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Full-Text Articles in Law

Presidential War-Making, Henry Paul Monaghan Jan 1970

Presidential War-Making, Henry Paul Monaghan

Faculty Scholarship

The Vietnam "war" has convinced many persons that the president of the United States claims apparently unlimited power to commit this country to war. Not surprisingly, therefore, considerable interest has focused on the powers that inhere in the presidency. And many critics of the war – those who in other times and in other contexts might have been sympathetic to a spacious conception of presidential power – have concluded that the Vietnam conflict is not only a tragic error, but is the direct result of unconstitutional conduct by the president. I cannot accept this view; at bottom, it seems to me yet ...


First Amendment "Due Process", Henry Paul Monaghan Jan 1970

First Amendment "Due Process", Henry Paul Monaghan

Faculty Scholarship

A number of recent Supreme Court opinions, primarily in the obscenity area, have fastened strict procedural requirements on governmental action aimed at controlling the exercise of first amendment rights. Professor Monaghan believes that there are two basic principles that can be distilled from these cases: that a judicial body, following an adversary hearing, must decide on the protected character of the speech, and that the judicial determination must either precede or immediately follow any governmental action which restricts speech. The author argues that these two broad principles should limit any governmental activity which affects freedom of speech, no matter how ...


On Lawful Governments, Joseph Raz Jan 1970

On Lawful Governments, Joseph Raz

Faculty Scholarship

What is the meaning of sentences of the form 'X is the lawful government of the country Y,' and what kinds of statements are normally -made by using them? Most answers to these questions can be classified as legalistic, moralistic, or compromise solutions. The gist of the legalistic approach is that the lawful government is that authorized by the positive law of the land. Critics of the legalistic approach point out that disagreement about the lawful government is not always solved when agreement is reached about the positive law of the land. For example, two people may disagree as to ...


Decision Trees, Peter L. Strauss, Michael R. Topping Jan 1970

Decision Trees, Peter L. Strauss, Michael R. Topping

Faculty Scholarship

The object of this paper is to inform those concerned with the administration of justice in Ethiopia – particularly, criminal justice – about a new and simple procedure which may assist in procuring uniform interpretation and application of laws and regulations. The problem of uniform interpretation and application is particularly severe where, as in Ethiopia, new laws must be interpreted and applied by persons who have not yet had the opportunity of formal legal education. For these persons the discovery of the relevant code articles and the understanding of their interrelationships and application must be very difficult indeed. One possible result of ...


The Regulation And Administration Of The Welfare Hearing Process – The Need For Administrative Responsibility, Robert E. Scott Jan 1969

The Regulation And Administration Of The Welfare Hearing Process – The Need For Administrative Responsibility, Robert E. Scott

Faculty Scholarship

In recent years, the concept of public welfare has undergone substantial conceptual changes, the primary being a shift from the older concept of gratuity to one of statutory entitlement pursuant to the Social Security Act. This paper seeks to examine and analyze the administrative "fair hearing" as a means of effective regulation of administrative discretion and enforcement of the entitlement provisions of the federal act. Primary emphasis is placed on a comparative treatment of state hearing procedures and federal hearing regulations to determine whether the fair hearing is, at present, a viable means of insuring due process in welfare administration.


The Truth-In-Negotiations Act – An Examination Of Defective Pricing In Government Contracts, Michael J. Graetz Jan 1968

The Truth-In-Negotiations Act – An Examination Of Defective Pricing In Government Contracts, Michael J. Graetz

Faculty Scholarship

Charges of excessive profitmaking on government contracts have issued from the Senate floor and the nation's press and have provided the impetus for recent congressional investigations and proposals for remedial legislation. Profiteering by government contractors is a problem of potentially enormous dimensions since purchases by the federal government total more than seventy-seven billion dollars – over ten per cent of the gross national product. Because the greatest part of these purchases are made by the Department of Defense, congressional action aimed at minimizing excessive profits has focused upon Defense Department procurement activities under the Armed Services Procurement Act (ASPA).


Two Kinds Of Legal Rules: A Comparative Study Of Burden-Of-Persuasion Practices In Criminal Cases, George P. Fletcher Jan 1968

Two Kinds Of Legal Rules: A Comparative Study Of Burden-Of-Persuasion Practices In Criminal Cases, George P. Fletcher

Faculty Scholarship

Good men everywhere praise the presumption of innocence. And be they Frenchmen, Germans, or Americans, they agree on the demand of the presumption in practice. Both here and abroad, the state's invocation of criminal sanctions demands a high degree of proof that the accused has committed the offense charged. To express the requisite standard of proof, common lawyers speak of the prosecutor's duty to prove his case beyond a reasonable doubt. And Continental lawyers invoke the maxim in dubio pro reo – a precept requiring triers of fact to acquit in cases of doubt.

