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Full-Text Articles in Law

The Compliance Process, Veronica Root Martinez Jan 2019

The Compliance Process, Veronica Root Martinez

Journal Articles

Even as regulators and prosecutors proclaim the importance of effective compliance programs, failures persist. Organizations fail to ensure that they and their agents comply with legal and regulatory requirements, industry practices, and their own internal policies and norms. From the companies that provide our news, to the financial institutions that serve as our bankers, to the corporations that make our cars, compliance programs fail to prevent misconduct each and every day. The causes of these compliance failures are multifaceted and include general enforcement deficiencies, difficulties associated with overseeing compliance programs within complex organizations, and failures to establish a culture of ...


Inside The 'Constitutional Revolution' Of 1937, Barry Cushman Jan 2017

Inside The 'Constitutional Revolution' Of 1937, Barry Cushman

Journal Articles

The nature and sources of the New Deal Constitutional Revolution are among the most discussed and debated subjects in constitutional historiography. Scholars have reached significantly divergent conclusions concerning how best to understand the meaning and the causes of constitutional decisions rendered by the Supreme Court under Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes. Though recent years have witnessed certain refinements in scholarly understandings of various dimensions of the phenomenon, the relevant documentary record seemed to have been rather thoroughly explored. Recently, however, a remarkably instructive set of primary sources has become available. For many years, the docket books kept by a number ...


Inside The Taft Court: Lessons From The Docket Books, Barry Cushman Jan 2016

Inside The Taft Court: Lessons From The Docket Books, Barry Cushman

Journal Articles

For many years, the docket books kept by certain of the Taft Court Justices have been held by the Office of the Curator of the Supreme Court. Though the existence of these docket books had been brought to the attention of the scholarly community, access to them was highly restricted. In April of 2014, however, the Court adopted new guidelines designed to increase access to the docket books for researchers. This article offers a report and analysis based on a review of all of the Taft Court docket books held by the Office of the Curator, which are the only ...


Corporate Social Responsibility For Enforcement Of Labor Rights: Are There More Effective Alternatives?, Barbara Fick Sep 2014

Corporate Social Responsibility For Enforcement Of Labor Rights: Are There More Effective Alternatives?, Barbara Fick

Journal Articles

This article addresses the concept of corporate social responsibility (hereinafter CSR) as it relates to labor rights. It considers the following issues: is the CSR model, as evidenced by the adoption of corporate codes of conduct, effective in protecting labor rights?; and is this model the best way to protect labor rights? These issues are examined from two perspectives: practical and philosophical. Lastly, some alternative enforcement mechanisms are considered and their respective advantages and disadvantages for purposes of ensuring labor rights are discussed.


Collective Representation Of Workers In The United States: Evolution Of Legal Regimes Concerning Collective Autonomy And Freedom Of Association, Barbara Fick Jan 2013

Collective Representation Of Workers In The United States: Evolution Of Legal Regimes Concerning Collective Autonomy And Freedom Of Association, Barbara Fick

Journal Articles

The United States Constitution does not directly address the collective representation of workers. The First Amendment right to freedom of association has, however, been interpreted to protect the right of individuals to form and join trade unions. This Article discusses the evolution of legal regimes concerning collective autonomy and freedom of association within the United States.


Free Speech And Parity: A Theory Of Public Employee Rights, Randy J. Kozel Jan 2012

Free Speech And Parity: A Theory Of Public Employee Rights, Randy J. Kozel

Journal Articles

More than four decades have passed since the U.S. Supreme Court revolutionized the First Amendment rights of the public workforce. In the ensuing years the Court has embarked upon an ambitious quest to protect expressive liberties while facilitating orderly and efficient government. Yet it has never articulated an adequate theoretical framework to guide its jurisprudence. This Article suggests a conceptual reorientation of the modern doctrine. The proposal flows naturally from the Court’s rejection of its former view that one who accepts a government job has no constitutional right to complain about its conditions. As a result of that ...


