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Poverty Lawgorithms A Poverty Lawyer’S Guide To Fighting Automated Decision-Making Harms On Low-Income Communities, Michele E. Gilman Sep 2020

Poverty Lawgorithms A Poverty Lawyer’S Guide To Fighting Automated Decision-Making Harms On Low-Income Communities, Michele E. Gilman

All Faculty Scholarship

Automated decision-making systems make decisions about our lives, and those with low-socioeconomic status often bear the brunt of the harms these systems cause. Poverty Lawgorithms: A Poverty Lawyers Guide to Fighting Automated Decision-Making Harms on Low-Income Communities is a guide by Data & Society Faculty Fellow Michele Gilman to familiarize fellow poverty and civil legal services lawyers with the ins and outs of data-centric and automated-decision making systems, so that they can clearly understand the sources of the problems their clients are facing and effectively advocate on their behalf.


Lessons Learned From The Suffrage Movement, Margaret E. Johnson Jun 2020

Lessons Learned From The Suffrage Movement, Margaret E. Johnson

All Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Can Covid-19 Get Congress To Finally Strengthen U.S. Antitrust Law?, Robert H. Lande, Sandeep Vaheesan May 2020

Can Covid-19 Get Congress To Finally Strengthen U.S. Antitrust Law?, Robert H. Lande, Sandeep Vaheesan

All Faculty Scholarship

The COVID-19 pandemic could cause Congress to strengthen our merger laws. The authors of this short article strongly urge Congress to do this, but to do this in a manner that ignores 5 myths that underpin current merger policy:

Myth 1: Mergers Eliminate Wasteful Redundancies and Produce More Efficient Businesses
Myth 2: Current Merger Enforcement Protects Consumers
Myth 3: Merger Remedies Preserve Competition
Myth 4: The Current Merger Review System Offers Transparency and Guidance to Businesses and the Public
Myth 5: Corporations Need Mergers to Grow


Submission Of Robert H. Lande To House Judiciary Antitrust Subcommittee Investigation Of Digital Platforms, Robert H. Lande Apr 2020

Submission Of Robert H. Lande To House Judiciary Antitrust Subcommittee Investigation Of Digital Platforms, Robert H. Lande

All Faculty Scholarship

The House Judiciary Antitrust Subcommittee asked me to submit suggestions concerning the adequacy of existing antitrust laws, enforcement policies, and enforcement levels insofar as they impact the state of competition in the digital marketplace. My submission recommends the following nine reforms:

1. A textualist analysis of the Sherman Act shows that Section 2 actually is a no-fault monopolization statute. At a minimum Congress should enact a strong presumption that every firm with a 67% market share has violated Section 2. This would move the Sherman Act an important step in the right direction, the direction Congress intended in 1890. My ...


Dalliances, Defenses, And Due Process: Prosecuting Sexual Harassment In The Me Too Era, Kenneth Lasson Jan 2020

Dalliances, Defenses, And Due Process: Prosecuting Sexual Harassment In The Me Too Era, Kenneth Lasson

All Faculty Scholarship

While the heightened awareness of sexual predation in the workplace is, in many ways, a welcome development, the new norms currently being promulgated and implemented have already fallen prey to the law of unintended consequences, not to mention the limitations of law itself. Perhaps the most remarkable result of the plethora of prosecutions—especially those taking place on American campuses— is that, despite widespread recognition of their lack of rudimentary due process, so little has been done to correct the failures. Just as cultural attitudes have changed toward politics, entertainment, and literature, so too have perspectives on relationships in corporate ...


The Ground On Which We All Stand: A Conversation About Menstrual Equity Law And Activism, Bridget J. Crawford, Margaret E. Johnson, Marcy L. Karin, Laura Strausfeld, Emily Gold Waldman Jan 2020

The Ground On Which We All Stand: A Conversation About Menstrual Equity Law And Activism, Bridget J. Crawford, Margaret E. Johnson, Marcy L. Karin, Laura Strausfeld, Emily Gold Waldman

All Faculty Scholarship

This essay grows out of a panel discussion among five lawyers on the subject of menstrual equity activism. Each of the authors is a scholar, activist, or organizer involved in some form of menstrual equity work. The overall project is both enriched and complicated by an intersectional analysis. This essay increases awareness of existing menstrual equity and menstrual justice work; it also identifies avenues for further inquiry, next steps for legal action, and opportunities that lie ahead. After describing prior and current work at the junction of law and menstruation, the contributors evaluate the successes and limitations of recent legal ...


