Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Law Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 485

Full-Text Articles in Law

Strategies For Emergency Release Of Incarcerated People During Covid-19 Outbreak, Sara Alvarez, Andrew Kopke, Mariel Stein, Meg Tiley Mar 2020

Strategies For Emergency Release Of Incarcerated People During Covid-19 Outbreak, Sara Alvarez, Andrew Kopke, Mariel Stein, Meg Tiley

Articles

Students in Cardozo's Criminal Defense Clinic partnered with the Office of the Appellate Defender to outline legal strategies to advocate for the release of incarcerated people who are vulnerable to harm from COVID-19.


Applying The First Amendment To The Internal Revenue Code: Minnesota Voters Alliance And The Tax Law’S Regulation Of Nonprofit Organizations’ Political Speech, Edward A. Zelinsky Jan 2020

Applying The First Amendment To The Internal Revenue Code: Minnesota Voters Alliance And The Tax Law’S Regulation Of Nonprofit Organizations’ Political Speech, Edward A. Zelinsky

Articles

On its face, Minnesota Voters Alliance v. Mansky is about which T-shirts, hats and buttons voters can wear at the polls. However, the U.S. Supreme Court’s First Amendment analysis in Minnesota Voters Alliance extends beyond apparel at polling places. That decision impacts the ongoing debate about the Johnson Amendment, the now controversial provision of the Internal Revenue Code which forbids Section 501(c)(3) organizations from intervening in political campaigns. Minnesota Voters Alliance also affects the proper construction of Section 501(c)(3)’s ban on lobbying by tax-exempt entities as well as other provisions of the tax ...


Coronavirus, Telecommuting, And The ‘Employer Convenience’ Rule, Edward A. Zelinsky Jan 2020

Coronavirus, Telecommuting, And The ‘Employer Convenience’ Rule, Edward A. Zelinsky

Articles

New York's "convenience of the employer" doctrine overtaxes nonresident telecommuters on the days they work at their out-of-state homes. This doctrine was poor tax policy in normal times. It is particularly bad tax policy during the Covid-19 crisis, penalizing individuals who work at home.


Prosecutorial Declination Statements, Jessica A. Roth Jan 2020

Prosecutorial Declination Statements, Jessica A. Roth

Articles

This Article examines how prosecutors convey to various audiences their decisions not to charge in discrete cases. Although prosecutors regularly issue public statements about their declinations—and anecdotal evidence suggests that declination statements are on the rise—there is an absence of literature discussing the interests that such statements serve, the risks that they pose, and how such statements are consistent with the prosecutorial function. Prosecutors also operate in this space without clear ground rules set by law, policies, or professional standards. This Article attempts to fill that void. First, it theorizes the interests potentially advanced by such statements—characterized ...


Congressional Administration Of Foreign Affairs, Rebecca Ingber Jan 2020

Congressional Administration Of Foreign Affairs, Rebecca Ingber

Articles

Longstanding debates over the allocation of foreign affairs power between Congress and the President have reached a stalemate. Wherever the formal line between Congress and the President’s powers is drawn, it is well established that, as a functional matter, even in times of great discord between the two branches, the President wields immense power when he acts in the name of foreign policy or national security.

And yet, while scholarship focuses on the accretion of power in the presidency, presidential primacy is not the end of the story. The fact that the President usually “wins” in foreign affairs does ...


How U.S. Family Law Might Deal With Spousal Relationships Of Three (Or More) People, Edward D. Stein Jan 2020

How U.S. Family Law Might Deal With Spousal Relationships Of Three (Or More) People, Edward D. Stein

Articles

For much of this nation's history, the vast majority of people have believed that being married to more than one person at the same time is deeply problematic. Further, polygamous marriage has never been legal in the United States. Despite this, some people have been in plural or group relationships and some of these people have wished to gain legal recognition for these relationships. The arguments for recognizing such relationships are persuasive, but the prospects for legalization of polygamous marriage seem slim in the near future. This Article offers a suggestion of how the law of domestic relations might ...


