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Relationships And Ethics In The Land Use Game, Patricia E. Salkin, Thomas Brown, Aisha Scholes Jan 2019

Relationships And Ethics In The Land Use Game, Patricia E. Salkin, Thomas Brown, Aisha Scholes

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Ethical considerations in the land use decision making process can be organized into a number of categories, including, first and foremost, the broad subject of conflicts of interest.1 Players in the land use game can find themselves in real or perceived conflicts situations based on personal financial interests resulting from investments, including businesses and real estate holdings (such as the location of their property vis-à-vis the location of the subject property before the Board), employment for themselves or members of their immediate family, and memberships in nonprofit organizations that may be either passive or active (e.g., simply dues ...


Internet Ethics, American Law, And Jewish Law: A Comparative Overview, Samuel J. Levine, Gertrude N. Levine Jan 2016

Internet Ethics, American Law, And Jewish Law: A Comparative Overview, Samuel J. Levine, Gertrude N. Levine

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Societies are governed by codes of ethics. In developed societies, parts of these codes form a set of laws, enforceable by legal authorities, with or without assistance from the populace. At times, laws are crafted for the benefit of the powerful members of the society, ensuring preservation of their positions and property, while other constituents may ignore, actively disobey, or challenge laws they believe do not support their ethics. Developing and maintaining appropriate social norms is thus particularly critical for sustaining rapidly changing heterogeneous populaces.

The Internet, devised for the purpose of interconnecting diverse computer networks of research and educational ...


Further Developments In Land Use Ethics, Patricia E. Salkin, Darren Stakey Jan 2015

Further Developments In Land Use Ethics, Patricia E. Salkin, Darren Stakey

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Ethical considerations continue to play a fundamental role in shaping the course of land use and developmental regulatory proceedings throughout the country. From an innocuous donation by one public official to his alma mater, to the outright bribery of a former mayor, the past year has been rife with a range of conduct implicating professional responsibility and land use.


Judicial Rhetoric & Lawyers' Roles, Samuel J. Levine Jan 2015

Judicial Rhetoric & Lawyers' Roles, Samuel J. Levine

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Notwithstanding the rich scholarly literature debating the proper roles of lawyers and the precise contours of lawyers’ ethical conduct, as a descriptive matter, the American legal system operates as an adversarial system, premised in part upon clear demarcations between the functions of different lawyers within the system. Broadly speaking, prosecutors have the distinct role of serving justice, which includes the duty to try to convict criminal defendants who are deserving of punishment, in a way that is consistent with both substantive and procedural justice. In contrast, private attorneys have a duty to zealously represent the best interests of their clients ...


Recent Developments In Land Use Ethics, Patricia E. Salkin Jan 2014

Recent Developments In Land Use Ethics, Patricia E. Salkin

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Current events across the country reveal no shortage of allegations of unethical conduct in the land use review process. Sadly, there are countless other media accounts of alleged and proven conflicts of interest and other ethical misconduct. In this annual review of reported decisions involving ethics in land use, recent decisions are discussed in the hopes that municipal attorneys will use this information as the basis of ongoing training for members of planning boards, zoning boards, and local legislative bodies who must be routinely reminded of not only their legal but ethical responsibilities in upholding the public trust.


Foreword To The Conference: The Law: Business Or Profession? The Continuing Relevance Of Julius Henry Cohen For The Practice Of Law In The Twenty-First Century, Samuel J. Levine Jan 2013

Foreword To The Conference: The Law: Business Or Profession? The Continuing Relevance Of Julius Henry Cohen For The Practice Of Law In The Twenty-First Century, Samuel J. Levine

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No abstract provided.


Ensuring Public Trust At The Municipal Level: Inspectors General Enter The Mix, Patricia E. Salkin, Zachary Kansler Jan 2011

Ensuring Public Trust At The Municipal Level: Inspectors General Enter The Mix, Patricia E. Salkin, Zachary Kansler

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Although federal, state and local government officials are subject to applicable codes of ethical conduct and are under the jurisdiction of ethics enforcement agencies created pursuant to these laws, ethics oversight agencies are limited in the breadth and scope of covered activities. With an increase in reported allegations of corruption, particularly at the local government level, this article explores the addition of the audit function, through inspectors general, to ensure greater transparency and accountability of public officials.

The article begins with a very brief historical overview of the emergence of the inspector general concept in Europe and its adoption in ...


