energy Versus Property, Michael Pappas Jan 2014

Energy Versus Property, Michael Pappas

Faculty Scholarship

This article is the first to detail the balance legislatures and courts have struck between private property rights and the compelling public interest in energy production. By examining how property rights have consistently yielded to energy development from colonial times to the most recent decisions involving hydraulic fracturing (“fracking”), it identifies a coherent energy/property balance that has shaped property expectations to accommodate energy needs. The article then applies this insight to current disputes pitting aggressive renewable energy policies— such as nuisance immunity or mandatory installations on private property— against fundamental property expectations— the right to exclude and the right ...


Global Environmental Law At A Crossroads: Introduction, Robert V. Percival, Jolene Lin, William Piermattei Jan 2014

Global Environmental Law At A Crossroads: Introduction, Robert V. Percival, Jolene Lin, William Piermattei

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


The Role Of Civil Society In Environmental Governance In The United States And China, Robert V. Percival, Zhao Huiyu Jan 2014

The Role Of Civil Society In Environmental Governance In The United States And China, Robert V. Percival, Zhao Huiyu

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Anti-Waste, Michael Pappas Jan 2014

Anti-Waste, Michael Pappas

Faculty Scholarship

It may be a bad idea to waste resources, but is it illegal? Legally speaking, what does “waste” even mean? Though the concept may appear completely subjective, this Article builds a framework for understanding how the law identifies and addresses waste.

Drawing upon property and natural resource doctrines, the Article finds that the law selects from a menu of five specific, and sometimes competing, societal values to define waste. The values are: 1) economic efficiency, 2) human flourishing, 3) concern for future generations, 4) stability and consistency, and 5) ecological concerns. The law recognizes waste in terms of one or ...


Coal And Commerce: Local Review Of The Gateway Pacific Coal Terminal, Henry W. Mcgee, David A. Bricklin, Bryan Telegin Jan 2014

Coal And Commerce: Local Review Of The Gateway Pacific Coal Terminal, Henry W. Mcgee, David A. Bricklin, Bryan Telegin

Faculty Scholarship

This article examines the potential constitutional law issues involved in local review of the proposed coal terminals. It explores these issues in the specific context of Whatcom County's review of the Gateway Pacific Terminal. Part II provides a brief overview of the history of the Gateway Pacific terminal. Part III explores issues associated with the facility under the dormant Commerce Clause. Finally, this article concludes that there are few serious issues associated with Whatcom County's review of the proposal that would violate the dormant Commerce Clause. Moreover, Whatcom County will have a great deal of authority to approve ...


Protecting Your Environment, Exacerbating Justice: Avoiding "Mandate Havens", David Takacs Jan 2014

Protecting Your Environment, Exacerbating Justice: Avoiding "Mandate Havens", David Takacs

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Completing The Energy Innovation Cycle: The View From The Public Utility Commission, Jonas J. Monast, Sarah K. Adair Jan 2014

Completing The Energy Innovation Cycle: The View From The Public Utility Commission, Jonas J. Monast, Sarah K. Adair

Faculty Scholarship

Achieving widespread adoption of innovative electricity generation technologies involves a complex system of research, development, demonstration, and deployment, with each phase then informing future developments. Despite a number of non-regulatory programs at the federal level to support this process, the innovation premium—the increased cost and technology risk often associated with innovative generation technologies—creates hurdles in the state public utility commission (“PUC”) process. These state level regulatory hurdles have the potential to frustrate federal energy goals and prevent the learning process that is a critical component to technology innovation. This Article explores how and why innovative energy technologies face ...


Air Concentrations Of Volatile Compounds Near Oil And Gas Production, Gregg P. Macey Jan 2014

Air Concentrations Of Volatile Compounds Near Oil And Gas Production, Gregg P. Macey

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Environmental Issues In The Allocation And Management Of Western Interstate Rivers, Reed D. Benson Jan 2014

Environmental Issues In The Allocation And Management Of Western Interstate Rivers, Reed D. Benson

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Presidential Power To Address Climate Change In An Era Of Legislative Gridlock, Robert V. Percival Jan 2014

Presidential Power To Address Climate Change In An Era Of Legislative Gridlock, Robert V. Percival

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Risk, Uncertainty And Precaution: Lessons From The History Of Us Environmental Law, Robert V. Percival Jan 2014

Risk, Uncertainty And Precaution: Lessons From The History Of Us Environmental Law, Robert V. Percival

Faculty Scholarship

Globalization and expanding world trade are creating new pressures to harmonize environmental standards. Countries increasingly are borrowing legal and regulatory policy innovations from one another, moving toward greater harmonization of regulatory policies. Regulatory policy generally seeks to prevent harm before it occurs, but the reality is that it usually has been more reactive than precautionary, responding only after harm has become manifest. As regulators seek to improve their responses to new and emerging environmental risks, it is useful to consider what lessons can be learned from past experience with regulatory policy. This chapter reviews controversies over regulatory policy through the ...


The Next Generation Of Trade And Environment Conflicts: The Rise Of Green Industrial Policy, Mark Wu, James Salzman Jan 2014

The Next Generation Of Trade And Environment Conflicts: The Rise Of Green Industrial Policy, Mark Wu, James Salzman

Faculty Scholarship

A major shift is transforming the trade and environment field, triggered by governments’ rising use of industrial policies to spark nascent renewable energy industries and to restrict exports of certain minerals in the face of political economy constraints. While economically distorting, these policies do produce significant economic and environmental benefits. At the same time, they often violate World Trade Organization (WTO) rules, leading to increasingly harsh conflicts between trading partners.

This Article presents a comprehensive analysis of these emerging conflicts, arguing that they represent a sharp break from past trade and environment disputes. It examines the causes of the shift ...


Designing Co2 Performance Standards For A Transitioning Electricity Sector: A Multi-Benefits Framework, Jonas J. Monast, David Hoppock Jan 2014

Designing Co2 Performance Standards For A Transitioning Electricity Sector: A Multi-Benefits Framework, Jonas J. Monast, David Hoppock

Faculty Scholarship

A significant transition is underway within the electricity sector due to several market forces, retirement of certain plants, and regulatory pressures. There is notable overlap between available strategies for mitigating electricity sector risks and potential compliance strategies for states under the Clean Power Plan. This overlap presents regulators with an opportunity to pursue strategies that help manage the transition occurring in the electricity sector and achieve greenhouse gas reductions required under the Clean Power Plan, particularly in the areas of end-use energy efficiency and additional renewable power generation.