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Full-Text Articles in Law

Advanced Artificial Intelligence And Contract, John Linarelli Jan 2019

Advanced Artificial Intelligence And Contract, John Linarelli

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The aim of this article is to inquire whether contract law can operate in a state of affairs in which artificial general intelligence (AGI) exists and has the cognitive abilities to interact with humans to exchange promises or otherwise engage in the sorts of exchanges typically governed by contract law. AGI is a long way off but its emergence may be sudden and come in the lifetimes of some people alive today. How might contract law adapt to a situation in which at least one of the contract parties could, from the standpoint of capacity to engage in promising and ...


Concept And Contract In The Future Of International Law, John Linarelli Jan 2015

Concept And Contract In The Future Of International Law, John Linarelli

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This is an article written for a symposium on Joel Trachtman’s book, The Future of International Law. I first deal with the contractarian features of Trachtman’s approach to understanding international law. Using the tools of new institutional economics and constitutional economics, Trachtman seeks to describe the features of an international legal system. This is positive political theory or at least relates substantially to the methods of positive political theory. I explore a different approach, one connecting to normative political theory. In its ambitious sense, my approach would see international law as a form of moral argument, but in ...


Getting Paid In The Naked Economy, Meredith R. Miller Jan 2015

Getting Paid In The Naked Economy, Meredith R. Miller

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“It’s the end of work as we know it,” reports consulting firm Accenture in a paper about the “rise of the extended workforce.” (Gartside, Silverstone, Farley & Cantrell, Trends Reshaping the Future of HR: The Rise of the Extended Workforce, at 3 (Accenture 2013). The report predicts that, “[i]n the future, organizations’ competitive success will hinge on...workers who aren’t employees at all.” The legal nature of employment is changing and has been changing for quite some time; fewer and fewer workers are “employees.”

It is not new or novel to recognize that, from a legal perspective, there are many benefits to employers who hire independent contractors rather than employees. There have long existed incentives for employers to characterize workers as independent. What is shifting, however, is the workers’ narrative about independence. At least for creative and highly skilled workers, the changing narrative is one of free agency: ditch the man ...


Contract And Dispossession, Deborah W. Post Jul 2012

Contract And Dispossession, Deborah W. Post

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This Essay, part of a collection of essays on the same theme, argues that contract law has become an instrument of oppression and dispossession rather than liberation. Having offered a critique, the challenge then is to consider whether it is possible to restore the liberatory potential of contract. The symposium, Post-Marxism, Post-Racialism & Other Fables of the Dispossession, was an invitation to consider the contemporary relevance of Marxist theory.

There are two reference points in this cultural critique. One is the importance of social position in a jurisprudence that embraces objectivity; the uncritical and unreflective reliance on hegemonic social practices, codes and conventions in determining whether the parties to an agreement meant or intended it to be legally enforceable. Contract law recognizes and regulates status relationships. The resort by judges to hegemonic conceptions of status results in dispossession when ...


Sale Of Goods Contract Not To Be Performed Within A Year: Is The Uniform Commercial Code Statute Of Frauds Provision Exclusive?, Sidney Kwestel Apr 2012

Sale Of Goods Contract Not To Be Performed Within A Year: Is The Uniform Commercial Code Statute Of Frauds Provision Exclusive?, Sidney Kwestel

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No abstract provided.


Cross-Cultural Readings Of Intent: Form, Fiction, And Reasonable Expectations, Deborah Waire Post Dec 2011

Cross-Cultural Readings Of Intent: Form, Fiction, And Reasonable Expectations, Deborah Waire Post

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No abstract provided.


Strategic Default: The Popularization Of A Debate Among Contract Scholars, Meredith R. Miller Apr 2011

Strategic Default: The Popularization Of A Debate Among Contract Scholars, Meredith R. Miller

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A June 2010 report estimates that roughly 20% of mortgage defaults in the first half of 2009 were “strategic.” “Strategic default” describes the situation where a home borrower has the financial ability to continue to pay her mortgage but chooses not to pay and walks away. The ubiquity of strategic default has lead to innumerable newspaper articles, blog posts, website comments and editorial musings on the morality of homeowners who can afford to pay but choose, instead, to walk away. This Article centers on the current public discourse concerning strategic default, which mirrors a continuing debate among scholars regarding whether ...


