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"To Help, Not To Hurt": Justice Thomas's Equality Canon, Nicole Stelle Garnett, William S. Consovoy Jan 2017

"To Help, Not To Hurt": Justice Thomas's Equality Canon, Nicole Stelle Garnett, William S. Consovoy

Journal Articles

To comprehend Justice Thomas’s views on racial equality requires an understanding of how his life experiences influence his approach to questions of race and the law. Recurring themes in his opinions about racial equality include his belief that racial preferences stigmatize their beneficiaries, his concern that the prevailing notion that racial integration is necessary to black achievement is rooted in a presumption of racial inferiority, his worry that affirmative action efforts provide cover for the failure to address the urgent needs of disadvantaged Americans, and his knowledge that seemingly benign policies can mask illicit motives. Finally, Justice Thomas contends ...


Religious Accommodations And – And Among – Civil Rights: Separation, Toleration, And Accommodation, Richard W. Garnett Feb 2015

Religious Accommodations And – And Among – Civil Rights: Separation, Toleration, And Accommodation, Richard W. Garnett

Journal Articles

This paper expands on a presentation at a recent conference, held at Harvard Law School, on the topic of “Religious Accommodations in the Age of Civil Rights.” In it, I emphasize that the right to religious freedom is a basic civil right, the increased appreciation of which is said to characterize our “age.” Accordingly, I push back against scholars’ and commentators’ increasing tendency to regard and present religious accommodations and exemptions as obstacles to the civil-rights enterprise and ask instead if our religious-accommodation practices are all that they should be. Are accommodations and exemptions being extended prudently but generously, in ...


Just, Smart: Civil Rights Protections And Market-Sensitive Vacant Property Strategies, James J. Kelly Jr. Sep 2014

Just, Smart: Civil Rights Protections And Market-Sensitive Vacant Property Strategies, James J. Kelly Jr.

Journal Articles

This essay, prepared for and published by the Center for Community Progress, a national, non-profit intermediary dedicated to developing effective, sustainable solutions to turn vacant, abandoned and problem properties into vibrant places, examines the legal and normative implications of local governments' use of neighborhood real estate market data to strategically focus vacant property remediation tools. I and other writers, such as Frank Alexander, Alan Mallach and Joseph Schilling, have argued for the importance of understanding the economic feasibility of market-based rehabilitation of derelict, vacant houses in making decisions as to how and when to use a variety of code enforcement ...


Disparate Impact, School Closures, And Parental Choice, Nicole Stelle Garnett Jul 2014

Disparate Impact, School Closures, And Parental Choice, Nicole Stelle Garnett

Journal Articles

We live in an era of parental choice. Today, forty-two states and the District of Columbia authorize charter schools, and twenty states and the District of Columbia permit students to use public funds to attend a private school. During the 2012-2013 school year, nearly 2 million children attended charter schools, and nearly 250,000 children received publicly funded scholarship to attend a private school. The expanding menu of publicly funded educational options is one (but by no means the only) factor contributing to the current, intensely controversial, waves of urban public school closures. In school-closure debates, proponents of traditional public ...


The Civil Rights Legacy Of Fr. Theodore M. Hesburgh, C.S.C., Jennifer Mason Mcaward Jan 2014

The Civil Rights Legacy Of Fr. Theodore M. Hesburgh, C.S.C., Jennifer Mason Mcaward

Journal Articles

This Speech will discuss Fr. Hesburgh's advocacy on these core civil rights issues-education, employment, housing, and voting rights-and how his work changed the face of this country. The story of Fr. Hesburgh's civil rights advocacy is a key to understanding how he emerged-in the words of Vice President Biden-as "one of the most powerful unelected officials this nation has ever seen."


Retaining Color, Veronica Root Jan 2014

Retaining Color, Veronica Root

Journal Articles

It is no secret that large law firms are struggling in their efforts to retain attorneys of color. This is despite two decades of aggressive tracking of demographic rates, mandates from clients to improve demographic diversity, and the implementation of a variety of diversity efforts within large law firms. In part, law firm retention efforts are stymied by the reality that elite large law firms require some level of attrition to function properly under the predominant business model. This reality, however, does not explain why firms have more difficulty retaining attorneys of color — in particular black and Hispanic attorneys — than ...