Social Networking And Land Use Planning And Regulation: Practical Benefits, Pitfalls And Ethical Considerations, Patricia E. Salkin Jan 2011

Social Networking And Land Use Planning And Regulation: Practical Benefits, Pitfalls And Ethical Considerations, Patricia E. Salkin

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This article explores how social networking sites have been used or might be used in the land use context. Part I focuses on the use of social networking for land use planning and zoning. It includes a discussion of the pros and cons of the use of social networking sites to present public information and to gather public input and invite general participation in the process, as well as to provide notice to the public of forthcoming government decision-making. This section offers concrete examples of how this technology is currently being used in the land use context. Part II focuses ...


No Protectable Property Interest In Making Land Use Decisions And Other Ethics In Land Use Issues 2009-2010, Patricia E. Salkin Jan 2010

No Protectable Property Interest In Making Land Use Decisions And Other Ethics In Land Use Issues 2009-2010, Patricia E. Salkin

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This annual review of reported decisions and opinions focused on ethical considerations in land use planning and decision-making, continues to highlight the hotly litigated issues surrounding conflicts of interest of various players in the land use game.


Relationships, The Rules Of Professional Conduct And Land Use: Ethical Quagmires For Land Use Attorneys, Patricia E. Salkin Jan 2010

Relationships, The Rules Of Professional Conduct And Land Use: Ethical Quagmires For Land Use Attorneys, Patricia E. Salkin

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This article begins to fill the void by introducing the application of the various Rules of Professional Conduct, as adopted by the specific opining jurisdiction, through a review of the relevant reported opinions of the various committees and sometimes courts, in the land use context. Part I discusses the challenges that arise for lawyers vis-à-vis their clients in the land use context. This is followed by a discussion in Part II of the ethics and professionalism issues that confront lawyers who serve on local boards.


2009 Ethical Considerations In Land Use, Patricia E. Salkin Jan 2009

2009 Ethical Considerations In Land Use, Patricia E. Salkin

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This article is one in a series of annual updates on reported cases and opinions in the area of ethics and land use regulation, A number of themes emerged from the round of litigation in the last year. The most surprising discovery was for a second year in a row, the number of reported cases involving allegations of unethical conduct on the part of land use attorneys. This article reviews these cases, as well as cases involving conflicts based on community involvement, familial relationships, employment and financial interests; and cases involving allegations of bias and prejudgment.


Crossing Borders Into New Ethical Territory: Ethical Challenges When Mediating Cross-Culturally, Harold Abramson Jan 2008

Crossing Borders Into New Ethical Territory: Ethical Challenges When Mediating Cross-Culturally, Harold Abramson

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No abstract provided.


Crime Doesn't Pay And Neither Do Conflicts Of Interest In Land Use Decisionmaking, Patricia E. Salkin Jan 2008

Crime Doesn't Pay And Neither Do Conflicts Of Interest In Land Use Decisionmaking, Patricia E. Salkin

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Conflicts of interest, bias, and appearance of impropriety continue to plague players in the land use game whose conduct, as public sector officials, must be beyond reproach. This article provides an annual review of reported cases and opinions involving allegations of unethical conduct in land use decision making. Conflicts of interest cases focus on attorneys, and address issues including of counsel relationships, disqualification and fees. Conflicts based upon financial interests for board members are explored, as well as unique relationships that may arise when colleges and universities seek approvals. Criminal aspects of decision maker conduct are also reported. Appearance of ...


Eliminating Political Maneuvering: A Light In The Tunnel For The Government Attorney-Client Privilege, Patricia E. Salkin, Allyson Phillips Jan 2006

Eliminating Political Maneuvering: A Light In The Tunnel For The Government Attorney-Client Privilege, Patricia E. Salkin, Allyson Phillips

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The long recognized common-law privilege afforded to certain conversations between attorneys and their clients has been the subject of troubling opinions when the lawyer and client are high ranking government officials. In a series of opinions from the 7th, 8th and D.C. Circuit Courts of Appeals, the courts refused to recognize the existence of the attorney-client privilege for the government actors under the circumstances surrounding the cases. However, recent opinions from the 2nd Circuit state that these other courts were simply wrong, setting the stage perhaps, for the U.S. Supreme Court to resolve the issue. Whether this privilege ...