"Competence-Competence And Separability-American Style", Published As Chapter 8 In International Arbitration And International Commercial Law: Synergy, Convergence And Evolution, Jack M. Graves, Yelena Davydan Jan 2011

"Competence-Competence And Separability-American Style", Published As Chapter 8 In International Arbitration And International Commercial Law: Synergy, Convergence And Evolution, Jack M. Graves, Yelena Davydan

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No abstract provided.


Global Procurement Law In Times Of Crisis: New Buy American Policies And Options In The Wto Legal System, John Linarelli Jan 2011

Global Procurement Law In Times Of Crisis: New Buy American Policies And Options In The Wto Legal System, John Linarelli

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This is a draft chapter, Sue Arrowsmith & Robert D. Anderson (eds.), The WTO Regime on Government Procurement: Challenge and Reform (Cambridge University Press, 2011). What should governments do to protect their citizens in a global economic crisis? National economies are interdependent and economic risk is systemic on a global scale, but economic policy remains pervasively national in scope. Fiscal policy has not been the subject of much in the way of collective action at the global level, and if it has, states accomplish it in ad hoc political (as opposed to legal) arrangements in response to particular crises. States retain ...


Cisg Article 6 And Issues Of Formation: The Problem Of Circularity, Jack M. Graves Jan 2011

Cisg Article 6 And Issues Of Formation: The Problem Of Circularity, Jack M. Graves

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CISG Article 6 broadly allows parties to exclude the application of the CISG or derogate from its provisions. The application of Article 6 is relatively straightforward when addressing the rights and obligations of the parties, but encounters a challenge of circularity when addressing issues of contract formation. How can the parties agree to exclude or derogate from the application of the CISG if it is not yet clear whether they have agreed to anything at all? This article explores this narrow, but important question. Can the parties effectively exclude the application of the CISG or derogate from its provisions (i ...


Organizations Matter: They Are Institutions, After All, John Linarelli Jan 2010

Organizations Matter: They Are Institutions, After All, John Linarelli

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Judge Posner (2010) offers a substantial agenda for organization economics. He advises us on how organization economics can shed substantial light on some of the most pressing social problems of the day. I comment on two of the areas he selects for discussion and offer some comments on the relationship of organization economics to new institutional economics. Judge Posner surely is right to argue that organization economics can help us understand the failures of corporate governance in regulating executive pay. Moreover, with additional and more institutionally nuanced theorizing, organizational economics should further our understanding of the work of judiciaries in ...


Contract Law, Party Sophistication And The New Formalism, Meredith R. Miller Jan 2010

Contract Law, Party Sophistication And The New Formalism, Meredith R. Miller

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With increasing frequency, courts are mentioning party sophistication as relevant to whether a contract has been formed, whether a contract is enforceable, how the contract should be interpreted, and even, in some instances, the determination of an appropriate remedy. Sophisticated parties are held to a different set of rules, grounded in freedom of contract. It is presumed that a sophisticated party was aware of what to bargain for and read (or should have read) and understood (or should have understood) the terms of a written agreement.

But, just what do courts mean when they call a contracting party “sophisticated”?

“Sophistication ...


Ica And The Writing Requirement: Following Modern Trends Towards Liberalization Or Are We Stuck In 1958?, Jack Graves Jan 2009

Ica And The Writing Requirement: Following Modern Trends Towards Liberalization Or Are We Stuck In 1958?, Jack Graves

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Article 7 of the Model Law was revised in 2006 to liberalize any requirements of form, consistent with modern commercial practices and modern legal trends reflected in national laws. To the extent adopted by national legislatures, either of the two available options under this revision will effectively eliminate any requirement of a “record of consent,” thus making arbitration agreements more easily enforceable in the adopting jurisdiction. However, any such revision of national laws on arbitration based on the revisions of Article 7 of the Model Law will not necessarily have any effect on enforcement of awards in other jurisdictions under ...


"Arbitration As A Final Award: Challenges And Enforcement" Published As Chapter 10 In International Sales Law And Arbitration: Problems, Cases, And Commentary, Jack M. Graves, Joseph F. Morrissey Jan 2008

"Arbitration As A Final Award: Challenges And Enforcement" Published As Chapter 10 In International Sales Law And Arbitration: Problems, Cases, And Commentary, Jack M. Graves, Joseph F. Morrissey

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No abstract provided.