Good Faith And Narrow Tailoring In Fisher, Jennifer Mason Mcaward Jan 2013

Good Faith And Narrow Tailoring In Fisher, Jennifer Mason Mcaward

Journal Articles

This piece considers three issues relating to the Supreme Court’s upcoming decision in Fisher v. University of Texas: First, how should the Court perform the narrow tailoring inquiry? Is any deference due the University with respect to its choice of means by which it seeks to diversify its class? Second, how should the relatively modest impact of the university’s racial preference impact the Court’s assessment of narrow tailoring? Third, what is the constitutional relevance of Texas’s Top Ten Percent Program? Does the relative success of the program make it a workable race-neutral alternative that constitutionally precludes ...


Mcculloch And The Thirteenth Amendment, Jennifer Mason Mcaward Jan 2013

Mcculloch And The Thirteenth Amendment, Jennifer Mason Mcaward

Journal Articles

Section 2 of the Thirteenth Amendment gives Congress the “power to enforce” the ban on slavery and involuntary servitude “by appropriate legislation.” The conventional view of Section 2 regards this language as an allusion to McCulloch v. Maryland’s explication of Congress’s executory powers, and holds that Congress has substantial, and largely unreviewable, power to determine both the ends and the means of Section 2 legislation. This Essay argues that the conventional view departs from the original meaning of Section 2. It demonstrates that McCulloch preserved a role for judicial review with respect to both the ends and means ...


Defining The Badges And Incidents Of Slavery, Jennifer Mason Mcaward Jan 2012

Defining The Badges And Incidents Of Slavery, Jennifer Mason Mcaward

Journal Articles

Most agree that Section Two of the Thirteenth Amendment empowers Congress to legislate regarding the “badges and incidents of slavery.” Few, however, have explored in depth the precise meaning of this concept. The goal of this Article is to provide a historical and conceptual framework for interpreting and identifying the badges and incidents of slavery. It examines the original public meaning of the terms “badge of slavery” and “incident of slavery” as well as how the “badges and incidents” concept has been incorporated into and used in Thirteenth Amendment jurisprudence. It considers several analytical variables from historical, jurisprudential, and policy ...


Congressional Authority To Interpret The Thirteenth Amendment: A Response To Professor Tsesis, Jennifer Mason Mcaward Jan 2011

Congressional Authority To Interpret The Thirteenth Amendment: A Response To Professor Tsesis, Jennifer Mason Mcaward

Journal Articles

This essay explores the proper scope of Congress’s power to enforce the Thirteenth Amendment’s prohibition on slavery and involuntary servitude. It reviews the historical context surrounding the drafting of the Thirteenth Amendment enforcement power, and it points to structural constitutional considerations relevant to the understanding of that power. It concludes by suggesting some related topics that deserve further exploration.


The Scope Of Congress's Thirteenth Amendment Enforcement Power After City Of Boerne V. Flores, Jennifer Mason Mcaward Jan 2010

The Scope Of Congress's Thirteenth Amendment Enforcement Power After City Of Boerne V. Flores, Jennifer Mason Mcaward

Journal Articles

Section Two of the Thirteenth Amendment grants Congress power “to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.” In Jones v. Alfred H. Mayer Co., the Supreme Court held that Section Two permits Congress to define the “badges and incidents of slavery” and pass “all laws necessary and proper” for their abolition. Congress has passed a number of civil rights laws under this understanding of its Section Two power. Several commentators have urged Congress to expansively define the “badges and incidents of slavery” and use Section Two to address everything from racial profiling to discrimination on the basis of gender and sexual ...


Clarence X?: The Black Nationalist Behind Justice Thomas's Constitutionalism, Stephen F. Smith Jan 2009

Clarence X?: The Black Nationalist Behind Justice Thomas's Constitutionalism, Stephen F. Smith

Journal Articles

No abstract provided.


A Case Of Statutory Interpretation: Does 42 U.S.C. 1981 Prohibit Retaliation, Barbara J. Fick Jan 2008

A Case Of Statutory Interpretation: Does 42 U.S.C. 1981 Prohibit Retaliation, Barbara J. Fick

Journal Articles

This article discusses the case CBOCS West, Inc. v. Humphries, 553 U.S. 442 (2008). That case presented two questions: (1) Can an employee bring a claim under 42 U.8.C. § 1981 if he is terminated from employment because he has complained about racial discrimination at work?; and (2) Can the language of the statute be interpreted to include retaliation claims? Professor Fick argues that the this case is of great concern to employers whose liability for retaliation will be greatly expanded if the statute is interpreted to include retaliation claims and also that the case may be important ...


