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Full-Text Articles in Law

Does Crime Pay? Cartel Penalties And Profits, John M. Connor, Robert H. Lande Apr 2019

Does Crime Pay? Cartel Penalties And Profits, John M. Connor, Robert H. Lande

All Faculty Scholarship

This article seeks to answer a fundamental antitrust question: does crime pay? Do the current overall levels of U.S. cartel sanctions adequately discourage firms from engaging in illegal collusion? Seven years ago our research showed that the unfortunate answer was clearly that, yes, criminal collusion usually is profitable! The expected costs (in terms of criminal fines and prison time, civil damages, etc.) was significantly less than expected gains to the price fixers. Sadly, the most recent data re-affirm this conclusion.

The great majority of companies participating in illegal cartels make a profit even after they pay all the penalties ...


State Report Cards: Grading Criminal Record Relief Laws For Survivors Of Human Trafficking, Jessica Emerson Mar 2019

State Report Cards: Grading Criminal Record Relief Laws For Survivors Of Human Trafficking, Jessica Emerson

All Faculty Scholarship

Many survivors of human trafficking exploited in the commercial sex industry or other labor sectors have been arrested for offenses stemming from their victimization. Resulting criminal records – both arrest and court documents – then follow survivors and create barriers that impact their independence, stability, and safety. In 2010, New York became the first state to allow trafficking survivors to clear certain charges from their criminal records. In the years since, almost every state has enacted some form of criminal record relief for trafficking survivors. However, these laws vary greatly. Many are too limited to offer meaningful relief. Others include conditions that ...


Environmental Refugees? Rethinking What’S In A Name, Elizabeth Keyes Jan 2019

Environmental Refugees? Rethinking What’S In A Name, Elizabeth Keyes

All Faculty Scholarship

The phrase “environmental refugee” summons a compelling image of someone forced to relocate due to climate change. The phrase has been used effectively to raise awareness of such diverse problems as the rising sea levels that are submerging some Pacific islands, as well as the increased impact of natural disasters like hurricanes and earthquakes which cause a mixture of temporary and permanent migration. As climate change accelerates, and its human costs become ever clearer, it is completely appropriate and necessary to respond to these migrations, and a number of international initiatives are underway to do so.

As these initiatives go ...


A Century In The Making: The Glorious Revolution, The American Revolution, And The Origins Of The U.S. Constitution’S Eighth Amendment, John Bessler Jan 2019

A Century In The Making: The Glorious Revolution, The American Revolution, And The Origins Of The U.S. Constitution’S Eighth Amendment, John Bessler

All Faculty Scholarship

The sixteen words in the U.S. Constitution’s Eighth Amendment have their roots in England’s Glorious Revolution of 1688–89. This Article traces the historical events that initially gave rise to the prohibitions against excessive bail, excessive fines, and cruel and unusual punishments. Those three proscriptions can be found in the English Declaration of Rights and in its statutory counterpart, the English Bill of Rights. In particular, the Article describes the legal cases and draconian punishments during the Stuart dynasty that led English and Scottish parliamentarians to insist on protections against cruelty and excessive governmental actions. In describing ...


The Harm Of Child Removal, Shanta Trivedi Jan 2019

The Harm Of Child Removal, Shanta Trivedi

All Faculty Scholarship

When the state proves or even merely alleges that a parent has abused or neglected a child, family courts may remove the child from the parent’s care. However, research shows separating a child from her parent(s) has detrimental, long-term emotional and psychological consequences that may be worse than leaving the child at home. This is due to the trauma of removal itself, as well as the unstable nature of, and high rates of abuse in, foster care. Nevertheless, the child welfare system errs on the side of removal and almost uniformly fails to consider the harms associated with ...


Taking Psychological Torture Seriously: The Torturous Nature Of Credible Death Threats And The Collateral Consequences For Capital Punishment, John Bessler Jan 2019

Taking Psychological Torture Seriously: The Torturous Nature Of Credible Death Threats And The Collateral Consequences For Capital Punishment, John Bessler

All Faculty Scholarship

This article explores how the death penalty and the indefinite nature of death row in the United States creates a constant threat of death, which can violate the United Nations Convention Against Torture’s prohibitions on death threats.


