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Pregnancy And The First Amendment, Helen Norton Jan 2019

Pregnancy And The First Amendment, Helen Norton

Articles

Suppose that you are pregnant and seated in the waiting room of a Planned Parenthood clinic, or maybe in a facility that advertises “Pregnant? We Can Help You.” This Essay discusses the First Amendment rules that apply to the government’s control of what you are about to hear.

If the government funds your clinic’s program, the U.S. Supreme Court has held that it does not violate the First Amendment’s Free Speech Clause when it forbids your health-care provider from offering you information about available abortion services. Nor does the government violate the Free Speech Clause, the ...


Recording As Heckling, Scott Skinner-Thompson Jan 2019

Recording As Heckling, Scott Skinner-Thompson

Articles

A growing body of authority recognizes that citizen recording of police officers and public space is protected by the First Amendment. But the judicial and scholarly momentum behind the emerging “right to record” fails to fully incorporate recording’s cost to another important right that also furthers First Amendment principles: the right to privacy.

This Article helps fill that gap by comprehensively analyzing the First Amendment interests of both the right to record and the right to privacy in public while highlighting the role of technology in altering the First Amendment landscape. Recording information can be critical to future speech ...


Powerful Speakers And Their Listeners, Helen Norton Jan 2019

Powerful Speakers And Their Listeners, Helen Norton

Articles

In certain settings, law sometimes puts listeners first when their First Amendment interests collide with speakers’. And collide they often do. Sometimes speakers prefer to tell lies when their listeners thirst for the truth. Sometimes listeners hope that speakers will reveal their secrets, while those speakers resist disclosure. And at still other times, speakers seek to address certain listeners when those listeners long to be left alone. When speakers’ and listeners’ First Amendment interests collide, whose interests should prevail? Law sometimes – but not always – puts listeners’ interests first in settings outside of public discourse where those listeners have less information ...


The First Queer Right, Scott Skinner-Thompson Jan 2018

The First Queer Right, Scott Skinner-Thompson

Articles

Current legal disputes may lead one to believe that the greatest threat to LGBTQ rights is the First Amendment’s protections for speech, association, and religion, which are currently being mustered to challenge LGBTQ anti-discrimination protections. But underappreciated today is the role of free speech and free association in advancing the well-being of LGBTQ individuals, as explained in Professor Carlos Ball’s important new book, The First Amendment and LGBT Equality: A Contentious History. In many ways the First Amendment’s protections for free expression and association operated as what I label “the first queer right.”

Decades before the Supreme ...


Robotic Speakers And Human Listeners, Helen Norton Jan 2018

Robotic Speakers And Human Listeners, Helen Norton

Articles

In their new book, Robotica, Ron Collins and David Skover assert that we protect speech not so much because of its value to speakers but instead because of its affirmative value to listeners. If we assume that the First Amendment is largely, if not entirely, about serving listeners’ interests—in other words, that it’s listeners all the way down—what would a listener-centered approach to robotic speech require? This short symposium essay briefly discusses the complicated and sometimes even dark side of robotic speech from a listener-centered perspective.


Government Lies And The Press Clause, Helen Norton Jan 2018

Government Lies And The Press Clause, Helen Norton

Articles

This essay considers a particular universe of potentially dangerous governmental falsehoods: the government's lies and misrepresentations about and to the press.

Government's efforts to regulate private speakers' lies clearly implicate the First Amendment, as many (but not all) of our own lies are protected by the Free Speech Clause. But because the government does not have First Amendment rights of its own when it speaks, the constitutional limits, if any, on the government's own lies are considerably less clear.

In earlier work I have explored in some detail the Free Speech and Due Process Clauses as possible ...


(At Least) Thirteen Ways Of Looking At Election Lies, Helen Norton Jan 2018

(At Least) Thirteen Ways Of Looking At Election Lies, Helen Norton

Articles

Lies take many forms. Because lies vary so greatly in their motivations and consequences (among many other qualities), philosophers have long sought to catalog them to help make sense of their diversity and complexity. Legal scholars too have classified lies in various ways to explain why we punish some and protect others. This symposium essay offers yet another taxonomy of lies, focusing specifically on election lies — that is, lies told during or about elections. We can divide and describe election lies in a wide variety of ways: by speaker, by motive, by subject matter, by audience, by means of delivery ...