What's On Your Mind? Imputing Motive In A Title Vii Case, An Analysis Of Bci Coca-Cola Bottling Co. V. Eeoc, Barbara J. Fick Jan 2007

What's On Your Mind? Imputing Motive In A Title Vii Case, An Analysis Of Bci Coca-Cola Bottling Co. V. Eeoc, Barbara J. Fick

Journal Articles

This article examines the case E.E.O.C. v. BCI Coca-Cola Bottling Co. of Los Angeles, which was scheduled for argument before the Supreme Court, but was dismissed before that argument occurred.


Unenumerated Rights And The Limits Of Analogy: A Critque Of The Right To Medical Self-Defense, O. Carter Snead Jan 2007

Unenumerated Rights And The Limits Of Analogy: A Critque Of The Right To Medical Self-Defense, O. Carter Snead

Journal Articles

Volokh’s project stands or falls with the claim that the entitlement he proposes is of constitutional dimension. If there is no fundamental right to medical self-defense, the individual must, for better or worse, yield to the regulation of this domain in the name of the values agreed to by the political branches of government. Indeed, the government routinely restricts the instrumentalities of self-help (including self-defense) in the name of avoiding what it takes to be more significant harms. This same rationale accounts for current governmental limitations on access to unapproved drugs and the current ban on organ sales. The ...


From Family To Individual And Back Again, Margaret F. Brinig Jan 2007

From Family To Individual And Back Again, Margaret F. Brinig

Journal Articles

No abstract provided.


What Is An Employer's Liability For Constructive Discharge Under Title Vii? An Analysis Of Pennsylvania State Police V. Suders, Barbara J. Fick Jan 2004

What Is An Employer's Liability For Constructive Discharge Under Title Vii? An Analysis Of Pennsylvania State Police V. Suders, Barbara J. Fick

Journal Articles

This article previews the Supreme Court case Pennsylvania State Police v. Suders, 542 U.S. 129 (2004). In this case involving Title VII, the author expected the Court to analyze whether whether a constructive discharge caused by supervisory harassment is a tangible employment action for purposes of imposing striet liability.


Does Title Ix Protect Academic Whistle Blowers? An Analysis Of Jackson V. Birminghan Board Of Education, Barbara J. Fick Jan 2004

Does Title Ix Protect Academic Whistle Blowers? An Analysis Of Jackson V. Birminghan Board Of Education, Barbara J. Fick

Journal Articles

This article previews the Supreme Court case Jackson v. Birmingham Board of Education, 544 U.S. 167 (2005). The author expected the Court to decide whether Title IX's ban on discrimination allows a private individual to sue for retaliation when a recipient of federal funds engages in adverse action against that individual because of his complaints that the recipient is violating Title IX?


Civil Rights And Human Rights: A Call For Closer Collaboration, Douglass Cassel Jan 2000

Civil Rights And Human Rights: A Call For Closer Collaboration, Douglass Cassel

Journal Articles

No abstract provided.


Does A Conspiracy To Terminate At-Will Employment Constitute An Injury To Property? An Analysis Of Haddle V. Garrison, Barbara J. Fick Jan 1998

Does A Conspiracy To Terminate At-Will Employment Constitute An Injury To Property? An Analysis Of Haddle V. Garrison, Barbara J. Fick

Journal Articles

This article previews the Supreme Court case Haddle v. Garrison, 525 U.S. 121 (1998). The author expected the Court to determine whether the termination of an at-will employee can be compensible under 42 U.S.C. § 1985, one of the Reconstruction Era Civil Rights Act.


Who's Responsible? Employer Liability For Supervisors' Hostile-Environment Sexual Harassment: An Analysis Of Faragher V. City Of Boca Raton, Barbara J. Fick Jan 1998

Who's Responsible? Employer Liability For Supervisors' Hostile-Environment Sexual Harassment: An Analysis Of Faragher V. City Of Boca Raton, Barbara J. Fick

Journal Articles

This article previews the Supreme Court case Faragher v. City of Boca Raton, 524 U.S. 775 (1998). The author expected the Court to address the issue of under what circumstances an employer is liabile under title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 for a supervisor's sexual harassement that creates a hostile work environment.


How To Count To Fifteen: Determining The Jurisdictional Scope Of Title Vii: An Analysis Of Walters V. Metropolitan Educational Enterprises Inc., Barbara J. Fick Jan 1996

How To Count To Fifteen: Determining The Jurisdictional Scope Of Title Vii: An Analysis Of Walters V. Metropolitan Educational Enterprises Inc., Barbara J. Fick

Journal Articles

This article previews the Supreme Court case Walters v. Metropolitan Educational Enterprises, Inc., 519 U.S. 202 (1997). The author expected the Court to consider how the number of employees of a particular employer should be counted for for purposes of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.