Worker Well-Being In The 21st Century: Addressing The Psychosocial Context Of Work, Barbara Fick Aug 2009

Worker Well-Being In The 21st Century: Addressing The Psychosocial Context Of Work, Barbara Fick

Journal Articles

The world of work has undergone significant change since the days when nation-states first began addressing the issue of worker well-being. Early legal responses (such as worker compensation laws and health and safety regulations) focused on the physical environmental hazards to which workers were subjected, e.g. unsafe machinery or exposure to toxic chemicals. The transformation in the nature of work to a service-oriented economy has led many to rethink the types of hazards to which workers are exposed. Recent research has focused on the psychological and social environment in the workplace and how that may contribute to undermining worker ...


Not Just Collective Bargaining: The Role Of Trade Unions In Creating And Maintaining A Democratic Society, Barbara Fick Jun 2009

Not Just Collective Bargaining: The Role Of Trade Unions In Creating And Maintaining A Democratic Society, Barbara Fick

Journal Articles

This essay addresses the historical and contemporary roles which trade unions have played in creating conditions necessary for democracy to flourish. Their effectiveness in fulfilling these roles is due in large measure to the organizational characteristics which make trade unions the archetypal civil society organization: democratic representation, demographic representation, financial independence, breadth of concerns and placement within society. This essay explores these aspects of the trade union movement and suggests that advocates for democracy have cause for concern in the absence of a vibrant, and independent, domestic trade union movement.


A Case Of Statutory Interpretation: Does 42 U.S.C. 1981 Prohibit Retaliation, Barbara J. Fick Jan 2008

A Case Of Statutory Interpretation: Does 42 U.S.C. 1981 Prohibit Retaliation, Barbara J. Fick

Journal Articles

This article discusses the case CBOCS West, Inc. v. Humphries, 553 U.S. 442 (2008). That case presented two questions: (1) Can an employee bring a claim under 42 U.8.C. § 1981 if he is terminated from employment because he has complained about racial discrimination at work?; and (2) Can the language of the statute be interpreted to include retaliation claims? Professor Fick argues that the this case is of great concern to employers whose liability for retaliation will be greatly expanded if the statute is interpreted to include retaliation claims and also that the case may be important ...


What Is An Employer's Liability For Constructive Discharge Under Title Vii? An Analysis Of Pennsylvania State Police V. Suders, Barbara J. Fick Jan 2004

What Is An Employer's Liability For Constructive Discharge Under Title Vii? An Analysis Of Pennsylvania State Police V. Suders, Barbara J. Fick

Journal Articles

This article previews the Supreme Court case Pennsylvania State Police v. Suders, 542 U.S. 129 (2004). In this case involving Title VII, the author expected the Court to analyze whether whether a constructive discharge caused by supervisory harassment is a tangible employment action for purposes of imposing striet liability.


Mixed Up About Mixed Motive: What Will Trigger A "Mixed Motive" Analysis In Title Vii Cases? An Analysis Of Desert Palace, Inc. V. Costa, Barbara J. Fick Jan 2003

Mixed Up About Mixed Motive: What Will Trigger A "Mixed Motive" Analysis In Title Vii Cases? An Analysis Of Desert Palace, Inc. V. Costa, Barbara J. Fick

Journal Articles

This article previews the Supreme Court case Desert Palace, Inc. v. Costa, 539 U.S. 90, 2003. The author expected the Court to clarify and define the circumstances in which it is appropriate to use the "mixed-motive model" to prove a violation of Title VII under the disparate treatment theory.


Musical Courts: Plaintiff Picks A Court But Can Defendant Trump The Choice? An Analysis Of Breuer V. Jim's Concrete Of Brevard, Inc., Barbara J. Fick Jan 2003

Musical Courts: Plaintiff Picks A Court But Can Defendant Trump The Choice? An Analysis Of Breuer V. Jim's Concrete Of Brevard, Inc., Barbara J. Fick

Journal Articles

This article previews the Supreme Court case Brewer v. Jim's Concrete of Brevard, 538 U.S. 691 (2003). The author expected the Court to address the issue of whether the language of the Fair Labor Standards Act providing that "an action . . . may be maintained in any federal or state court" constitutes an express provision prohibiting removal to federal court when the plaintiff has chosen to maintain its lawsuit in state court.