Preventing The Curse Of Bigness Through Conglomerate Merger Legislation, Robert H. Lande, Sandeep Vaheesan Jan 2020

Preventing The Curse Of Bigness Through Conglomerate Merger Legislation, Robert H. Lande, Sandeep Vaheesan

All Faculty Scholarship

The antitrust laws, as they are presently interpreted, are incapable of blocking most of the very largest corporate mergers. They successfully blocked only 4 of the 61 largest finalized mergers and acquisitions (defined as the acquired firm being valued at more than $10 billion) that occurred between 2015 and 2018. The antitrust laws also would permit the first trillion-dollar corporation, Apple, to merge with the third largest corporation, Exxon/Mobil. In fact, today every U.S. corporation could merge until just 10 were left – so long as each owned only 10% of every relevant market.

Even though the Congresses that ...


From Socrates To Selfies: Legal Education And The Metacognitive Revolution, Jaime Alison Lee Jan 2020

From Socrates To Selfies: Legal Education And The Metacognitive Revolution, Jaime Alison Lee

All Faculty Scholarship

Metacognitive thinking, a methodology for mastering intellectually challenging material, is revolutionizing legal education. Metacognition empowers people to increase their mental capabilities by discovering and correcting flaws in their thinking processes. For decades, legal educators have employed metacognitive strategies in specialized areas of the curriculum. Today, metacognition has the potential to transform legal education curriculum-wide.

Current scholarship is rich, generous, and creative in exploring how metacognition can be used to enrich specific sectors of the law curriculum. What is missing, however, is a holistic examination of how metacognitive theory and practice have developed across these different sectors, with the purpose of ...


Five Privacy Principles (From The Gdpr) The United States Should Adopt To Advance Economic Justice, Michele E. Gilman Jan 2020

Five Privacy Principles (From The Gdpr) The United States Should Adopt To Advance Economic Justice, Michele E. Gilman

All Faculty Scholarship

Algorithmic profiling technologies are impeding the economic security of low-income people in the United States. Based on their digital profiles, low- income people are targeted for predatory marketing campaigns and financial products. At the same time, algorithmic decision-making can result in their exclusion from mainstream employment, housing, financial, health care, and educational opportunities. Government agencies are turning to algorithms to apportion social services, yet these algorithms lack transparency, leaving thousands of people adrift without state support and not knowing why. Marginalized communities are also subject to disproportionately high levels of surveillance, including facial recognition technology and the use of predictive ...


Complexity Cubed: Partnerships, Interest, And The Proposed Regs, Walter D. Schwidetzky Nov 2019

Complexity Cubed: Partnerships, Interest, And The Proposed Regs, Walter D. Schwidetzky

All Faculty Scholarship

New section 163(j) strictly limits business interest expense (BIE) deductions to large (and possibly not-so-large) taxpayers. Generally, BIEs may only be deducted to the extent that they do not exceed 30 percent of adjusted taxable income plus business interest income. Section 163(j)(4) requires partnerships to calculate this limitation at the partnership level. In this report, I focus on how section 163(j) applies to partnerships. Given my focus, I leave to others a more comprehensive review of section 163(j) as a totality,1 as well as the coverage of S corporations. I will tend to give ...


Does Crime Pay? Cartel Penalties And Profits, John M. Connor, Robert H. Lande Apr 2019

Does Crime Pay? Cartel Penalties And Profits, John M. Connor, Robert H. Lande

All Faculty Scholarship

This article seeks to answer a fundamental antitrust question: does crime pay? Do the current overall levels of U.S. cartel sanctions adequately discourage firms from engaging in illegal collusion? Seven years ago our research showed that the unfortunate answer was clearly that, yes, criminal collusion usually is profitable! The expected costs (in terms of criminal fines and prison time, civil damages, etc.) was significantly less than expected gains to the price fixers. Sadly, the most recent data re-affirm this conclusion.

The great majority of companies participating in illegal cartels make a profit even after they pay all the penalties ...


