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Criminal Trademark Enforcement And The Problem Of Inevitable Creep, Mark Mckenna Jan 2018

Criminal Trademark Enforcement And The Problem Of Inevitable Creep, Mark Mckenna

Journal Articles

This Article, delivered as the 2017 Oldham Lecture at the University of Akron School of Law, focuses on the federal Trademark Counterfeiting Act (TCA), the primary source of federal criminal trademark sanctions. That statute was intended to increase the penalties associated with the most egregious form of trademark infringement — use of an identical mark for goods identical to those for which the mark is registered and in a context in which the use is likely to deceive consumers about the actual source of the counterfeiter’s goods. The TCA was intended to ratchet up the penalties associated with counterfeiting, but ...


Constraining Monitors, Veronica Root Jan 2017

Constraining Monitors, Veronica Root

Journal Articles

Monitors oversee remediation efforts at dozens, if not hundreds, of institutions that are guilty of misconduct. The remediation efforts that the monitors of today engage in are, in many instances, quite similar to activities that were once subject to formal court oversight. But as the importance and power of monitors has increased, the court’s oversight of monitors and the agreements that most often result in monitorships has, at best, been severely diminished and, at worst, vanished altogether.

The lack of regulation governing monitors is well documented; yet, the academic literature on monitorships to date has largely taken the state ...


Do Patent Challenges Increase Competition?, Stephen Yelderman Oct 2016

Do Patent Challenges Increase Competition?, Stephen Yelderman

Journal Articles

This Article is the first to seriously scrutinize the claim that patent challenges lead to increased competition. It identifies a number of conditions that must hold for a patent challenge to provide this particular benefit, and evaluates the reasonableness of assuming that the pro-competitive benefits of patent challenges are generally available. As it turns out, there are a number of ways these conditions can and regularly do fail. This Article synthesizes legal doctrine, recent empirical scholarship, and several novel case studies to identify categories of challenges in which the potential benefits for competition are smaller than previously thought or, in ...


Inside The Taft Court: Lessons From The Docket Books, Barry Cushman Jan 2016

Inside The Taft Court: Lessons From The Docket Books, Barry Cushman

Journal Articles

For many years, the docket books kept by certain of the Taft Court Justices have been held by the Office of the Curator of the Supreme Court. Though the existence of these docket books had been brought to the attention of the scholarly community, access to them was highly restricted. In April of 2014, however, the Court adopted new guidelines designed to increase access to the docket books for researchers. This article offers a report and analysis based on a review of all of the Taft Court docket books held by the Office of the Curator, which are the only ...


Joe Bauer Presented "Enforcement Issues Under American Antitrust Laws" At The University Of Tilburg (Holland) Center For Law And Economics On December 19, 2013, Joseph P. Bauer Dec 2013

Joe Bauer Presented "Enforcement Issues Under American Antitrust Laws" At The University Of Tilburg (Holland) Center For Law And Economics On December 19, 2013, Joseph P. Bauer

Faculty Lectures and Presentations

Joe Bauer presented a seminar at the University of Tilburg (Holland) Center for Law and Economics on December 19. His topic was Enforcement Issues under American Antitrust Laws. View PowerPoint slides of lecture by clicking pdf link.


Understanding Behavioral Antitrust, Avishalom Tor Jan 2013

Understanding Behavioral Antitrust, Avishalom Tor

Journal Articles

Behavioral antitrust – the application to antitrust analysis of empirical evidence of robust behavioral deviations from strict rationality – is increasingly popular and hotly debated by legal scholars and the enforcement agencies alike. This Article shows, however, that both proponents and opponents of behavioral antitrust frequently and fundamentally misconstrue its methodology, treating concrete empirical phenomena as if they were broad hypothetical assumptions. Because of this fundamental methodological error, scholars often make three classes of mistakes in behavioral antitrust analyses: First, they fail to appreciate the variability and heterogeneity of behavioral phenomena; second, they disregard the concrete ways in which markets, firms, and ...