Contracting Out Of Process, Contracting Out Of Corporate Accountability: An Argument Against Enforcement Of Pre-Dispute Limits On Process, Meredith R. Miller Jan 2008

Contracting Out Of Process, Contracting Out Of Corporate Accountability: An Argument Against Enforcement Of Pre-Dispute Limits On Process, Meredith R. Miller

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There have been many well-articulated and convincing critiques aimed at mandatory arbitration. Indeed, presently before Congress is proposed legislation titled the Arbitration Fairness Act, that would ban pre-dispute arbitration in the consumer, franchise and employment contexts. However, maligned as the plaintiff bar's pro-lawsuit legislation, the Arbitration Fairness Act is predicted to have very little chance of enactment. Consequently, across varying industries, the pre-dispute arbitration regime endures unheedingly. Thus, this Article sets aside the arguments aimed generally at pre-dispute arbitration clauses and, instead, sets its sights on some of the terms that seem to arise in such clauses. The focus ...


Revisiting Austin V. Loral: A Study In Economic Duress, Contract Modification And Framing, Meredith R. Miller Jan 2006

Revisiting Austin V. Loral: A Study In Economic Duress, Contract Modification And Framing, Meredith R. Miller

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Austin v. Loral, 29 N.Y.2d 124 (1971), is a favorite among Contracts casebooks because the New York Court of Appeals held that it was a "classic" example of economic duress. It involved Austin, a small gear part manufacturer, who had entered into a subcontract to provide gear parts to Loral, a publicly-traded defense industry supplier. Loral had a contract with the U.S. government to supply radar sets, to be used in the U.S. efforts in Vietnam. Midway through performance of the subcontract, Austin apparently refused to continue to deliver the gear parts unless Loral acceded to ...


Party Autonomy In Choice Of Commercial Law: The Failure Of Revised U.C.C. § 1-301 And A Proposal For Broader Reform, Jack M. Graves Jan 2005

Party Autonomy In Choice Of Commercial Law: The Failure Of Revised U.C.C. § 1-301 And A Proposal For Broader Reform, Jack M. Graves

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No abstract provided.


Course Of Performance As Evidence Of Intent Or Waiver: A Meaningful Preference For The Latter And Implications For Newly Broadened Use Under Revised U.C.C. Section 1-303, Jack M. Graves Jan 2004

Course Of Performance As Evidence Of Intent Or Waiver: A Meaningful Preference For The Latter And Implications For Newly Broadened Use Under Revised U.C.C. Section 1-303, Jack M. Graves

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No abstract provided.


Express Warranty As Contractual - The Need For A Clear Approach, Sidney Kwestel Jan 2002

Express Warranty As Contractual - The Need For A Clear Approach, Sidney Kwestel

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No abstract provided.


Lessons From The Damages Decisions Following United States V. Winstar Corp., Rodger D. Citron Jan 2002

Lessons From The Damages Decisions Following United States V. Winstar Corp., Rodger D. Citron

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No abstract provided.


Preface To The Gateway Thread, Deborah W. Post Jan 2000

Preface To The Gateway Thread, Deborah W. Post

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No abstract provided.


Dismantling Democracy: Common Sense And The Contract Jurisprudence Of Frank Easterbrook, Deborah W. Post Jan 2000

Dismantling Democracy: Common Sense And The Contract Jurisprudence Of Frank Easterbrook, Deborah W. Post

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No abstract provided.


Freedom From Reliance: A Contract Approach To Express Warranty, Sidney Kwestel Jan 1992

Freedom From Reliance: A Contract Approach To Express Warranty, Sidney Kwestel

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No abstract provided.


Testamentary Substitutes: Retained Interests, Custodial Accounts And Contractual Transactions—A New Approach, Sidney Kwestel, Rena C. Seplowitz Jan 1988

Testamentary Substitutes: Retained Interests, Custodial Accounts And Contractual Transactions—A New Approach, Sidney Kwestel, Rena C. Seplowitz

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No abstract provided.


Testamentary Substitutes—A Time For Statutory Clarification, Sidney Kwestel, Rena C. Seplowitz Jan 1988

Testamentary Substitutes—A Time For Statutory Clarification, Sidney Kwestel, Rena C. Seplowitz

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No abstract provided.


The Impact Of The Federal Eft Act On Customer Contracts In New York State, Harold I. Abramson, Jay Martin Jan 1978

The Impact Of The Federal Eft Act On Customer Contracts In New York State, Harold I. Abramson, Jay Martin

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No abstract provided.