State Report Cards: Grading Criminal Record Relief Laws For Survivors Of Human Trafficking, Jessica Emerson Mar 2019

State Report Cards: Grading Criminal Record Relief Laws For Survivors Of Human Trafficking, Jessica Emerson

All Faculty Scholarship

Many survivors of human trafficking exploited in the commercial sex industry or other labor sectors have been arrested for offenses stemming from their victimization. Resulting criminal records – both arrest and court documents – then follow survivors and create barriers that impact their independence, stability, and safety. In 2010, New York became the first state to allow trafficking survivors to clear certain charges from their criminal records. In the years since, almost every state has enacted some form of criminal record relief for trafficking survivors. However, these laws vary greatly. Many are too limited to offer meaningful relief. Others include conditions that ...


Taking Psychological Torture Seriously: The Torturous Nature Of Credible Death Threats And The Collateral Consequences For Capital Punishment, John Bessler Jan 2019

Taking Psychological Torture Seriously: The Torturous Nature Of Credible Death Threats And The Collateral Consequences For Capital Punishment, John Bessler

All Faculty Scholarship

This article explores how the death penalty and the indefinite nature of death row in the United States creates a constant threat of death, which can violate the United Nations Convention Against Torture’s prohibitions on death threats.


The Harm Of Child Removal, Shanta Trivedi Jan 2019

The Harm Of Child Removal, Shanta Trivedi

All Faculty Scholarship

When the state proves or even merely alleges that a parent has abused or neglected a child, family courts may remove the child from the parent’s care. However, research shows separating a child from her parent(s) has detrimental, long-term emotional and psychological consequences that may be worse than leaving the child at home. This is due to the trauma of removal itself, as well as the unstable nature of, and high rates of abuse in, foster care. Nevertheless, the child welfare system errs on the side of removal and almost uniformly fails to consider the harms associated with ...


States Diverting Funds From The Poor, Daniel L. Hatcher Jan 2019

States Diverting Funds From The Poor, Daniel L. Hatcher

All Faculty Scholarship

While the United States continues to recover from the 2008 Great Recession, the country still faces unprecedented inequality as increasing numbers of poor families struggle to get by with little assistance from the government. Holes in the Safety Net: Federalism and Poverty offers a grounded look at how states and the federal government provide assistance to poor people. With chapters covering everything from welfare reform to recent efforts by states to impose work requirements on Medicaid recipients, the book avoids unnecessary jargon and instead focuses on how programs operate in practice. This timely work should be read by anyone who ...


In Defense Of The Pip Regulations, Walter D. Schwidetzky Jan 2019

In Defense Of The Pip Regulations, Walter D. Schwidetzky

All Faculty Scholarship

The section 704(b) allocation Regulations contain a highly complex safe harbor, the substantial economic effect rules. If an allocation fails to comply with the safe harbor, it will only survive scrutiny if it is in accordance with the "partners' interests in the partnership" (PIP). Given the complexity of the safe harbor, one might expect the PIP Regulations to be similarly complex, but nothing could be further from the truth. The PIP Regulations are, by tax standards, concise and straightforward. Some have argued that the PIP Regulations do not provide enough guidance, and that a more complex and comprehensive set ...


Religious Issues In Child Welfare Cases, Rebecca Stahl Jan 2019

Religious Issues In Child Welfare Cases, Rebecca Stahl

All Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Environmental Refugees? Rethinking What’S In A Name, Elizabeth Keyes Jan 2019

Environmental Refugees? Rethinking What’S In A Name, Elizabeth Keyes

All Faculty Scholarship

The phrase “environmental refugee” summons a compelling image of someone forced to relocate due to climate change. The phrase has been used effectively to raise awareness of such diverse problems as the rising sea levels that are submerging some Pacific islands, as well as the increased impact of natural disasters like hurricanes and earthquakes which cause a mixture of temporary and permanent migration. As climate change accelerates, and its human costs become ever clearer, it is completely appropriate and necessary to respond to these migrations, and a number of international initiatives are underway to do so.

As these initiatives go ...