Home Sweet Home: How New York Courts Have Dealt With Daimler's "At Home" Requirement For General Jurisdiction, Burton N. Lipshie Jan 2019

Home Sweet Home: How New York Courts Have Dealt With Daimler's "At Home" Requirement For General Jurisdiction, Burton N. Lipshie

Articles

In this Article, we will first place the Daimler decision in its context, both historical and technological, in an attempt to understand the flow of Supreme Court jurisdiction jurisprudence, and how Daimler fits into that jurisprudence. Then, we will explore the issues in New York law that Daimler left open, and which, more than five years after it was decided, remain open, and, indeed, often confused.


Binaries: Remarks On Chaim N. Saiman's "Halakhah", Richard Weisberg Jan 2019

Binaries: Remarks On Chaim N. Saiman's "Halakhah", Richard Weisberg

Articles

Binaries are helpful but deceptive, and this may be particularly true of simplistic theological dichotomies purporting to show that the Talmud is "Nitpicking" and Christian Biblical understandings "Expansive", or that Jews believe in the "letter" and Christians in the "spirit", Jews in strict Justice and Christians in "mercy", etc. This essay, which focuses on the character of Shylock and the legalistic cruelty inflicted upon him by Venice's Christians, dissolves such Binaries, leaving in their wake greater clarity about the contrary need to "re-binarize" the falsely unified hyphenated adjective "Judaeo-Christian".


Taking Data, Michael Pollack Jan 2019

Taking Data, Michael Pollack

Articles

Technological development has created new forms of information, altered expectations of privacy, and given law enforcement more tools to examine that information and intrude on that privacy. One crucial facet of these changes involves internet service providers (ISPs): as people expose more of their lives to their ISPs—all the websites they visit, people they communicate with, emails they send, files they store, and more—law enforcement efforts to access that data become more and more common. But scholars and policymakers alike recognize that the existing statutory frameworks governing those efforts are based on obsolete technology and strike balances that ...


The Search For Third Options In A Two-Bathroom Society, Sharon R. Cruz Jan 2018

The Search For Third Options In A Two-Bathroom Society, Sharon R. Cruz

Articles

This Note presents a narrative on and the history of transgender bathroom rights in this country, beginning with the reasoning for a two-bathroom society and the development of “bathroom laws”. The development of the two-bathroom society is intertwined with and rooted in beliefs that have remained prevalent since the Victorian Era, ideas about core differences between men and women, and how best to protect the virtues of women. In order to weave this narrative, this Note focuses particularly on current cases that are making their way through our Courts: the stories of Gavin Grimm and Coy Mathis, whose battles are ...


The Institutions Of Innocence Review: A Comparative Sociological Perspective, Jessica A. Roth Jan 2018

The Institutions Of Innocence Review: A Comparative Sociological Perspective, Jessica A. Roth

Articles

The last three decades have seen the rise of an international innocence movement that has forced participants in diverse criminal justice systems to confront their systems’ fallibility, previously thought more theoretical than real. The public acknowledgment of that fallibility has led to the creation of new institutional mechanisms to re-examine old convictions. This short essay prepared for a symposium issue of the Rutgers University Law Review on the theory of criminal law reform compares the error correction institutions created in the United Kingdom, Canada, and the United States, three English-speaking countries with common law roots and an adversarial structure, through ...


Love For Sale: Book Review Of Marcia A. Zug, Buying A Bride: An Engaging History Of Mail-Order Matches, Jeanne L. Schroeder Jan 2018

Love For Sale: Book Review Of Marcia A. Zug, Buying A Bride: An Engaging History Of Mail-Order Matches, Jeanne L. Schroeder

Articles

No abstract provided.


The Necessity Of The Good Person Prosecutor, Jessica A. Roth Jan 2018

The Necessity Of The Good Person Prosecutor, Jessica A. Roth

Articles

In a 2001 essay, Professor Abbe Smith asked the question whether a good person—i.e., a person who is committed to social justice—can be a good prosecutor. Although she acknowledged some hope that the answer to her question could be “yes,” Professor Smith concluded that the answer then was “no”—in part because she saw individual prosecutors generally as having very little discretion to “temper the harsh reality of the criminal justice system.” In this Online Symposium revisiting Professor Smith’s question seventeen years later, my answer to her question is “yes”—a good person can be a ...