The Foreign Trade Antitrust Improvements Act: Do We Really Want To Return To American Banana?, Joseph P. Bauer Jan 2012

The Foreign Trade Antitrust Improvements Act: Do We Really Want To Return To American Banana?, Joseph P. Bauer

Journal Articles

The extra-territorial reach of the antitrust laws is subject to multiple constraints, including the Commerce Clause of the constitution, the text of the antitrust statutes, and a variety of policy considerations. At the beginning of the twentieth century, in the American Banana case, the Supreme Court severely limited the application of the antitrust laws to anti-competitive behavior beyond our shores. The next eighty years saw an expansion of their extra-territorial reach, by including within their coverage a range of foreign conduct which had domestic effects. However, confusion among the lower courts as to the extent of this coverage, as well ...


Is Pepsi Really A Substitute For Coke? Market Definition In Antitrust And Ip, Mark Mckenna Jan 2012

Is Pepsi Really A Substitute For Coke? Market Definition In Antitrust And Ip, Mark Mckenna

Journal Articles

Antitrust law explicitly depends on market definition. Many issues in IP law also depend on market definition, though that definition is rarely explicit. Applying antitrust traditional market definition to IP goods leads to some startling results. Despite the received wisdom that IP rights don't necessarily confer market power, a wide array of IP rights do exactly that under traditional antitrust principles. This result requires us to rethink both the overly-rigid way we define markets in antitrust law and the competitive consequences of granting IP protection. Both antitrust and IP must begin to think realistically about those consequences, rather than ...


Unilateral, Anticompetitive Acquisitions Of Dominance Or Monopoly Power, Avishalom Tor Jan 2010

Unilateral, Anticompetitive Acquisitions Of Dominance Or Monopoly Power, Avishalom Tor

Journal Articles

The prohibition of certain types of anticompetitive unilateral conduct by firms possessing a substantial degree of market power is a cornerstone of competition law regimes worldwide. Yet notwithstanding the social costs of monopoly modern legal regimes refrain from prohibiting it outright. Instead, competition laws prohibit monopolies or dominant firms from engaging in those types of anticompetitive conduct that amount to monopolizing or an abuse of dominant position. Importantly, anticompetitive conduct can take place both on the road to monopoly and, later on, once substantial market power has been achieved. Legal regimes nevertheless tend either to ignore or pay only limited ...


At The Brink Of Free Agency: Creating The Foundation For The Messersmith-Mcnally Decision - 1968-1975, Edmund P. Edmonds Jan 2010

At The Brink Of Free Agency: Creating The Foundation For The Messersmith-Mcnally Decision - 1968-1975, Edmund P. Edmonds

Journal Articles

"One of the most dramatic periods in baseball’s long history of labor relations occurred from 1968 through 1975. The Major League Baseball Players Association negotiated baseball’s first Basic Agreement in 1968 without the benefit of any leverage that could alter most of Organized Baseball’s long practices that controlled the players’ mobility and wages. In 1975, however, the union won an arbitration panel hearing that determined that pitchers Dave McNally and Andy Messersmith were free agents after playing one full season under the renewed option year of their contracts and filing a grievance under the newly adopted arbitration ...


Back To The Future: Rediscovering Equitable Discretion In Trademark Cases, Mark P. Mckenna Jan 2010

Back To The Future: Rediscovering Equitable Discretion In Trademark Cases, Mark P. Mckenna

Journal Articles

Courts in recent years have increasingly made blunt use of their equitable powers in trademark cases. Rather than limiting the scope of injunctive relief so as to protect the interests of a mark owner while respecting the legitimate interests of third parties and of consumers, courts in most cases have viewed injunctive relief in binary terms. This is unfortunate, because greater willingness to tailor injunctive relief could go a long way to mitigating some of the most pernicious effects of trademark law’s modern expansion. This Essay urges courts to reverse this trend towards crude injunctive relief, and to re-embrace ...


Introduction: Expansion And Contraction In Monopolization Law, Michael S. Gal, Spencer Weber Waller, Avishalom Tor Jan 2010

Introduction: Expansion And Contraction In Monopolization Law, Michael S. Gal, Spencer Weber Waller, Avishalom Tor

Journal Articles

This article introduces a special symposium issue of the Antitrust Law Journal based on a conference on monopolization. It argues that monopolization law has been experiencing simultaneous expansion and contraction processes that are not wholly contradictory but at least partly complementary. Specifically, the authors suggest that the contraction of monopolization law in the United States and the EU might serve to facilitate its expansion and increased importance worldwide, providing other antitrust regimes with more focused and effective tools to address the challenges involved in regulating dominant firms. Moreover, monopolization law's increased reach internationally also has made its refinement and ...