Are Back Pay And Damages In Age Discrimination Cases Subject To Income Taxes?, Matthew J. Barrett Jan 1995

Are Back Pay And Damages In Age Discrimination Cases Subject To Income Taxes?, Matthew J. Barrett

Journal Articles

No abstract provided.


'If I Knew Then What I Know Now': The Role Of After-Acquired Evidence In Employment Discrimination Cases: An Analysis Of Mckennon V. Nashville Banner, Barbara J. Fick Jan 1994

'If I Knew Then What I Know Now': The Role Of After-Acquired Evidence In Employment Discrimination Cases: An Analysis Of Mckennon V. Nashville Banner, Barbara J. Fick

Journal Articles

This article previews the Supreme Court case McKennon v. Nashville Banner Publishing Company, 513 U.S. 352 (1995). The author expected the Court to address whether after acquired evidence of employee misconduct is a complete defense for an employer's termination decision which would otherwise violate the Age Discrimination in Employment Act or is it relevant only to the scope of the remedy afforded to an employee terminated in violation of the Act.


Does Sexual Harassment Require Proof Of Psychological Injury? An Analysis Of Harris V. Forklift Systems, Barbara J. Fick Jan 1993

Does Sexual Harassment Require Proof Of Psychological Injury? An Analysis Of Harris V. Forklift Systems, Barbara J. Fick

Journal Articles

This article previews the Supreme Court case Harris v. Forklift Systems, Inc., 510 U.S. 17 (1993). The author expected the Court to address whether, under Title VII the Civil Rights Act of 1965, a plaintiff is required to prove that he or she suffered psychological injury as a result of sexual harassment in the workplace in order to prove a hostile-environment.


Peer Review: I'Ll Give You My Opinion If You Don't Tell Anyone What It Is: An Analysis Of University Of Pennsylvania V. Eeoc, Barbara J. Fick Jan 1989

Peer Review: I'Ll Give You My Opinion If You Don't Tell Anyone What It Is: An Analysis Of University Of Pennsylvania V. Eeoc, Barbara J. Fick

Journal Articles

This article previews the Supreme Court case University of Pennsylvania v. EEOC, 493 U.S. 192 (1990). The author expected the Court to decide whether the EEOC may subpeopna peer review documents submitted to a university tenure committee when investigating charges that the committee engaged in impermissible discrimination when denying tenure to an associate professor.


Title Vii: When Is A Pretext Not A Pretext? An Analysis Of Westinghouse Electric Corp. V. Vaughn, Barbara J. Fick Jan 1984

Title Vii: When Is A Pretext Not A Pretext? An Analysis Of Westinghouse Electric Corp. V. Vaughn, Barbara J. Fick

Journal Articles

This article previews the Supreme Court case Westinghouse Electric Corp. v. Vaughn, 466 U.S. 521 (1984). The author expected the Court to clarify the evidentiary requirements and burdens of plaintiffs and defendants in litigating a disparate treatment claim under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.


Thurgood Marshall And The Forgotten Legacy Of Brown V. Board Of Education, Kenneth F. Ripple Jan 1980

Thurgood Marshall And The Forgotten Legacy Of Brown V. Board Of Education, Kenneth F. Ripple

Journal Articles

No abstract provided.


Civil Rights And Legal Order: The Work Of A. Leon Higginbotham, Jr., Donald P. Kommers, Eugenia S. Schwartz Jan 1978

Civil Rights And Legal Order: The Work Of A. Leon Higginbotham, Jr., Donald P. Kommers, Eugenia S. Schwartz

Journal Articles

On October 11-12, 1978, Judge A. Leon Higginbotham, Jr.' delivered the Notre Dame Law School's Seventh Annual Civil Rights Lecture under the general title, "From Thomas Jefferson to Bakke: Race and the American Legal Process." It seems to us appropriate, therefore, on the occasion of the Higginbotham lecture, to consider his work as both historian and judge. Specifically, this article will serve the threefold purpose of (1) reviewing Matter of Color, (2) illustrating the author's use of history in two judicial opinions dealing with the rights of black Americans, and (3) reflecting upon the implications of Higginbotham's ...


Civil Rights And Civil Liberties, Douglass Cassel Jan 1976

Civil Rights And Civil Liberties, Douglass Cassel

Journal Articles

No abstract provided.