Maintaining Condominiums And Homeowner Associations: How Much Of A Priority?, Stewart E. Sterk Jan 2018

Maintaining Condominiums And Homeowner Associations: How Much Of A Priority?, Stewart E. Sterk

Articles

During the recent real estate crisis, competition for scarce dollars pitted the holders of defaulted mortgages against condominiums and homeowner associations seeking to collect maintenance assessments. Statutes providing mortgagees with lien priority threatened association ability to provide services, and imposed a disproportionate burden on non-defaulting unit owners. Statutes enacted in other states gave associations a “super priority” lien for six months of assessments, but left uncertainty about the meaning of that super priority in an environment in which foreclosure delays became the norm.The last five years have brought a spate of litigation over the relative rights of associations and ...


The Culture Of Misdemeanor Courts, Jessica A. Roth Jan 2018

The Culture Of Misdemeanor Courts, Jessica A. Roth

Articles

The misdemeanor courts that preside over the majority of criminal cases in the United States represent the “front porch” of our criminal justice system. These courts vary in myriad ways, including size, structure, and method of judicial appointment. Each also has its own culture – i.e., a settled way of doing things that reflects deeper assumptions about the court’s mission and its role in the community – which can assist or impede desired policy reforms. This Article, written for a Symposium issue of the Hofstra Law Review, draws upon the insights of organizational culture theory to explore how leaders can ...


Goodwill Hunting Gone Bad: Tax Law ’S Outmoded Treatment Of Goodwill, Mitchell L. Engler Jan 2018

Goodwill Hunting Gone Bad: Tax Law ’S Outmoded Treatment Of Goodwill, Mitchell L. Engler

Articles

Goodwill reflects the positive consumer association with a business. Goodwill thus overlaps with trademarks and other related assets. This close association impedes the separation of goodwill value from such related assets. Difficulties thus arise when the tax law treats goodwill more (or less) favorably than related intangible assets.For instance, the tax law previously denied any depreciation deductions for goodwill. Business buyers thus often allocated their costs away from goodwill and towards related assets like depreciable customer lists. The IRS responded with the initial “goodwill hunting” wave, challenging taxpayers’ low goodwill valuations. Congress addressed this litigious area in 1993 with ...


Pardoning Immigrants, Peter L. Markowitz, Lindsay Y. Nash Jan 2018

Pardoning Immigrants, Peter L. Markowitz, Lindsay Y. Nash

Articles

In the waning days of the Obama Administration, with Trump’s promised immigration crackdown looming, over one hundred advocacy organizations joined forces to urge President Obama to permanently protect hundreds of thousands of immigrants from deportation by pardoning their breaches of civil immigration law. That pardon never materialized and, as expected, the Trump enforcement regime is sowing terror and devastation in immigrant communities nationwide. While it seems unfathomable that the current president would use his pardon power to mitigate even the most extreme applications of our nation’s immigration laws, there is unfortunately no indication that the harshest aspects of ...


The Narrative Of Costs, The Cost Of Narrative, Alexander A. Reinert Jan 2018

The Narrative Of Costs, The Cost Of Narrative, Alexander A. Reinert

Articles

In Judge Victor Marrero’s Article “The Cost of Rules, the Rule of Costs,” he argues that too many lawyers use too many procedural devices to cause too much inefficiency within our civil justice system. His Article helpfully asks us to focus on the role of the lawyer and law firm economics in assessing how to solve waste and abuse in civil litigation. He proposes an array of procedural changes to address these perceived problems. In this response, I argue that Judge Marrero’s assertions about costs are questionable, given relevant empirical evidence. Moreover, although I am confident that there ...


Cardozo's "Law And Literature": A Guide To His Judicial Writing Style, Richard H. Weisberg Jan 2018

Cardozo's "Law And Literature": A Guide To His Judicial Writing Style, Richard H. Weisberg

Articles

Weisberg traces Judge Cardozo's advice about legal writing to the famous 1925 essay LAW AND LITERATURE and applies it to the judicial opinions and other published works of Cardozo and various other judges.