Reconciling The Nlra And Irca: Can An Undocumented Worker Receive Back Pay? An Analysis Of Hoffman Plastic Compound, Inc. V. Nlrb, Barbara J. Fick Jan 2002

Reconciling The Nlra And Irca: Can An Undocumented Worker Receive Back Pay? An Analysis Of Hoffman Plastic Compound, Inc. V. Nlrb, Barbara J. Fick

Journal Articles

This article previews the Supreme Court case Hoffman Plastic Compound, Inc., v. NLRB, 535 U.S. 137 (2002). The author expected the Court to address in this case the apparent conflict between the National Labor Relations Act's goal of the prevention of unfair labor practices and the Immigration Reform and Control Act's denial of employment to undocumented aliens. This issue arose because of an award of back pay to an undocumented worker who was fired because of his union organizing activities.


Mr. Dooley And Mr. Gallup: Public Opinion And Constitutional Change In The 1930s, Barry Cushman Jan 2002

Mr. Dooley And Mr. Gallup: Public Opinion And Constitutional Change In The 1930s, Barry Cushman

Journal Articles

Scholars interested in the development of political and constitutional culture during the 1930s sometimes draw inferences about popular preferences on various issues of social and economic policy from the results of presidential and congressional elections. A review of contemporary public opinion polls taken by George Gallup for the American Institute of Public Opinion and by Elmo Roper for the Fortune Magazine survey offers a more granular understanding of popular views on the public policy issues of the day. This article canvasses all of the public opinion polls taken by Gallup and Roper between 1935, when they began publishing their results ...


Can Contested Disciplinary Actions Be Considered In Subsequent Termination Proceedings? An Analysis Of United States Postal Service V. Gregory, Barbara J. Fick Jan 2001

Can Contested Disciplinary Actions Be Considered In Subsequent Termination Proceedings? An Analysis Of United States Postal Service V. Gregory, Barbara J. Fick

Journal Articles

This article previews the Supreme Court case U.S. Postal Service v. Gregory, 534 U.S. 1, 2001. The author expected the case to examine whether, under the Civil Service Reform Act, the Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB) abuse its discretion when it considers prior discipline that is currently being challenged by the employee in ongoing grievance proceedings?


With All Due Deference: What Constitutes The Exercise Of "Independent Judgment" In The Workplace? An Analysis Of Nlrb V. Kentucky River Community Care, Barbara J. Fick Jan 2001

With All Due Deference: What Constitutes The Exercise Of "Independent Judgment" In The Workplace? An Analysis Of Nlrb V. Kentucky River Community Care, Barbara J. Fick

Journal Articles

This article previews the Supreme Court case NLRB v. Kentucky River Community Care, Inc., 532 U.S. 706 (2001). The author expected the Court to examine two issues: (1) What is the appropriate interpretation of the statutory phrase "independent judgment" as used in § 2(11) of the National Labor Relations Act in defining which individuals are supervisors; and (2) Who has the burden of proving that an employee meets the definition of supervisor?


Do Agency Employees Have A Right To Union Representation When Questioned By An Oig Investigator? An Analysis Of Nasa V. Flra, Barbara J. Fick Jan 1999

Do Agency Employees Have A Right To Union Representation When Questioned By An Oig Investigator? An Analysis Of Nasa V. Flra, Barbara J. Fick

Journal Articles

This article previews the Supreme Court case NASA v. Federal Labor Relations Authority, 527 U.S. 229 (1999). The author expected the case to raise the question of whether the Office of Inspector General within a federal agency is acting as a representative of the agency when it conducts investigatory interviews of agency employees, so as to trigger the employee's right to union representation.


Does A Conspiracy To Terminate At-Will Employment Constitute An Injury To Property? An Analysis Of Haddle V. Garrison, Barbara J. Fick Jan 1998

Does A Conspiracy To Terminate At-Will Employment Constitute An Injury To Property? An Analysis Of Haddle V. Garrison, Barbara J. Fick

Journal Articles

This article previews the Supreme Court case Haddle v. Garrison, 525 U.S. 121 (1998). The author expected the Court to determine whether the termination of an at-will employee can be compensible under 42 U.S.C. § 1985, one of the Reconstruction Era Civil Rights Act.