Reflections On The Manifold Means Of Enforcing The Antitrust Laws: Too Much, Too Little, Or Just Right?, Joseph P. Bauer Jan 2004

Reflections On The Manifold Means Of Enforcing The Antitrust Laws: Too Much, Too Little, Or Just Right?, Joseph P. Bauer

Journal Articles

Lately, much attention has been given to the scope of the antitrust laws. This discussion has two overlapping components: (1) consideration of the substantive doctrines specifying the behavioral or structural changes that are or are not unlawful and the appropriate methodology; and (2) analysis for making those determinations with attention given to the appropriate vehicles for enforcing the antitrust laws. Some argue that the antitrust laws proscribe activities that are either pro-competitive or at worst benign. Further, they assert that the multiplicity of antitrust enforcers and enforcement devices has resulted in undue burdens, including excessive cost, time delay, and forestalling ...


Overcoming Impediments To Information Sharing, Avishalom Tor, Amitai Aviram Jan 2004

Overcoming Impediments To Information Sharing, Avishalom Tor, Amitai Aviram

Journal Articles

When deciding whether to share information, firms consider their private welfare. Discrepancies between social and private welfare may lead firms excessively to share information to anti-competitive ends - in facilitating of cartels and other harmful horizontal practices - a problem both antitrust scholarship and case law have paid much attention to. On the other hand, legal scholars have paid far less attention to the opposite type of inefficiency in information sharing among competitors - namely, the problem of sub-optimal information sharing. This phenomenon can generate significant social costs and is of special importance in network industries because the maintenance of compatibility, a key ...


Illustrating A Behaviorally Informed Approach To Antitrust Law: The Case Of Predatory Pricing, Avishalom Tor Jan 2003

Illustrating A Behaviorally Informed Approach To Antitrust Law: The Case Of Predatory Pricing, Avishalom Tor

Journal Articles

One of the core assumptions of the traditional economic approach to antitrust law is that competitors are perfectly rational, profit-maximizing, decision makers. Sometimes, this assumption serves as a useful simplification of business behavior, providing an effective foundation for antitrust doctrine. At other times, however, assuming strictly rational behavior on the part of competitors is not “approximately right” but, instead, “perfectly wrong.” In these latter cases, the reliance on the perfect rationality assumption can lead scholars to mispredict market behavior and, possibly, advocate erroneous prescriptions for antitrust policy. In contrast, a behaviorally informed approach to antitrust law is based on scientific ...


The Stealth Assault On Antitrust Enforcement: Raising The Barriers For Antitrust Injury And Standing, Joseph P. Bauer Jan 2001

The Stealth Assault On Antitrust Enforcement: Raising The Barriers For Antitrust Injury And Standing, Joseph P. Bauer

Journal Articles

The first Annual Conference sponsored by the American Antitrust Institute featured a number of prominent speakers and explored a number of important issues. The Conference had two principal focuses: substantive questions of antitrust liability and the future direction of public enforcement of the antitrust laws by the Department of Justice's Antitrust Division and by the Federal Trade Commission. However, an issue of at least equal importance was barely discussed, although it has seriously affected the scope and direction of the antitrust laws. That issue: Private enforcement of the antitrust laws, and the significant undermining of those efforts by a ...


The Curt Flood Act Of 1998: A Hollow Gesture After All These Years?, Edmund P. Edmonds Oct 1998

The Curt Flood Act Of 1998: A Hollow Gesture After All These Years?, Edmund P. Edmonds

Journal Articles

This article discusses the Curt Flood Act of 1998 and explores the nonstatutory labor exemption the Supreme Court has applied to professional sports leagues. It also explores the likely impact of the Curt Flood Act on the rights of players or managers to use antitrust laws effectively against one another.


