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First Amendment

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Old Ground And New Directions At Sacred Sites On The Western Landscape, Kristen A. Carpenter Jan 2006

Old Ground And New Directions At Sacred Sites On The Western Landscape, Kristen A. Carpenter

Articles

The federal public lands contain places with both religious and secular value for American people. American Indians, in particular, hold certain natural features to be sacred, and visit them for ceremonies and worship. Simultaneously, non-Indians use the same places for economic, recreation, and many other purposes - and conflicts arise between these groups. In the past twenty years, a body of constitutional jurisprudence has developed to address questions of religious freedoms and public access rights on these lands that are owned and managed by the federal government. This article outlines the relevant First Amendment framework as well as recent statutes that ...


The Interests Of "Peoples" In The Cooperative Management Of Sacred Sites, Kristen A. Carpenter Jan 2006

The Interests Of "Peoples" In The Cooperative Management Of Sacred Sites, Kristen A. Carpenter

Articles

This essay contends that there is a structural element of federal law and policy that sets up legal battles over American Indian sacred sites. The Supreme Court has held that whatever rights groups may have at sacred sites, the federal government's rights as owner and sovereign of the public lands ultimately prevails. Federal agencies can, if they choose, accommodate various interests on the public lands, but such decisions are left to fluctuating executive policy and the discretion of land managers. This approach reflects well-established doctrine in public lands law, but leaves various citizens and groups clamoring for the federal ...


Considering Individual Religious Freedoms Under Tribal Constitutional Law, Kristen A. Carpenter Jan 2005

Considering Individual Religious Freedoms Under Tribal Constitutional Law, Kristen A. Carpenter

Articles

As American Indian nations revitalize their legal systems, there is renewed interest in "tribal law," that is, the law of each of the Indian nations. Today, there is a particular focus on the subject of "individual rights" under tribal law. In tribal contexts, people are highly interested in the legal institutions and rules that govern their lives, especially as many tribal communities are experiencing a period of great political, social, and economic change. At the national level, the Supreme Court repeatedly expresses concern about whether individuals, especially non-Indians, will be treated fairly in tribal court. For scholars, individual rights under ...


In The Absence Of Title: Responding To Federal Ownership In Sacred Sites Cases, Kristen A. Carpenter Jan 2003

In The Absence Of Title: Responding To Federal Ownership In Sacred Sites Cases, Kristen A. Carpenter

Articles

This paper examines the challenge of protecting American Indian sacred sites located on federal public lands. Many have addressed this issue in the religious freedoms context, but I believe the problem is just as much about property law. The Supreme Court's decision in Lyng v. Northwest Indian Cemetery Protective Association, for example, would appear to suggest that federal ownership of certain sacred sites trumps tribal free exercise clause claims regarding those sites. This holding corresponds with a classic model in which "[p]roperty is about rights over things and the people who have those rights are called owners." However ...