Who's Responsible? Employer Liability For Supervisors' Hostile-Environment Sexual Harassment: An Analysis Of Faragher V. City Of Boca Raton, Barbara J. Fick Jan 1998

Who's Responsible? Employer Liability For Supervisors' Hostile-Environment Sexual Harassment: An Analysis Of Faragher V. City Of Boca Raton, Barbara J. Fick

Journal Articles

This article previews the Supreme Court case Faragher v. City of Boca Raton, 524 U.S. 775 (1998). The author expected the Court to address the issue of under what circumstances an employer is liabile under title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 for a supervisor's sexual harassement that creates a hostile work environment.


The Scope Of Employer Liability For Employee Exposure To A Hazardous Substance: No Harm, No Foul? An Analysis Of Metro-North Commuter R.R. Co. V. Buckley, Barbara J. Fick Jan 1997

The Scope Of Employer Liability For Employee Exposure To A Hazardous Substance: No Harm, No Foul? An Analysis Of Metro-North Commuter R.R. Co. V. Buckley, Barbara J. Fick

Journal Articles

This article previews the Supreme Court case Metro-North Commuter R.R. Co. v. Buckley, 521 U.S. 424 (1997). The author expected the Court to decide whether a railroad worker who is covered by the Federal Employer's Liability Act who has been exposed to asbestos because of employer negligence but who has not developed an asbestos-related disease can recover damages for emotional distress caused by the exposure.


How To Count To Fifteen: Determining The Jurisdictional Scope Of Title Vii: An Analysis Of Walters V. Metropolitan Educational Enterprises Inc., Barbara J. Fick Jan 1996

How To Count To Fifteen: Determining The Jurisdictional Scope Of Title Vii: An Analysis Of Walters V. Metropolitan Educational Enterprises Inc., Barbara J. Fick

Journal Articles

This article previews the Supreme Court case Walters v. Metropolitan Educational Enterprises, Inc., 519 U.S. 202 (1997). The author expected the Court to consider how the number of employees of a particular employer should be counted for for purposes of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.


Employee/Employer, Sandra S. Klein Jan 1994

Employee/Employer, Sandra S. Klein

Journal Articles

The issue of privacy as it relates to employment in general is one of great concern, both to employers and employees. Both groups are faced with increasing threats to their individual or corporate privacy. Given that such threats carry personal, economic and social consequences, it is not surprising that many people are concerned. The bibliography which follows provides the reader with many sources which should prove useful to those well-versed in the subject, as well as to those who are looking at this issue for the first time.


'If I Knew Then What I Know Now': The Role Of After-Acquired Evidence In Employment Discrimination Cases: An Analysis Of Mckennon V. Nashville Banner, Barbara J. Fick Jan 1994

'If I Knew Then What I Know Now': The Role Of After-Acquired Evidence In Employment Discrimination Cases: An Analysis Of Mckennon V. Nashville Banner, Barbara J. Fick

Journal Articles

This article previews the Supreme Court case McKennon v. Nashville Banner Publishing Company, 513 U.S. 352 (1995). The author expected the Court to address whether after acquired evidence of employee misconduct is a complete defense for an employer's termination decision which would otherwise violate the Age Discrimination in Employment Act or is it relevant only to the scope of the remedy afforded to an employee terminated in violation of the Act.


Professional Employee Or Supervisory Employee: Are Nurses Protected By The Nlra? An Analysis Of Nlrb V. Health Care & Retirement Corp., Barbara J. Fick Jan 1994

Professional Employee Or Supervisory Employee: Are Nurses Protected By The Nlra? An Analysis Of Nlrb V. Health Care & Retirement Corp., Barbara J. Fick

Journal Articles

This article previews the Supreme Court case NLRB v. Health Care and Retirement Corp. of America, 511 U.S. 571 (1994). The National Labor Relations Act protects employees' right to unionize and their actions aimed at improving working conditions. The Act does not, however, protect supervisory employees on the premise that employers deserve the undivided loyalty of their agents. In this case, the Court is asked to decide if nurses who direct the work of aides and orderlies are employees protected from discharge in their efforts to improve working conditions, or are supervisors who can be fired for such conduct.