Ethical Considerations In Land Use Decision Making: 2006 Annual Review Of Cases And Opinions, Patricia E. Salkin Jan 2006

Ethical Considerations In Land Use Decision Making: 2006 Annual Review Of Cases And Opinions, Patricia E. Salkin

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This article reviews reported cases and opinions documenting allegations of unethical conduct involved in land use planning and zoning decision making in 2006.


A Look At American Legal Practice Through A Perspective Of Jewish Law, Ethics, And Tradition: A Conceptual Overview, Samuel J. Levine Jan 2006

A Look At American Legal Practice Through A Perspective Of Jewish Law, Ethics, And Tradition: A Conceptual Overview, Samuel J. Levine

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Levine examines the roles of legislative and judicial bodies, in the context of a discussion of broader principles of legislation in the Jewish legal system. In recent years, American legal scholars have increasingly looked to Jewish law as a model of an alternative legal system that considers many of the issues present in the American legal system. In relation to the roles of legislative and judicial bodies, the Jewish legal system provides a particularly illuminating contrast to the American legal system, in part because in Jewish law, the same authority, the Sanhedrin, or High Court, serves in both a legislative ...


Reflections On The Practice Of Law As A Religious Calling, From A Perspective Of Jewish Law And Ethics, Samuel J. Levine Jan 2005

Reflections On The Practice Of Law As A Religious Calling, From A Perspective Of Jewish Law And Ethics, Samuel J. Levine

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This Essay is based on introductory remarks Levine delivered at the inaugural conference of the Pepperdine Institute on Law, Religion, and Ethics, "Can the Ordinary Practice of Law be a Religious Calling?," held on February 6-7, 2004 at Pepperdine University School of Law. In thinking about the practice of law as a religious calling, Levine argues that we should first consider the broader issue of the general relevance of religion to various areas of life, including work. From a perspective of Jewish law and ethics, moral conduct comprises an imperative at home and at the workplace no less than at ...


Smart Ethics: Ethical Considerations In Promoting Smart Growth Principles, Patricia E. Salkin Jan 2004

Smart Ethics: Ethical Considerations In Promoting Smart Growth Principles, Patricia E. Salkin

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No abstract provided.


Ethics In Land Use: Using Ethical Allegations As A Sword Rather Than A Shield, Patricia E. Salkin Jan 2004

Ethics In Land Use: Using Ethical Allegations As A Sword Rather Than A Shield, Patricia E. Salkin

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No abstract provided.


Taking Prosecutorial Ethics Seriously: A Consideration Of The Prosecutor's Ethical Obligation To Seek Justice In A Comparative Analytical Framework, Samuel J. Levine Jan 2004

Taking Prosecutorial Ethics Seriously: A Consideration Of The Prosecutor's Ethical Obligation To Seek Justice In A Comparative Analytical Framework, Samuel J. Levine

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This article examines the complex nature of the prosecutor's broad obligation to seek justice through a consideration of the similarly broad directive in Jewish law requiring that "in all [of] your ways acknowledge [God]." While many have critiqued the broad directives governing a prosecutor's ethical duties, through this comparative analytical framework it can be seen that the prosecutor's broad ethical directive to seek justice serves as a workable and appropriate standard for prosecutorial ethics. In many ways, a prosecutor faces an ethical obligation unlike other attorneys. Ethical obligations require that a prosecutor forgo conduct that would increase ...


Taking Ethics Codes Seriously: Broad Ethics Provisions And Unenumerated Ethical Obligations In A Comparative Hermeneutic Framework, Samuel J. Levine Jan 2003

Taking Ethics Codes Seriously: Broad Ethics Provisions And Unenumerated Ethical Obligations In A Comparative Hermeneutic Framework, Samuel J. Levine

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Ethics scholars have documented the increasingly legislative form of twentieth-century ethics regulations, culminating in the enactment and widespread adoption of the Model Rules of Professional Conduct. Nevertheless, pointing to the presence of broad ethics provisions, a number of leading scholars have questioned the extent to which ethics codes can accurately be conceptualized as a form of legislation. Responding to these critiques, Levine aims to take seriously both the legislative form of ethics codes and their interpretation. Toward that aim, he looks to interpretive methodologies employed in American constitutional law and Jewish law to provide both descriptive and normative models for ...