The Marquis Beccaria: An Italian Penal Reformer’S Meteoric Rise In The British Isles In The Transatlantic Republic Of Letters, John Bessler Jan 2019

The Marquis Beccaria: An Italian Penal Reformer’S Meteoric Rise In The British Isles In The Transatlantic Republic Of Letters, John Bessler

All Faculty Scholarship

This article traces the reception of Cesare Beccaria’s book, Dei delitti e delle pene (1764), in Britain and in colonial and early America. That book, first translated into English as An Essay on Crimes and Punishments (1767), catalyzed penal reform and the anti-gallows movement on both sides of the Atlantic. As the first Enlightenment text to make a comprehensive case against capital punishment, On Crimes and Punishments became a bestseller, appearing in multiple English-language editions and attracting much public attention. Widely read by an array of British and American lawmakers and other civic-minded penal reformers, On Crimes and Punishments ...


Braiding The Strands Of Narrative And Critical Reflection With Critical Theory And Lawyering Practice, Carolyn Grose, Margaret E. Johnson Jan 2019

Braiding The Strands Of Narrative And Critical Reflection With Critical Theory And Lawyering Practice, Carolyn Grose, Margaret E. Johnson

All Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Criminal Doctrines Of Faith, David Jaros Oct 2018

Criminal Doctrines Of Faith, David Jaros

All Faculty Scholarship

Decisions like Miranda v. Arizona helped popularize a conception of the courts as a protector of criminal defendants and a bulwark against overly aggressive law enforcement. But from arrest through trial, the Court has fashioned criminal constitutional procedure with a deep and abiding faith in the motivations of criminal justice system actors. Even decisions that vindicate individual constitutional rights at the expense of police and prosecutorial power are shaped by the Court’s fundamental trust in those same actors. They establish, in essence, “Criminal Doctrines of Faith.”

Criminal Doctrines of Faith pervade each stage of the criminal process — from cases ...


An Immodest Proposal For Birth Registration In Donor-Assisted Reproduction, In The Interest Of Science And Human Rights, Elizabeth Samuels Jul 2018

An Immodest Proposal For Birth Registration In Donor-Assisted Reproduction, In The Interest Of Science And Human Rights, Elizabeth Samuels

Articles

Increasingly, an individual or a couple raising a newborn child may not be biologically related to the child. The child may be conceived with donated gametes -- a donated egg or sperm or both. A surrogate may gestate the child. The couple may be same-sex. Although we are aware of these developments, we are failing to collect information about them that is vital for medical, public health, and social science research as well as for protecting human rights. Information drawn from birth records is crucial for research, but it is becoming less accurate and less useful as parents who are not ...


Feminist Judgments & #Metoo, Margaret E. Johnson Jan 2018

Feminist Judgments & #Metoo, Margaret E. Johnson

All Faculty Scholarship

The Feminist Judgments book series and the #MeToo movement share the feminist method of narrative. Feminist Judgments is a scholarly project of rewriting judicial opinions using feminist legal theory. #MeToo is a narrative movement by people, primarily women, telling their stories of sexual harassment or assault. Both Feminist Judgments and #MeToo bring to the surface stories that have been silenced, untold, or overlooked. These narrative collections can and do effectuate genderjustice change by empowering people, changing perspectives, opening up new learning, and affecting future legal and nonlegal outcomes.


Stories Of Experience: Economic Inequality In Mediation, Robert Rubinson Jan 2018

Stories Of Experience: Economic Inequality In Mediation, Robert Rubinson

All Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


The Abolitionist Movement Comes Of Age: From Capital Punishment As A Lawful Sanction To A Peremptory, International Law Norm Barring Executions, John D. Bessler Jan 2018

The Abolitionist Movement Comes Of Age: From Capital Punishment As A Lawful Sanction To A Peremptory, International Law Norm Barring Executions, John D. Bessler

All Faculty Scholarship

The anti-death penalty movement is rooted in the Enlightenment, dating back to the publication of the Italian philosopher Cesare Beccaria’s treatise, Dei delitti e delle pene (1764). That book, later translated into English as An Essay on Crimes and Punishments (1767), has inspired anti-death penalty advocacy for more than 250 years. This Article traces the development of the abolitionist movement since Beccaria’s time. In particular, it highlights how the debate over capital punishment has shifted from one focused primarily on the severity of monarchical punishments, to deterrence, to one framed by the concept of universal human rights, including ...