The Government's Manufacture Of Doubt, Helen Norton Jan 2018

The Government's Manufacture Of Doubt, Helen Norton

Articles

“The manufacture of doubt” refers to a speaker’s strategic efforts to undermine factual assertions that threaten its self-interest. This strategy was perhaps most famously employed by the tobacco industry in its longstanding campaign to contest mounting medical evidence linking cigarettes to a wide range of health risks. At its best, the government’s speech can counter such efforts and protect the public interest, as exemplified by the Surgeon General’s groundbreaking 1964 report on the dangers of tobacco, a report that challenged the industry’s preferred narrative. But the government’s speech is not always so heroic, and governments ...


Remedies And The Government's Constitutionally Harmful Speech, Helen Norton Jan 2018

Remedies And The Government's Constitutionally Harmful Speech, Helen Norton

Articles

Although governments have engaged in expression from their inception, only recently have we begun to consider the ways in which the government’s speech sometimes threatens our constitutional rights. In my contribution to this symposium, I seek to show that although the search for constitutional remedies for the government’s harmful expression is challenging, it is far from futile. This search is also increasingly important at a time when the government’s expressive powers continue to grow—along with its willingness to use these powers for disturbing purposes and with troubling consequences.

More specifically, in certain circumstances, injunctive relief, declaratory ...


Government Speech And The War On Terror, Helen Norton Jan 2017

Government Speech And The War On Terror, Helen Norton

Articles

The government is unique among speakers because of its coercive power, its substantial resources, its privileged access to national security and intelligence information, and its wide variety of expressive roles as commander-in-chief, policymaker, educator, employer, property owner, and more. Precisely because of this power, variety, and ubiquity, the government's speech can both provide great value and inflict great harm to the public. In wartime, more specifically, the government can affirmatively choose to use its voice to inform, inspire, heal, and unite -- or instead to deceive, divide, bully, and silence.

In this essay, I examine the U.S. government's ...


Checking The Government’S Deception Through Public Employee Speech, Helen Norton Jan 2017

Checking The Government’S Deception Through Public Employee Speech, Helen Norton

Articles

No abstract provided.


Privacy And The Right To Record, Margot E. Kaminski Jan 2017

Privacy And The Right To Record, Margot E. Kaminski

Articles

Many U.S. laws protect privacy by governing recording. Recently, however, courts have recognized a First Amendment “right to record.” This Article addresses how courts should handle privacy laws in light of the developing First Amendment right to record.

The privacy harms addressed by recording laws are situated harms. Recording changes the way people behave in physical spaces by altering the nature of those spaces. Thus, recording laws can be placed within a long line of First Amendment case law that recognizes a valid government interest in managing the qualities of rivalrous physical space, so as not to allow one ...


Performative Privacy, Scott Skinner-Thompson Jan 2017

Performative Privacy, Scott Skinner-Thompson

Articles

Broadly speaking, privacy doctrine suggests that the right to privacy is non-existent once one enters the public realm. Although some scholars contend that privacy ought to exist in public, “public privacy” has been defended largely with reference to other, ancillary values privacy may serve. For instance, public privacy may be necessary to make the freedom of association meaningful in practice.

This Article identifies a new dimension of public privacy, supplementing extant justifications for the right, by arguing that many efforts to maintain privacy while in “public” are properly conceptualized as forms of performative, expressive resistance against an ever-pervasive surveillance society ...


Authorship, Disrupted: Ai Authors In Copyright And First Amendment Law, Margot E. Kaminski Jan 2017

Authorship, Disrupted: Ai Authors In Copyright And First Amendment Law, Margot E. Kaminski

Articles

Technology is often characterized as an outside force, with essential qualities, acting on the law. But the law, through both doctrine and theory, constructs the meaning of the technology it encounters. A particular feature of a particular technology disrupts the law only because the law has been structured in a way that makes that feature relevant. The law, in other words, plays a significant role in shaping its own disruption. This Essay is a study of how a particular technology, artificial intelligence, is framed by both copyright law and the First Amendment. How the algorithmic author is framed by these ...