Over Forty Years In The On-Deck Circle: Congress And The Baseball Antitrust Exemption, Ed Edmonds Jan 1994

Over Forty Years In The On-Deck Circle: Congress And The Baseball Antitrust Exemption, Ed Edmonds

Journal Articles

"Congressional discussion of baseball's antitrust exemption stretches over forty years involving a significant number of legislative initiatives. Although the exemption is a judicial aberration without justification, the 103d Congress will probably be no more successful than its predecessors in altering its long-standing existence. The three bills under consideration are not specifically crafted to resolve the problems of the changes in the commissioner's office or the lack of an expansion franchise or the relocation of an existing franchise to the Tampa-St. Petersburg area. Much of the history of Congressional concern over baseball's antitrust status suggests that broad-based attempts ...


Antitrust And Sports: Must Competition On The Field Displace Competition In The Market?, Joseph P. Bauer Jan 1993

Antitrust And Sports: Must Competition On The Field Displace Competition In The Market?, Joseph P. Bauer

Journal Articles

A casual glance at the daily newspapers would suggest that athletes and sports teams spend almost as much time squaring off in the courts as they do on the playing fields. Professional football players complain that the teams for which they play and the National Football League have conspired to impose illegal restraints on their ability to offer their services to other teams. A baseball team went to court to challenge the decision by the now-deposed Commissioner of Baseball to shift it from one division to another. College players, coaches, and universities all contend that various rules imposed by the ...


The Extraterritorial Application Of Antitrust Laws: A Postscript On Hartford Fire Insurance Co. V. California, Roger P. Alford Jan 1993

The Extraterritorial Application Of Antitrust Laws: A Postscript On Hartford Fire Insurance Co. V. California, Roger P. Alford

Journal Articles

No abstract provided.


The Extraterritorial Application Of Antitrust Laws: The United States And European Community Approaches, Roger P. Alford Jan 1992

The Extraterritorial Application Of Antitrust Laws: The United States And European Community Approaches, Roger P. Alford

Journal Articles

No abstract provided.


Why A Private Right Of Action Against Dumping Would Violate Gatt, Roger P. Alford Jan 1991

Why A Private Right Of Action Against Dumping Would Violate Gatt, Roger P. Alford

Journal Articles

Despite its other successes, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) has been criticized as being anything but successful in the antidumping arena. In particular, industries in the United States argue that GATT has failed to control dumping effectively and that alternative forms of relief are needed to counteract this unfair trade practice. The root of their concerns is the prospective nature of the existing remedy. Since antidumping duties are assessed only after a violation has been detected, dumping is essentially a risk-free, no-lose proposition, giving foreign exporters a free "first bite at the apple." The absence of monetary ...


Competition At The Teller's Window?: Altered Antitrust Standards For Banks And Other Financial Institutions, Joseph P. Bauer, Earl W. Kintner Jan 1987

Competition At The Teller's Window?: Altered Antitrust Standards For Banks And Other Financial Institutions, Joseph P. Bauer, Earl W. Kintner

Journal Articles

Congressional and judicial attitudes towards the banking industry have reflected two, sometimes conflicting, goals-the maintenance of the solvency of financial institutions to protect the interests of depositors, other creditors and the economy at large; and the promotion of competition among these institutions and in the economy. The advancement of these goals has been reflected in the application of the antitrust laws to the industry.

For the most part, the Sherman and Clayton Acts apply with the same force and scope to financial institutions as to other industries. In some cases, however, the goal of institutional protection is favored, and the ...


Developments In Section Two Of The Sherman Act, Joseph P. Bauer Jan 1986

Developments In Section Two Of The Sherman Act, Joseph P. Bauer

Journal Articles

The issues raised in this Symposium are of great interest and timeliness. During the 1940s and 1950s, the Supreme Court explored the role of Section 2 of the Sherman Act as an essential element in the antitrust regime. As was true with antitrust generally, courts expanded the reach of Section 2, frequently concluding that the complained-of conduct constituted unlawful monopolization or attempts to monopolize, and approving injunctions forbidding the continuation of exclusionary or predatory practices and orders leading to the breakup of the monopoly itself. However, after the Grinnell decision in 1966, and the Otter Tail case almost a decade ...