The Merger Incipiency Doctrine And The Importance Of "Redundant" Competitors, Peter C. Carstensen, Robert H. Lande Jan 2018

The Merger Incipiency Doctrine And The Importance Of "Redundant" Competitors, Peter C. Carstensen, Robert H. Lande

All Faculty Scholarship

The enforcers and the courts have not implemented the merger incipiency doctrine in the vigorous manner Congress intended. We believe one important reason for this failure is that, until now, the logic underlying this doctrine has never been explained. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that markets’ need for “protective redundancy” explains the incipiency policy. We are writing this article in the hope that this will cause the enforcers and courts to implement significantly more stringent merger enforcement.

To vastly oversimplify, the current enforcement approach assumes that if N significant competitors are necessary for competition, N-1 competitors could ...


The Decline Of Free Speech On The Postmodern Campus: The Troubling Evolution Of The Heckler's Veto, Kenneth Lasson Jan 2018

The Decline Of Free Speech On The Postmodern Campus: The Troubling Evolution Of The Heckler's Veto, Kenneth Lasson

All Faculty Scholarship

The Twenty-First Century has presented new challenges to the traditional ways that free speech in America has been encouraged and protected. While the right to express one’s opinions has become increasingly problematic in society at large, it is particularly imperiled in the very places that pride themselves as being open marketplaces of ideas – on college and university campuses.
Today we’re faced with numerous campus speech codes that substantially limit First-Amendment rights. They are ubiquitous and often cavalierly invoked. For civil libertarians the good news is that not one of the few such codes that have been tested in ...


The Surveillance Gap: The Harms Of Extreme Privacy And Data Marginalization, Michele E. Gilman, Rebecca Green Jan 2018

The Surveillance Gap: The Harms Of Extreme Privacy And Data Marginalization, Michele E. Gilman, Rebecca Green

All Faculty Scholarship

We live in an age of unprecedented surveillance, enhanced by modern technology, prompting some to suggest that privacy is dead. Previous scholarship suggests that no subset of the population feels this phenomenon more than marginalized communities. Those who rely on public benefits, for example, must turn over personal information and submit to government surveillance far more routinely than wealthier citizens who enjoy greater opportunity to protect their privacy and the ready funds to secure it. This article illuminates the other end of the spectrum, arguing that many individuals who may value government and nonprofit services and legal protections fail to ...


The Perpetual “Invasion”: Past As Prologue In Constitutional Immigration Law, Matthew Lindsay Jan 2018

The Perpetual “Invasion”: Past As Prologue In Constitutional Immigration Law, Matthew Lindsay

All Faculty Scholarship

Donald Trump ascended to the presidency largely on the promise to protect the American people—their physical and financial security, their culture and language, even the integrity of their electoral system—against an invading foreign menace. Only extraordinary defensive measures, including “extreme vetting” of would-be immigrants, a ban on Muslims entering the United States, and a 2,000-mile-long wall along the nation’s southern border could repel the encroaching hordes. If candidate Trump’s scapegoating of unauthorized migrants and refugees was disarmingly effective, it was also eerily familiar to those of us who study the history of immigration law and ...