Dueling Denominators And The Demise Of Lucas, Stewart E. Sterk Jan 2018

Dueling Denominators And The Demise Of Lucas, Stewart E. Sterk

Articles

In Murr v. Wisconsin, the Supreme Court outlined a process for ascertaining the denominator in takings cases – an issue that arises both with respect to Penn Central takings claims and Lucas takings claims. The underpinnings of Penn Central claims and Lucas claims are not identical; Penn Central’s primary concern is assuring fairness to landowners, while the focus of Lucas is on restricting government efforts to bypass the condemnation process. Although this difference in focus might suggest a difference in appropriate denominator, the Court’s multi-factor balancing approach apparently applies to all takings claims. Although the Court’s approach is ...


Bureaucratic Resistance And The National Security State, Rebecca Ingber Jan 2018

Bureaucratic Resistance And The National Security State, Rebecca Ingber

Articles

Modern accounts of the national security state tend toward one of two opposing views of bureaucratic tensions within it: At one extreme, the executive branch bureaucracy is a shadowy “deep state,” unaccountable to the public or even to the elected President. On this account, bureaucratic obstacles to the President’s agenda are inherently suspect, even dangerous. At the other end, bureaucratic resistance to the President represents a necessary benevolent constraint on an otherwise imperial executive. This account hails the bureaucracy as the modern incarnation of the separation of powers, an alternative to the traditional checks on the President of the ...


Using Domestic Law To Move Toward A Recognition Of Universal Legal Capacity For Persons With Disabilities, Leslie Salzman Jan 2017

Using Domestic Law To Move Toward A Recognition Of Universal Legal Capacity For Persons With Disabilities, Leslie Salzman

Articles

This symposium explores the meaning of personhood as it is or should be applied to persons with disabilities. This panel focuses on the concept of legal capacity-the ability to make decisions about one’s life, to exercise agency, and to have those decisions recognized by third parties. For my part, I would like to discuss how we might use domestic law—specifically the integration mandate of Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act and substantive due process—to help us move toward a recognition of universal legal capacity regardless of disability and bring meaningful changes to domestic guardianship regimes ...


Trust Decanting: A Critical Perspective, Stewart E. Sterk Jan 2017

Trust Decanting: A Critical Perspective, Stewart E. Sterk

Articles

Until recently, a party seeking modification of an irrevocable trust needed approval from all interested parties, or from a court. The last decade, however, has brought a flood of state legislation authorizing trust decanting – a process by which a trustee “decants” trust assets from one vessel (the original irrevocable trust) into a second vessel (a new trust with terms designed to reflect the settlor’s supposed intent). Most recently, the Uniform Law Commissioners have, in 2015, promulgated the Uniform Trust Decanting Act.Decanting enable trustees and trust beneficiaries to avoid the cost associated with judicial modification in cases where the ...


Testing Tarnishment In Trademark And Copyright Law: The Effect Of Pornographic Versions Of Protected Marks And Works Of Pornographic Versions Of Protected Marks And Work, Christopher Buccafusco, Paul J. Heald, Wen Bu Jan 2017

Testing Tarnishment In Trademark And Copyright Law: The Effect Of Pornographic Versions Of Protected Marks And Works Of Pornographic Versions Of Protected Marks And Work, Christopher Buccafusco, Paul J. Heald, Wen Bu

Articles

Federal and state law both provide a cause of action against inappropriate and unauthorized uses that ‘tarnish’ a trademark. Copyright owners also articulate fears of ‘tarnishing’ uses of their works in their arguments against fair use and for copyright term extension. The validity of these concerns rests on an empirically testable hypothesis about how consumers respond to inappropriate unauthorized uses of works. In particular, the tarnishment hypothesis assumes that consumers who are exposed to inappropriate uses of a work will find the tarnished work less valuable afterwards. This Article presents two experimental tests of the tarnishment hypothesis, focusing on unauthorized ...