Application Of The Antitrust Laws To The Activities Of Insurance Companies: Heavier Risks, Expanded Coverage, And Greater Liability, Joseph Bauer, Earl W. Kintner, Michael J. Allen Jan 1985

Application Of The Antitrust Laws To The Activities Of Insurance Companies: Heavier Risks, Expanded Coverage, And Greater Liability, Joseph Bauer, Earl W. Kintner, Michael J. Allen

Journal Articles

Since 1945 Congress has exempted certain activities of insurance companies from federal antitrust scrutiny. This exemption, provided by the McCarran-Ferguson Act, is not unqualified; it only applies to insurance company activities that constitute the "business of insurance" and that already are regulated under state law. Moreover, the exemption does not apply to activities that involve boycotts, coercion, or intimidation. The purpose of this exemption was to preserve the long tradition of state regulation of insurance, while providing federal remedies for coercive anticompetitive activities. The authors examine recent Supreme Court interpretations of the Act in light of this legislative policy and ...


A Federal Law Of Unfair Competition: What Should Be The Reach Of Section 43(A) Of The Lanham Act?, Joseph P. Bauer Jan 1984

A Federal Law Of Unfair Competition: What Should Be The Reach Of Section 43(A) Of The Lanham Act?, Joseph P. Bauer

Journal Articles

Statutes, like human beings, may experience a mid-life crisis. One notable illustration of this phenomenon is Section 43(a) of the Lanham Act of 1946. This provision, offering federal protection to businesses against many forms of unfair competition engaged in by their rivals, has been the subject of varied and inconsistent judicial treatment. Just as with a growing child, the first eight years of this statute's existence were characterized by few lasting achievements.

Then a landmark decision in 1954 recognized and liberated Section 43(a)'s potential. The past two decades have seen an explosion in the kinds of ...


Antitrust Exemptions For Private Requests For Governmental Action: A Critical Analysis Of The Noerr-Pennington Doctrine, Earl W. Kintner, Joseph P. Bauer Jan 1984

Antitrust Exemptions For Private Requests For Governmental Action: A Critical Analysis Of The Noerr-Pennington Doctrine, Earl W. Kintner, Joseph P. Bauer

Journal Articles

Section 1 of the Sherman Act makes it unlawful for persons to engage in a combination or conspiracy, in restraint of trade. A variety of undertakings by persons seeking legislative action, judicial relief, administrative agency activity, or action by the executive branch of government may result in governmental steps which restrain competitors or diminish competition. Indeed, the very act of seeking governmental intervention, even if unsuccessful, may have adverse competitive effects. Similarly, monopolization or attempts to monopolize, proscribed by Section 2 of the Sherman Act, might actually be advanced by governmental activities or by an individual merely seeking governmental assistance ...


A Simplified Approach To Tying Arrangements: A Legal And Economic Analysis, Joseph P. Bauer Jan 1980

A Simplified Approach To Tying Arrangements: A Legal And Economic Analysis, Joseph P. Bauer

Journal Articles

Few types of antitrust conduct have received as much treatment from the Supreme Court as tying arrangements. This practice, which is unlawful per se when certain prerequisites are met, may be defined as an agreement by a party to sell one product [the tying product] but only on the condition that the buyer also purchases different (or tied) product, or at least agrees that he will not purchase that product from any other supplier. Notwithstanding this extensive Supreme Court attention, there is as much heat as light in this area. The doctrine that has developed is often unpredictable and frequently ...


Emerging Issues With Respect To Merger Enforcement Standards, Daniel F. Kolb, Edward W. Large, David Boies, Thomas Dieterich, Malcolm R. Pfunder, Joseph P. Bauer Jan 1979

Emerging Issues With Respect To Merger Enforcement Standards, Daniel F. Kolb, Edward W. Large, David Boies, Thomas Dieterich, Malcolm R. Pfunder, Joseph P. Bauer

Journal Articles

No abstract provided.


Per Se Illegality Of Concerted Refusals To Deal: A Rule Ripe For Reexamination, Joseph P. Bauer Jan 1979

Per Se Illegality Of Concerted Refusals To Deal: A Rule Ripe For Reexamination, Joseph P. Bauer

Journal Articles

Section 1 of the Sherman Act proscribes [e]very contract, combination . . . or conspiracy, in restraint of trade. Early Supreme Court cases interpreting this provision held that it required a determination by the trier of fact of the reasonableness of the challenged conduct in each case — an approach which came to be known as the rule of reason. In subsequent cases, however, the Court has held that certain conduct is unreasonable per se. That is, once a court has determined that such conduct has taken place, it is foreclosed from undertaking an inquiry into the reasonableness of that conduct. One form ...