Drug Testing/Use, Sandra S. Klein Jan 1994

Drug Testing/Use, Sandra S. Klein

Journal Articles

Drug testing is one of the most controversial of recent privacy issues. The bibliography which follows provides the reader with access to a wide range of discussion on this topic which is, or should be, of interest to everyone. Whether in our private lives, or on the job, drug use and drug testing will have an impact on every one of us.


Organic Goods: Legal Understandings Of Work, Parenthood, And Gender Equality In Comparative Perspective, Paolo G. Carozza Jan 1993

Organic Goods: Legal Understandings Of Work, Parenthood, And Gender Equality In Comparative Perspective, Paolo G. Carozza

Journal Articles

The United States and Italy have taken quite different approaches toward providing legal protections for working parents. This Article uses a comparative perspective to highlight crucial aspects of the American legal and cultural attitudes towards parental leave. The author demonstrates how deeply rooted beliefs about equality, work, and family life have influenced the development of parental leave law. In particular, the Article describes how Italian law rests on notions of fundamental social equality, as well as on views concerning the importance of the interests of children and the family. As a result of this broad conception of the interests involved ...


Pretext Or Pretext-Plus: What Must A Plaintiff Prove To Win A Title Vii Lawsuit? An Analysis Of St. Mary's Honor Center V. Hicks, Barbara J. Fick Jan 1993

Pretext Or Pretext-Plus: What Must A Plaintiff Prove To Win A Title Vii Lawsuit? An Analysis Of St. Mary's Honor Center V. Hicks, Barbara J. Fick

Journal Articles

This article previews the Supreme Court case St. Mary's Honor Center v. Hicks, 509 U.S. 502 (1993). The author expected the Court to address whether, in the context of an employment discrimination case under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, a plaintiff should prevail upon proof that the legitimate, non-discriminatory reasons advanced by the defendant as its motives for an adverse employment action are pretextural.


Doctrinal Synergies And Liberal Dilemmas: The Case Of The Yellow-Dog Contract, Barry Cushman Jan 1992

Doctrinal Synergies And Liberal Dilemmas: The Case Of The Yellow-Dog Contract, Barry Cushman

Journal Articles

The three decades spanning the years 1908 to 1937 saw a remarkable transformation of the Supreme Court's jurisprudence concerning the rights of workers to organize. In 1908, the Court held that a federal law prohibiting employers from discharging an employee because of his membership in a labor union violated the liberty of contract secured to the employer by the Fifth Amendment. In 1915, the Court similarly declared a state statute prohibiting the use of "yellow-dog" contracts unconstitutional. In 1937, by contrast, the Court upheld provisions of the Wagner Act prohibiting both discharges for union membership and the use of ...


Survey Of Recent Developments In Indiana Law: Labor And Employment Law, Barbara J. Fick Jan 1992

Survey Of Recent Developments In Indiana Law: Labor And Employment Law, Barbara J. Fick

Journal Articles

This article examines developments in labor and employment law occuring shortly before its publicaiton in 1992. The article discusses cases revisiting the Frampton rule, addressing employee defamation suits against employers, employment discrimination, issues arising in public sector employment, wage statutes, unemployment compensation, and workers' compensation. It also discusses a state statute prohibiting employment discrimination based on employees' off-duty use of tobacco.


Does Title Vii Apply In Saudi Arabia? An Analysis Of Eeoc V. Arabian American Oil Co., Barbara J, Fick Jan 1991

Does Title Vii Apply In Saudi Arabia? An Analysis Of Eeoc V. Arabian American Oil Co., Barbara J, Fick

Journal Articles

This article previews the Supreme Court case EEOC v. Arabian American Oil Co., 499 U.S. 244 (1991). The author expected the Court to decied whether Congress intended the mandates of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibiting employment discrimination to extend extraterritorially.