The French speak of the ...


On Interpreting The Ethiopian Penal Code, Peter L. Strauss Jan 1968

On Interpreting The Ethiopian Penal Code, Peter L. Strauss

Faculty Scholarship

The aim of this article is to set out and discuss some general principles of interpreting the Ethiopian Penal Code – that is to say, of using it. Even now, ten years after it came into effect, many people have difficulty in understanding and using the Penal Code in a straightforward way. It seems complex, and many of its fundamental conceptions are unfamiliar to Ethiopian lawyers. This article, discussing at length how the code is built, may help reduce its apparent complexity and thus facilitate its day-to-day application.


The Presumption Of Innocence In The Soviet Union, George P. Fletcher Jan 1968

The Presumption Of Innocence In The Soviet Union, George P. Fletcher

Faculty Scholarship

The presumption of innocence is a curious item in the baggage of Western legal rhetoric. Revered today here and abroad, it has become a standard clause in international testimonials to the rights of man. Yet, at first blush, it seems conceptually anomalous and irrelevant in practice. It is hardly a presumption of fact – a distillation of common experience; statistics betray the suggestion that men indicted on criminal charges are likely to be innocent. Nor is it a legal rule masquerading as an irrebuttable presumption; it is rebuttable by proof beyond a reasonable doubt of the defendant's guilt. Further, it ...


Compensation For Victims Of Violent Crimes: An Analysis, Robert E. Scott Jan 1967

Compensation For Victims Of Violent Crimes: An Analysis, Robert E. Scott

Faculty Scholarship

Spurred by the implementation of plans in Great Britain, New Zealand, and California; and by various other federal and state proposals, the concept of state compensation to victims of violent crimes has recently become the subject of wide public interest and intensive legal debate. In essence, the concept envisages some scheme by which the victims of crimes of violence can be compensated for any losses resulting from their criminally inflicted injuries.

Before any proposals based on this conception are adopted they should be shown to have a valid theoretical framework, supported by sound legal principles, with an effective and efficient ...


Obscenity, 1966: The Marriage Of Obscenity Per Se And Obscenity Per Quod, Henry Paul Monaghan Jan 1966

Obscenity, 1966: The Marriage Of Obscenity Per Se And Obscenity Per Quod, Henry Paul Monaghan

Faculty Scholarship

In a widely admired article, Harry Kalven argued that the New York Times case embodies the "central meaning" of the First Amendment. On his view, in a free, open society, maximum protection must be accorded to "political" speech. He concluded that the right freely to criticize the government must lie at the center of any adequate theory of the First Amendment.

It is not so easy to make a comparable claim about the relationship between obscenity and the First Amendment. The Supreme Court's conception of obscenity is partially responsible. While the Court in Roth v. United States (1957) explicitly ...


Criminal Law And Procedure, Henry Paul Monaghan Jan 1966

Criminal Law And Procedure, Henry Paul Monaghan

Faculty Scholarship

§12.1 Introduction. The recent decisions of the United States Supreme Court in the area of criminal procedure have begun to have a considerable impact upon litigation in the Massachusetts courts; indeed, for at least the second successive year the major emphasis of the Supreme Judicial Court's criminal law opinions centered upon considerations of "criminal due process." On the whole, the Court demonstrated an admirable concern for protecting the requirements of a fair trial. However, in at least two significant areas its decisions are open to considerable question: (1) in a series of opinions the Court confined the admittedly ...


Gideon's Army: Student Soldiers, Henry Paul Monaghan Jan 1965

Gideon's Army: Student Soldiers, Henry Paul Monaghan

Faculty Scholarship

Ours is a nation that takes great pride in the manner in which it administers justice to its citizens. To us, "equal justice under law" is not simply hollow rhetoric; it gives expression to some of our most fundamental values, and it proclaims that every man should be treated fairly and equally in the administration of the laws. It is, of course, of no small moment that we hold such an ideal, for a nation invites judgment on how well its performance comports with its professions of faith.

In the administration of our laws there is much to which we ...


Law And The Negro Revolution; Ten Years Later, Henry Paul Monaghan Jan 1964

Law And The Negro Revolution; Ten Years Later, Henry Paul Monaghan

Faculty Scholarship

Scarcely ten years ago the Supreme Court of the United States sounded the death knell for segregation in the public schools. In so doing, the high court in fact did much more, for its decision drew together and united the diverse elements in American society which were arrayed against segregation in all its forms. Thus began the great social upheaval which we loosely term "the Negro revolution."