Holocaust-Era Art Restitution Claims: Is The Hear Act A Game Changer?, Rachel Sklar Jan 2017

Holocaust-Era Art Restitution Claims: Is The Hear Act A Game Changer?, Rachel Sklar

Articles

The author of this article presents a legal analysis of the Holocaust Expropriated Art Recovery Act of 2016 (“HEAR Act”), signed into law by President Barack Obama on December 16, 2016, which creates a uniform, federal six-year statute of limitations on civil restitution claims in the United States for the victims of Nazi-era persecution and their heirs to make a legal demand for the return of artwork or other cultural property that was seized, confiscated or wrongfully taken as a result of the policies of the Third Reich.


Prosecutorial Discretion Power At Its Zenith: The Power To Protect Liberty, Peter L. Markowitz Jan 2017

Prosecutorial Discretion Power At Its Zenith: The Power To Protect Liberty, Peter L. Markowitz

Articles

On November 20, 2014, President Obama, frustrated by congressional inaction on immigration, announced an ambitious and potentially transformative prosecutorial discretion policy to forego the deportations of millions of low priority undocumented immigrants. That announcement immediately sparked legal challenges, which quickly wound their way to the Supreme Court, and a nationwide debate about the limits of the President’s prosecutorial discretion authority. President Obama’s actions are part of a larger trend whereby modern presidents have increasingly used robust assertions of prosecutorial discretion powers to achieve policy goals that they could not realize through legislation.

There are clear dangers in allowing ...


Byte Marks: Making Sense Of New F.R.C.P. 37e, Charles Yablon Jan 2017

Byte Marks: Making Sense Of New F.R.C.P. 37e, Charles Yablon

Articles

New FRCP 37(e) limits severe, case ending sanctions for lost electronically stored information (ESI) to situations where a party acted with “intent to deprive” other parties of the use of that information. But it makes no change in existing preservation duties and never explains how “intent” is to be determined for the corporation and other entities likely to be parties in such litigation. The question is – does this Rule make any sense? This Essay seeks to make sense of Rule 37(e) in terms of its language, the stated goals of its drafters, and its role in the regulation ...


The Political Process Argument For Overruling Quill, Edward A. Zelinsky Jan 2017

The Political Process Argument For Overruling Quill, Edward A. Zelinsky

Articles

Should the U.S. Supreme Court overrule Quill Corporation v. North Dakota? A careful assessment of the federal political process suggests that the Supreme Court itself should overturn Quill in the Court’s role as guardian of the states against federal commandeering. A combination of factors underlay this conclusion: the tactical advantage that Quill bestows in the political process upon the internet and mail order industries, the importance of the states in the structure of federalism, the centrality of sales taxes to the financing of state government, the severe impediment which Quill and its physical presence test impose upon the ...


Defining Residence For Income Tax Purposes: Domicile As Gap-Filler, Citizenship As Proxy And Gap-Filler, Edward A. Zelinsky Jan 2017

Defining Residence For Income Tax Purposes: Domicile As Gap-Filler, Citizenship As Proxy And Gap-Filler, Edward A. Zelinsky

Articles

The states' income tax systems are important repositories of experience which confirm the administrative benefits of citizenship-based taxation. Domicile today plays an important role in state tax systems as a gap-filler when more objective statutory residence laws fail to assign any state of residence to the taxpayer. Citizenship is an administrable proxy for domicile and serves a similar gap-filling role in the federal taxation of individuals whose income and activities straddle across national boundaries. The states' difficulties enforcing domicile-based taxation highlight the administrative benefits of citizenship-based taxation. As long as residence is understood for tax purposes in terms of domicile ...


Land Use Federalism's False Choice, Michael C. Pollack Jan 2017

Land Use Federalism's False Choice, Michael C. Pollack

Articles

Debates about land use federalism — like those about federalism more broadly — often focus on whether policies and priorities ought to be set at the national or local level. But such categorical judgments about national intervention are inadequate because they obscure the diversity of mechanisms by which nationalization can and does occur. This Article draws attention to the importance of this underappreciated legislative design choice and develops a framework within which to evaluate it. This Article observes that nationalization can take the form of rules that either displace local decisionmaking or channel it, and that those rules can be implemented either ...