The Marquis Beccaria: An Italian Penal Reformer’S Meteoric Rise In The British Isles In The Transatlantic Republic Of Letters, John Bessler Jan 2019

The Marquis Beccaria: An Italian Penal Reformer’S Meteoric Rise In The British Isles In The Transatlantic Republic Of Letters, John Bessler

All Faculty Scholarship

This article traces the reception of Cesare Beccaria’s book, Dei delitti e delle pene (1764), in Britain and in colonial and early America. That book, first translated into English as An Essay on Crimes and Punishments (1767), catalyzed penal reform and the anti-gallows movement on both sides of the Atlantic. As the first Enlightenment text to make a comprehensive case against capital punishment, On Crimes and Punishments became a bestseller, appearing in multiple English-language editions and attracting much public attention. Widely read by an array of British and American lawmakers and other civic-minded penal reformers, On Crimes and Punishments ...


A Century In The Making: The Glorious Revolution, The American Revolution, And The Origins Of The U.S. Constitution’S Eighth Amendment, John Bessler Jan 2019

A Century In The Making: The Glorious Revolution, The American Revolution, And The Origins Of The U.S. Constitution’S Eighth Amendment, John Bessler

All Faculty Scholarship

The sixteen words in the U.S. Constitution’s Eighth Amendment have their roots in England’s Glorious Revolution of 1688–89. This Article traces the historical events that initially gave rise to the prohibitions against excessive bail, excessive fines, and cruel and unusual punishments. Those three proscriptions can be found in the English Declaration of Rights and in its statutory counterpart, the English Bill of Rights. In particular, the Article describes the legal cases and draconian punishments during the Stuart dynasty that led English and Scottish parliamentarians to insist on protections against cruelty and excessive governmental actions. In describing ...


Braiding The Strands Of Narrative And Critical Reflection With Critical Theory And Lawyering Practice, Carolyn Grose, Margaret E. Johnson Jan 2019

Braiding The Strands Of Narrative And Critical Reflection With Critical Theory And Lawyering Practice, Carolyn Grose, Margaret E. Johnson

All Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


The Future Of Clinical Legal Scholarship, Michele E. Gilman Jan 2019

The Future Of Clinical Legal Scholarship, Michele E. Gilman

All Faculty Scholarship

The legal academy is questioning the future of legal scholarship given its costs and perceived disconnect from law practice. However, the future of clinical legal scholarship is typically left out of these debates, although it offers a powerful rejoinder to these recurring critiques – it is deeply engaged with real-world problems, and it has demonstrable impacts. In addition, clinical scholars are an overlooked conduit for disseminating scholarship outside the ivory tower. Doctrinal faculty are unaware how much clinical faculty can ensure their work has an impact beyond SSRN citation counts. As law schools consider how to implement the new accreditation requirement ...


Menstrual Justice, Margaret E. Johnson Jan 2019

Menstrual Justice, Margaret E. Johnson

All Faculty Scholarship

Menstrual injustice is the oppression of menstruators, women, girls, transgender men and boys, and nonbinary persons, simply because they menstruate. Acts of menstrual injustice occur every day in the United States. The narrative of menstruation is that it is a taboo, shameful, and that menstruators are dirty, impure, even dangerous. Menstruation has been shunned generally from public discourse as a result. This narrative negatively impacts menstruators. Menstruators are essentialized as women, often of means, excluding transgender men and nonbinary persons, and menstruators who experience poverty or are young. Menstruating workers, especially low-wage workers, are harassed, penalized, or fired for heavy ...


The Properties Of Integration: Mixed-Income Housing As Discrimination Management, Audrey Mcfarlane Jan 2019

The Properties Of Integration: Mixed-Income Housing As Discrimination Management, Audrey Mcfarlane

All Faculty Scholarship

Mixed-income housing is an increasingly popular approach to providing affordable housing. The technique largely went unnoticed until developers of mixed-income housing constructed buildings containing separate entrances for rich and poor residents. The ensuing “poor door” controversy illustrated that mixed-income housing, as both a method of affordable housing production and an integration strategy, is in unacknowledged tension with itself. This Article argues that, mixedincome housing is implemented as a surreptitious form of racial and economic integration that accommodates and replicates prevailing race and class assumptions detrimental to the needs and interests of low to moderate-income individuals in need of housing. The ...