Professionalism Without Parochialism: Julius Henry Cohen, Rabbi Nachman Of Breslov, And The Stories Of Two Sons, Samuel J. Levine Jan 2003

Professionalism Without Parochialism: Julius Henry Cohen, Rabbi Nachman Of Breslov, And The Stories Of Two Sons, Samuel J. Levine

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Professor Levine addresses the question of whether the practice of law a business or a profession and looks at sources where practitioners might draw inspiration for ethical behaviors. He examines two works: a 1916 book by Julius Henry Cohen - The Law: Business or Profession?; and a tale by Chasidic master Rabbi Nachman of Breslov. Both works tell the story of two sons from two different fathers with different ethical natures that manifest in their different choices of and approaches to their careers. Professor Levine uses these two parables to suggest that a more inclusive question than those posed above: whether ...


Judging Ethics For Administrative Law Judges: Adoption Of A Uniform Code Of Judicial Conduct For The Administrative Judiciary, Patricia E. Salkin Jan 2002

Judging Ethics For Administrative Law Judges: Adoption Of A Uniform Code Of Judicial Conduct For The Administrative Judiciary, Patricia E. Salkin

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No abstract provided.


Civil Litigation From Litigants' Perspectives: What We Know And What We Don't Know About The Litigation Experience Of Individual Litigants, Tamara Relis Jan 2002

Civil Litigation From Litigants' Perspectives: What We Know And What We Don't Know About The Litigation Experience Of Individual Litigants, Tamara Relis

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This study of the entire phenomenon of civil litigation commenced with the sole aim of ascertaining the extant gaps in the available knowledge about litigation from the perspectives of those who are by far affected most by it: the litigants. What does litigation mean for those who are directly embroiled and whose lives may consequently be radically transformed? Serious lacunas exist. However, extensive readings worldwide throughout the research process result in a stark elucidation of an overlooked, yet crucially important and somewhat egregious state of affairs, making surprisingly clear just how pernicious litigation is for the average 'nonrepeat player'.


Litigating Ethics Issues In Land Use: 2000 Trends And Decisions, Patricia E. Salkin Jan 2001

Litigating Ethics Issues In Land Use: 2000 Trends And Decisions, Patricia E. Salkin

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No abstract provided.


Municipal Ethics Remain A Hot Topic In Litigation: A 1999 Survey Of Issues In Ethics For Municipal Lawyers, Patricia E. Salkin Jan 2000

Municipal Ethics Remain A Hot Topic In Litigation: A 1999 Survey Of Issues In Ethics For Municipal Lawyers, Patricia E. Salkin

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No abstract provided.


1998 Survey Of Ethics In Land-Use Planning, Patricia E. Salkin Jan 1999

1998 Survey Of Ethics In Land-Use Planning, Patricia E. Salkin

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No abstract provided.


Introductory Note: Symposium On Lawyering And Personal Values – Responding To The Problems Of Ethical Schizophrenia, Samuel J. Levine Jan 1998

Introductory Note: Symposium On Lawyering And Personal Values – Responding To The Problems Of Ethical Schizophrenia, Samuel J. Levine

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In recent years, legal practitioners and scholars alike have identified a growing crisis in the legal profession. Increasingly, lawyers feel dissatisfied with the roles they are expected to play and the conduct demanded of them. In particular, many lawyers see a widening gap between their personal values and those employed in legal practice. In response to the dichotomy between personal and professional values, some lawyers attempt to develop a corresponding dichotomy in their personalities, separating the “professional self” from the “personal self.” Such a response, however, may lead to a kind of “ethical schizophrenia,” a condition in which an individual ...


Legal Services Lawyers And The Influence Of Third Parties On The Lawyer-Client Relationship: Some Thoughts From Scholars, Practitioners, And Courts, Samuel J. Levine Jan 1998

Legal Services Lawyers And The Influence Of Third Parties On The Lawyer-Client Relationship: Some Thoughts From Scholars, Practitioners, And Courts, Samuel J. Levine

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Among the challenges facing the lawyer who renders legal services to clients with limited means are ethical and professional questions relating to the influence of third parties on the lawyer-client relationship. Although all lawyers may potentially face ethical dilemmas involving third parties, legal services lawyers are particularly vulnerable to such issues because, unlike most lawyers, legal services lawyers generally rely on the financial support of someone other than their client. These challenges may take many forms, affecting a variety of ethical and professional considerations. Levine examines a number of areas in which bar association committees, scholars, and courts have addressed ...


Courage In The Holocaust, Lawrence Raful Oct 1994

Courage In The Holocaust, Lawrence Raful

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No abstract provided.