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Things Have Changed (Or Have They?): Tariff Protection And Environmental Concerns In The Wto, Petros C. Mavroidis, Damien J. Neven Jan 2018

Things Have Changed (Or Have They?): Tariff Protection And Environmental Concerns In The Wto, Petros C. Mavroidis, Damien J. Neven

Faculty Scholarship

This paper considers the APEC and proposed EGA agreements which grant tariff concession in favor of "green" goods. We find that the practical significance of the APEC agreement should not be overestimated as it involves modest tariff concessions over a subset of goods which are not heavily traded. Still, these agreements involve a paradigm shift to the extent that they use tariffs concessions negotiated on a plurilateral basis as a policy instrument to meet public policy concern, instead of making market access conditional on meeting national regulations. We model the mechanism through which these tariff preferences provide incentives to change ...


Die Another Day: Zeroing In On Targeted Dumping: Did The Ab Hit The Mark In Us – Washing Machines?, Petros C. Mavroidis, Thomas J. Prusa Jan 2018

Die Another Day: Zeroing In On Targeted Dumping: Did The Ab Hit The Mark In Us – Washing Machines?, Petros C. Mavroidis, Thomas J. Prusa

Faculty Scholarship

In US – Washing Machines, the WTO Appellate Body (AB) extended the prohibition of zeroing to the so-called exceptional (or W-T) methodology, where the dumping margin is established by comparing the weighted average normal value to export price of specific transactions. Given that the exceptional method was the only method under which the AB had not definitively rejected zeroing, this dispute may have hammered the last nail in the coffin of zeroing. Or, maybe not. The AB did not address a key issue, namely, what is the evidentiary standard that an investigating authority must meet in order to have legitimate recourse ...


Trade Openness And Antitrust Law, Anu Bradford, Adam S. Chilton Jan 2018

Trade Openness And Antitrust Law, Anu Bradford, Adam S. Chilton

Faculty Scholarship

Openness to international trade and adoption of antitrust laws can both curb anti-competitive behavior. But scholars have long debated the relationship between the two. Some argue that greater trade openness makes antitrust unnecessary, while others contend that antitrust laws are still needed to realize the benefits of trade liberalization. Data limitations have made this debate largely theoretical to date. We study the relationship between trade and antitrust empirically using new data on antitrust laws and enforcement activities. We find that trade openness and stringency of antitrust laws are positively correlated from 1950 to 2010 overall, but the positive correlation disappears ...


Another One Bites The Dust: The Distance Between Luxembourg And The World Is Growing After Achmea, Petros C. Mavroidis, Carlo M. Cantore Jan 2018

Another One Bites The Dust: The Distance Between Luxembourg And The World Is Growing After Achmea, Petros C. Mavroidis, Carlo M. Cantore

Faculty Scholarship

The CJEU has become a gatekeeper. Ever since Opinion 1/91, the CJEU has been imposing barriers to the recognition of decisions by foreign jurisdictions. Its recent Achmea decision is the natural consequence of case law so far. This attitude would not be problematic by itself since, through this attitude, the European Union would still be liable at the international plane, even if it did not implement its international obligations (liability- over property rules). This is not the end of the story. The CJEU accepts the, in principle, relevance of decisions by some international jurisdictions. However, the CJEU has repeatedly ...


Dissenting Opinions In The Wto Appellate Body: Drivers Of Their Issuance & Implications For The Institutional Jurisprudence, Petros C. Mavroidis, Evan Y. Kim Jan 2018

Dissenting Opinions In The Wto Appellate Body: Drivers Of Their Issuance & Implications For The Institutional Jurisprudence, Petros C. Mavroidis, Evan Y. Kim

Faculty Scholarship

The Appellate Body (AB) of the WTO has issued over 140 reports but only eight separate opinions, four of which are genuinely dissenting. Such paucity, in fact, is the WTO’s implicit tradition inherited from GATT of prioritizing unanimous decisions, hoping they solidify the institution’s legitimacy and countries’ confidence in the system. But at the more individual level, an AB member’s decision to dissent is driven by multiple factors that have implications for the institution’s jurisprudence. First, the factors explain how the symbiotic relationship between an AB member and his or her nominating country – whose interests turn ...


Last Mile For Tuna (To A Safe Harbor): What Is The Tbt Agreement All About?, Petros C. Mavroidis Jan 2018

Last Mile For Tuna (To A Safe Harbor): What Is The Tbt Agreement All About?, Petros C. Mavroidis

Faculty Scholarship

The WTO Agreement on TBT (Technical Barriers to Trade) aims at taming NTBs (nontariff barriers), the main instrument segmenting markets nowadays. Some of the terms used to flesh out the commitments undertaken are borrowed from the GATT, and some originate in the modern regulatory reality as expressed through SDOs (standard-development organizations). It does not share a copy-cat function with the GATT, though. Alas, the WTO Appellate Body, by understanding words as ‘invariances’, e.g., interpreting them out of context (without asking what is the purpose for the TBT?), has not only exported its GATT case law, but also misapplied it ...