Amateur Regulation And The Unmoored United States Olympic And Paralympic Committee, Dionne L. Koller Jan 2019

Amateur Regulation And The Unmoored United States Olympic And Paralympic Committee, Dionne L. Koller

All Faculty Scholarship

n the wake of the USA Gymnastics sexual abuse scandal and Women’s National Soccer Team’s claim for pay equity, members of Congress have proposed legislation that would reform the United States Olympic and Paralympic Committee (USOPC) through amendments to its governing statute, the Ted Stevens Olympic and Amateur Sports Act. While an important step in the right direction, the proposed reforms fail to address deeper, more urgent questions about the USOPC, the sport National Governing Bodies (NGBs) it recognizes, and the meaning of the Olympic and Amateur Sports Act. This Article explores those issues by explaining that the ...


An Examination Of The Lethality Assessment Program (Lap): Perspectives On Implementation, Helpseeking, And Victim Empowerment, Margaret E. Johnson Jan 2019

An Examination Of The Lethality Assessment Program (Lap): Perspectives On Implementation, Helpseeking, And Victim Empowerment, Margaret E. Johnson

All Faculty Scholarship

The Lethality Assessment Program (LAP) aims to empower law enforcement officers to screen victims of domestic violence for potential lethality and connect them to service providers. This research surveyed domestic violence victims seeking legal services (n = 141) to assess whether LAP receipt is associated with greater rates of self-protective measures, service use, or empowerment, and to examine victims’ perspectives on the LAP process. Findings indicate no relationship between receipt of the LAP and use of self-protective measures or victim empowerment, mixed evidence between receipt of the LAP and service utilization, and room for improvement regarding how law enforcement officers explain ...


The Difference In Being Poor In Red States Versus Blue States, Michele E. Gilman Jan 2019

The Difference In Being Poor In Red States Versus Blue States, Michele E. Gilman

All Faculty Scholarship

While the United States continues to recover from the 2008 Great Recession, the country still faces unprecedented inequality as increasing numbers of poor families struggle to get by with little assistance from the government. Holes in the Safety Net: Federalism and Poverty offers a grounded look at how states and the federal government provide assistance to poor people. With chapters covering everything from welfare reform to recent efforts by states to impose work requirements on Medicaid recipients, the book avoids unnecessary jargon and instead focuses on how programs operate in practice. This timely work should be read by anyone who ...


The Ideal Collaborative Partner: A Tribute To Jana Singer, Jane C. Murphy Jan 2019

The Ideal Collaborative Partner: A Tribute To Jana Singer, Jane C. Murphy

All Faculty Scholarship

Collaboration has been defined as a “pervasive, long-term relationship in which participants recognize common goals and objectives, share more tasks, and participate in extensive planning and implementation.” I feel most fortunate to have had a collaborative partnership with Jana Singer for almost three decades. I am fortunate because such relationships are uncommon among legal scholars, given the “individualistic culture” of law schools and law professors. Even more unusual, I found in Jana a scholarly partner with all the qualities of the ideal collaborator: strong intellect, enthusiasm, curiosity, generosity, and humility. Since the early days of our academic careers, Jana and ...


Criminal Doctrines Of Faith, David Jaros Oct 2018

Criminal Doctrines Of Faith, David Jaros

All Faculty Scholarship

Decisions like Miranda v. Arizona helped popularize a conception of the courts as a protector of criminal defendants and a bulwark against overly aggressive law enforcement. But from arrest through trial, the Court has fashioned criminal constitutional procedure with a deep and abiding faith in the motivations of criminal justice system actors. Even decisions that vindicate individual constitutional rights at the expense of police and prosecutorial power are shaped by the Court’s fundamental trust in those same actors. They establish, in essence, “Criminal Doctrines of Faith.”

Criminal Doctrines of Faith pervade each stage of the criminal process — from cases ...


An Immodest Proposal For Birth Registration In Donor-Assisted Reproduction, In The Interest Of Science And Human Rights, Elizabeth Samuels Jul 2018

An Immodest Proposal For Birth Registration In Donor-Assisted Reproduction, In The Interest Of Science And Human Rights, Elizabeth Samuels

Articles

Increasingly, an individual or a couple raising a newborn child may not be biologically related to the child. The child may be conceived with donated gametes -- a donated egg or sperm or both. A surrogate may gestate the child. The couple may be same-sex. Although we are aware of these developments, we are failing to collect information about them that is vital for medical, public health, and social science research as well as for protecting human rights. Information drawn from birth records is crucial for research, but it is becoming less accurate and less useful as parents who are not ...