An Immodest Proposal For Birth Registration In Donor-Assisted Reproduction, In The Interest Of Science And Human Rights, Elizabeth Samuels Jan 2018

An Immodest Proposal For Birth Registration In Donor-Assisted Reproduction, In The Interest Of Science And Human Rights, Elizabeth Samuels

All Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Innovating Criminal Justice, Natalie Ram Jan 2018

Innovating Criminal Justice, Natalie Ram

All Faculty Scholarship

From secret stingray devices that can pinpoint a suspect’s location, to advanced forensic DNA-analysis tools, to recidivism risk statistic software—the use of privately developed criminal justice technologies is growing. So too is a concomitant pattern of trade secret assertion surrounding these technologies. This Article charts the role of private law secrecy in shielding criminal justice activities, demonstrating that such secrecy is pervasive, problematic, and ultimately unnecessary for the production of well-designed criminal justice tools. This Article makes three contributions to the existing literature. First, the Article establishes that trade secrecy now permeates American criminal justice, shielding privately developed ...


Progress Or Profit: Reconsidering The Shortened Statutory Period Scheme, Max Oppenheimer Jan 2018

Progress Or Profit: Reconsidering The Shortened Statutory Period Scheme, Max Oppenheimer

All Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


A Twenty-First-Century Olympic And Amateur Sports Act, Dionne L. Koller Jan 2018

A Twenty-First-Century Olympic And Amateur Sports Act, Dionne L. Koller

All Faculty Scholarship

Recent scandals involving national governing bodies for sport and allegations of athlete abuse have captured media attention. The most recent, focusing on the actions of USA Gymnastics, prompted Congress to propose legislation to require better protections for Olympic Movement athletes. Signed into law on February 14, 2018, the Protecting Young Victims from Sexual Abuse and Safe Sport Authorization Act of 2017 designates the United States Center for SafeSport (SafeSport) as the independent organization charged with exercising jurisdiction over the United States Olympic Committee (USOC) and sport national governing bodies to safeguard amateur athletes against all forms of abuse. Congress’s ...


Left Behind: How The Absence Of A Federal Vacatur Law Disadvantages Survivors Of Human Trafficking, Jessica Emerson, Alison Aminzadeh Oct 2017

Left Behind: How The Absence Of A Federal Vacatur Law Disadvantages Survivors Of Human Trafficking, Jessica Emerson, Alison Aminzadeh

All Faculty Scholarship

After a hamstring injury in October of 2004 forced her to surrender her athletic scholarship at St. John's University, Shamere McKenzie chose to spend her winter break working in order to save the money she needed to pay the remainder of her tuition. In January of 2005, Shamere met a man named Corey Davis, who expressed an interest in dating her. After getting to know him for several weeks, she eventually shared with him the challenges she was having earning the money she needed to continue her enrollment in college. Davis encouraged her to consider exotic dancing as a ...


The Negative Capital Account Maze, Walter D. Schwidetzky Aug 2017

The Negative Capital Account Maze, Walter D. Schwidetzky

All Faculty Scholarship

Outside Hubert I and Hubert II, there has been little discussion of negative capital accounts in the tax context and almost no discussion in the nontax context. Nontax law, however, is critically important. This report provides an integrated discussion of the application of tax and nontax law to negative capital accounts.

One of the challenges in writing this report is that it requires a discussion of both the at-risk rules of section 465 and the debt allocation rules of section 752. Complex issues involving sections 465 and 752 and their interaction are worthy of their own articles. Indeed, others have ...


Hearsay And The Confrontation Clause (2017), Lynn Mclain May 2017

Hearsay And The Confrontation Clause (2017), Lynn Mclain

All Faculty Scholarship

This material is a part of a lecture delivered at the Maryland Judicial Center on May 11, 2017. It is an update of previous versions available at the following locations:

2016: http://scholarworks.law.ubalt.edu/all_fac/955/

2012: http://scholarworks.law.ubalt.edu/all_fac/924/

The material is a series of flowcharts that explain the nuances of hearsay law and the confrontation clause under Maryland law.


Partnership Tax Allocations: The Basics, Walter D. Schwidetzky May 2017

Partnership Tax Allocations: The Basics, Walter D. Schwidetzky

All Faculty Scholarship

This article endeavors to help practitioners who are not partnership tax allocation experts identify when they should consult with those with that expertise. The partnership-allocation Treasury Regulations have been called "a creation of prodigious complexity ... essentially impenetrable to all but those with the time, talent, and determination to become thoroughly prepared experts on the subject." This article is written for those, to date at least, without that time and determination. At the same time, the article provides an introduction to the partnership tax allocation rules for those contemplating making the requisite investment of time and determination.