Re-Ordering The First Amendment, Melissa Hart Jan 2016

Re-Ordering The First Amendment, Melissa Hart

Articles

No abstract provided.


Truth And Lies In The Workplace: Employer Speech And The First Amendment, Helen Norton Jan 2016

Truth And Lies In The Workplace: Employer Speech And The First Amendment, Helen Norton

Articles

Employers' lies, misrepresentations, and nondisclosures about workers' legal rights and other working conditions can skew and sometimes even coerce workers' important life decisions as well as frustrate key workplace protections. Federal, state, and local governments have long sought to address these substantial harms by prohibiting employers from misrepresenting workers' rights or other working conditions as well as by requiring employers to disclose truthful information about these matters.

These governmental efforts, however, are now increasingly vulnerable to constitutional attack in light of the recent antiregulatory turn in First Amendment law, in which corporate and other commercial entities seek -- with growing success ...


A Few Thoughts On Free Speech Constitutionalism, Helen Norton Jan 2015

A Few Thoughts On Free Speech Constitutionalism, Helen Norton

Articles

No abstract provided.


Regulating Real-World Surveillance, Margot E. Kaminski Jan 2015

Regulating Real-World Surveillance, Margot E. Kaminski

Articles

A number of laws govern information gathering, or surveillance, by private parties in the physical world. But we lack a compelling theory of privacy harm that accounts for the state's interest in enacting these laws. Without a theory of privacy harm, these laws will be enacted piecemeal. Legislators will have a difficult time justifying the laws to constituents; the laws will not be adequately tailored to legislative interest; and courts will find it challenging to weigh privacy harms against other strong values, such as freedom of expression.

This Article identifies the government interest in enacting laws governing surveillance by ...


Outing Privacy, Scott Skinner-Thompson Jan 2015

Outing Privacy, Scott Skinner-Thompson

Articles

The government regularly outs information concerning people's sexuality, gender identity, and HIV status. Notwithstanding the implications of such outings, the Supreme Court has yet to resolve whether the Constitution contains a right to informational privacy - a right to limit the government's ability to collect and disseminate personal information.

This Article probes informational privacy theory and jurisprudence to better understand the judiciary's reluctance to fully embrace a constitutional right to informational privacy. The Article argues that while existing scholarly theories of informational privacy encourage us to broadly imagine the right and its possibilities, often focusing on informational privacy ...


How Do We Know When Speech Is Of Low Value?, Helen Norton Jan 2015

How Do We Know When Speech Is Of Low Value?, Helen Norton

Articles

No abstract provided.


Government Speech And Political Courage, Helen Norton Jan 2015

Government Speech And Political Courage, Helen Norton

Articles

This short essay addresses Walker v. Texas Div., Sons of Confederate Veterans, Inc., in which a divided Court upheld Texas's rejection of the Sons of Confederate Veterans' request for a specialty license plate that featured the Confederate flag. Although it agrees with the majority that specialty license plates can -- and often do -- reflect the government's own expression that the government should remain free to control without running afoul of the First Amendment, it argues that the Walker Court missed an important opportunity to refine its government speech doctrine. Not only has the Court yet to settle on a ...


The Government's Lies And The Constitution, Helen Norton Jan 2015

The Government's Lies And The Constitution, Helen Norton

Articles

Governments lie. They do so for many different reasons to a wide range of audiences on a variety of topics. Although courts and commentators have extensively explored whether and when the First Amendment permits the government to regulate lies told by private speakers, relatively little attention has yet been paid to the constitutional implications of the government's intentional falsehoods. This Article helps fill that gap by exploring when, if ever, the Constitution prohibits our government from lying to us.

The government’s lies can be devastating. This is the case, for example, of its lies told to resist legal ...


Copyright Crime And Punishment: The First Amendment's Proportionality Puzzle, Margot Kaminski Jan 2014

Copyright Crime And Punishment: The First Amendment's Proportionality Puzzle, Margot Kaminski

Articles

The United States is often considered to be the most speech-protective country in the world. Paradoxically, the features that have led to this reputation have created areas in which the United States is in fact less speech protective than other countries. The Supreme Court's increasing use of a categorical approach to the First Amendment has created a growing divide between the US. approach to reconciling copyright and free expression and the proportionality analysis adopted by most of the rest of the world.