The broad goal is readily discernible. The Negro demands admittance to American public life, to the schools, theatres, restaurants, hotels, job opportunities and the like which comprise the "public" sector of our society ...


Section 301 And The Primary Jurisdiction Of The Nlrb, Michael I. Sovern Jan 1963

Section 301 And The Primary Jurisdiction Of The Nlrb, Michael I. Sovern

Faculty Scholarship

Several labor cases recently decided by the Supreme Court have brought into issue a conflict between the NLRB's primary jurisdiction over matters subject to sections 7 and 8 of the NLRA and the doctrine that courts have jurisdiction to enforce collective agreements. Professor Sovern discusses these cases and argues that the Court properly decided that the principle of exclusive NLRB jurisdiction should yield in suits on collective agreements, but he criticizes the Court for not having articulated a satisfactory rationale in support of this result. After an analysis of the doctrine of preemption, he considers five types of labor-contract ...


The National Labor Relations Act And Racial Discrimination, Michael I. Sovern Jan 1962

The National Labor Relations Act And Racial Discrimination, Michael I. Sovern

Faculty Scholarship

When the United States Commission on Civil Rights completed its recent study of discrimination in employment, its findings began on the same depressing note sounded by virtually every student of the problem since the end of slavery:

[N]egro workers are still disproportionately concentrated in the ranks of the unskilled and semiskilled in both private and public employment. They are also disproportionately represented among the unemployed because of their concentration in unskilled and semi-skilled jobs-those most severely affected by both cyclical and structural unemployment-and because Negro workers often have relatively low seniority. These difficulties are due in some degree to ...


The Constitution And Occupational Licensing In Massachusetts, Henry Paul Monaghan Jan 1961

The Constitution And Occupational Licensing In Massachusetts, Henry Paul Monaghan

Faculty Scholarship

Judges have long recognized that the right to earn a living in any of the common occupations is among those fundamental interests which a democratic society should protect. Justice Bradley characterized it as an "inalienable right," and Justice Douglas asserted that it is "the most precious liberty that man possesses." Indeed, Mr. Justice Field viewed protection of this right as one of the distinguishing features of our republican institutions. That the right to earn a living is generally within the protective mantle of the Fourteenth Amendment is now long settled constitutional doctrine. Writing for a unanimous court in 1915, Mr ...


Delay And The Dynamics Of Personal Injury Litigation, Maurice Rosenberg, Michael I. Sovern Jan 1959

Delay And The Dynamics Of Personal Injury Litigation, Maurice Rosenberg, Michael I. Sovern

Faculty Scholarship

Delayed justice is one of man's stubborn maladies. Just as stubborn is' man himself, and this has led him to persist in prescribing for the delay affliction instead of trying to understand it. Today there are still those who believe that solution can precede understanding and that what this country needs is a good five-cent "cure" for delay. Happily, others have recognized the need to put first things first. All through the country more and more groups are at work methodically getting the facts that are essential to understanding what is wrong and what is needed. The Columbia University ...


Section 4 Of The Bankruptcy Act: The Excluded Corporations, Michael I. Sovern Jan 1957

Section 4 Of The Bankruptcy Act: The Excluded Corporations, Michael I. Sovern

Faculty Scholarship

Section 4 of the Bankruptcy Act excludes from both voluntary and involuntary bankruptcy municipal, railroad, insurance and banking corporations and building and loan associations, and excludes from involuntary bankruptcy corporations that are not "moneyed, business or commercial." The exclusion of railroad and municipal corporations lost much of its significance when special reorganization provisions were enacted for those corporations. Insurance and banking corporations and building and loan associations, on the other hand, are excluded from the Bankruptcy Act's corporate reorganization chapters as well as from straight bankruptcy; and creditors can no more compel a corporation that is not moneyed, business ...


"Public Policy" In The Conflict Of Laws, Monrad G. Paulsen, Michael I. Sovern Jan 1956

"Public Policy" In The Conflict Of Laws, Monrad G. Paulsen, Michael I. Sovern

Faculty Scholarship

In deciding a conflict of laws question, a judge will sometimes say, "The foreign law ordinarily applicable will not be applied in this case because to do so would violate our public policy." The textwriters, language in the cases, and the Restatement agree: the "normal" operation of choice of law rules is subject to a "public policy" limitation. This paper is an attempt to explore the meanings and significance of "public policy," used in this general way, in the conflict of laws.