The term "partnership," for ...


Editorial Notes: April 2017, Barbara A. Babb Apr 2017

Editorial Notes: April 2017, Barbara A. Babb

All Faculty Scholarship

This issue of Family Court Review (FCR) begins by honoring the life and memory of Ruth Stern, former Managing Editor of Family Court Review, who passed away in October, 2016. Her husband, Professor Herbie DiFonzo, offers glimpses into Ruth's life and their life together. Coming from a baseball family myself, I am particularly moved by Ruth's and Herbie's mutual passion for the New York Mets. It is obvious from the details Herbie graciously shares that theirs was a love and a life of unique tenderness and togetherness. I am deeply grateful to Herbie for allowing us the ...


Cities, Inclusion And Exactions, Audrey Mcfarlane, Randall K. Johnson Jan 2017

Cities, Inclusion And Exactions, Audrey Mcfarlane, Randall K. Johnson

Articles

Cities across the country are adopting mandatory inclusionary zoning. Yet, consensus about the appropriate constitutional standard to measure the propriety of mandatory inclusionary zoning has not been fully reached. Under one doctrinal lens, inclusionary zoning is a valid land use regulation adopted to ensure a proper balance of housing within the jurisdiction. Under another doctrinal lens, challengers seek to characterize inclusionary zoning as an exaction, a discretionary condition subject to a heightened standard of review addressing the specific negative impact caused by an individual project on the supply of affordable housing in a jurisdiction. Drawing from the experience of Baltimore ...


The Presumptions Of Classical Liberal Constitutionalism, Matthew J. Lindsay Jan 2017

The Presumptions Of Classical Liberal Constitutionalism, Matthew J. Lindsay

All Faculty Scholarship

Richard A. Epstein’s The Classical Liberal Constitution is an imposing addition to the burgeoning body of legal scholarship that seeks to “restore” a robust conception of economic liberty and limited government to its rightful place at the center of American constitutionalism. Legislators and judges operating within a “classical liberal conception of government,” Epstein explains, would approach skeptically “[a]ll [regulatory] proposals that deviate from the basic common law protections of life, liberty, and property.” Classical liberal constitutional courts would thus renounce the toothless rational basis review of the post-New Deal “progressive mindset,” and instead subject to exacting scrutiny the ...


Indigency, Secrecy, And Questions Of Quality: Minimizing The Risk Of "Bad" Mediation For Low-Income Litigants, Robert Rubinson Jan 2017

Indigency, Secrecy, And Questions Of Quality: Minimizing The Risk Of "Bad" Mediation For Low-Income Litigants, Robert Rubinson

All Faculty Scholarship

Mediation can be magical. In the face of seemingly insurmountable differences, it can lead to productive resolutions far beyond what litigation could ever produce.' In the hands of sophisticated practitioners and in appropriate cases, it offers a means for participants to engage in self-determination and more flexible conflict resolution. In light of how well mediation can work, it has experienced explosive growth in all areas of conflict, and in both private and court-connected contexts. There is, nevertheless, a risk that mediators can be unskilled or, worse, affirmatively damaging. This risk is endemic to all mediation but play out in particularly ...


The Italian Enlightenment And The American Revolution: Cesare Beccaria's Forgotten Influence On American Law, John Bessler Jan 2017

The Italian Enlightenment And The American Revolution: Cesare Beccaria's Forgotten Influence On American Law, John Bessler

All Faculty Scholarship

The influence of the Italian Enlightenment—the Illuminismo—on the American Revolution has long been neglected. While historians regularly acknowledge the influence of European thinkers such as William Blackstone, John Locke and Montesquieu, Cesare Beccaria’s contributions to the origins and development of American law have largely been forgotten by twenty-first century Americans. In fact, Beccaria’s book, Dei delitti e delle pene (1764), translated into English as On Crimes and Punishments (1767), significantly shaped the views of American revolutionaries and lawmakers. The first four U.S. Presidents—George Washington, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson and James Madison—were inspired by ...