In practice, the U.S. categorical approach to the First Amendment minimizes opportunities for judicial oversight of ...


"Smut And Nothing But": The Fcc, Indecency, And Regulatory Transformations In The Shadows, Lili Levi Jan 2013

"Smut And Nothing But": The Fcc, Indecency, And Regulatory Transformations In The Shadows, Lili Levi

Articles

No abstract provided.


Drone Federalism: Civilian Drones And The Things They Carry, Margot E. Kaminski Dec 2012

Drone Federalism: Civilian Drones And The Things They Carry, Margot E. Kaminski

Articles

Civilian drones are scheduled to be permitted in the national airspace as early as 2015. Many think Congress should establish the necessary nationwide regulations to govern both law enforcement and civilian drone use. That thinking, however, is wrong. This Essay suggests drone federalism instead: a state-based approach to privacy regulation that governs drone use by civilians, drawing on states’ experience regulating other forms of civilian-on-civilian surveillance. This approach will allow necessary experimentation in how to best balance privacy concerns against First Amendment rights in the imminent era of drone-use democratization. This Essay closes by providing some guidance to states as ...


Limiting Principles And Empowering Practices In American Indian Religious Freedoms, Kristen A. Carpenter Jan 2012

Limiting Principles And Empowering Practices In American Indian Religious Freedoms, Kristen A. Carpenter

Articles

Employment Division v. Smith was a watershed moment in First Amendment law, with the Supreme Court holding that neutral statutes of general applicability could not burden the free exercise of religion. Congress's subsequent attempts, including the passage of Religious Freedom Restoration Act and Religious Land Use and Institutionalized Persons Act, to revive legal protections for religious practice through the legislative and administrative process have received tremendous attention from legal scholars. Lost in this conversation, however, have been the American Indians at the center of the Smith case. Indeed, for them, the decision criminalizing the possession of their peyote sacrament ...


Lies And The Constitution, Helen Norton Jan 2012

Lies And The Constitution, Helen Norton

Articles

Although the Supreme Court declared almost forty years ago that “there is no constitutional value in false statements of fact,” the Court in United States v Alvarez ruled that the First Amendment protects at least some -- and perhaps many -- intentional lies from government prohibition. In Alvarez, a divided Court struck down the Stolen Valor Act, a federal statute that made it a crime for any person to state falsely that he or she had received a military decoration or medal. In three separate opinions, all of the Justices agreed that the First Amendment permits the government to punish at least ...


Secrets, Lies, And Disclosure, Helen Norton Jan 2012

Secrets, Lies, And Disclosure, Helen Norton

Articles

This symposium essay suggests that we can sometimes understand those who resist campaign disclosure or disclaimer requirements as interested in keeping a secret and occasionally even in telling a sort of lie about the source or intensity of support for a particular candidate or cause. Such secrets and lies threaten listeners’ autonomy interests when the speaker seeks to keep such secrets (and sometimes seeks to tell such lies) to enhance her ability to influence her listeners’ decisions. For these reasons, I suggest greater attention to the reasons speakers seek to keep secrets (or occasionally tell such lies) in assessing the ...


Government Speech In Transition, Helen Norton Jan 2012

Government Speech In Transition, Helen Norton

Articles

This symposium essay explores the legacy of the Supreme Court’s decision in Johanns v. Livestock Mktg. Ass’n. There the Court offered its clearest articulation to date of its emerging government speech doctrine. After characterizing contested expression as the government’s, the Court then held such government speech to be exempt from free speech clause scrutiny. In so doing, the Court solved at least one substantial problem, but created others that remain unresolved today. On one hand, Johanns marked the Court’s long overdue recognition of the ubiquity and importance of government speech, appropriately exempting the government’s own ...


Endless Pursuit: Capturing Technology At The Intersection Of The First Amendment And Attorney Advertising, Jan L. Jacobowitz, Gayland O. Heathcote Ii Jan 2012

Endless Pursuit: Capturing Technology At The Intersection Of The First Amendment And Attorney Advertising, Jan L. Jacobowitz, Gayland O. Heathcote Ii

Articles

No abstract provided.