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Full-Text Articles in Law

Unidentified Orbital Debris: The Case For A Market-Share Liability Regime, Mark J. Sundahl Oct 2000

Unidentified Orbital Debris: The Case For A Market-Share Liability Regime, Mark J. Sundahl

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

As the volume of debris in the planet's orbit continues to grow, the risks and costs associated with orbital collisions are taking their toll on the space industry. The United Nations Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects seeks to address this modern day tragedy of the commons, yet it applies only to large, identifiable pieces of orbital debris. As most debris consists of small fragments, the source of which cannot be identified, the U.N. Convention is limited in its effect.

This Note addresses the problem of assigning liability for harm caused by unidentified orbital ...


Only Congress Can Create Deductions, Deborah A. Geier Oct 2000

Only Congress Can Create Deductions, Deborah A. Geier

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

A series of recent and controversial cases has raised the issue of how plaintiffs must treat attorneys' fees and costs that are paid out of otherwise includable settlement or litigation awards. Everyone seems to agree that under tax policy and theory plaintiffs should not be saddled with this burden. Many have expressed the desire that Congress amend the Code to correct the problem. The more difficult question, which the author addresses, is whether courts can act to protect these plaintiffs in the absence of Congressional action.


Some Meandering Thoughts On Plaintiffs And Their Attorneys' Fees And Costs, Deborah A. Geier Jul 2000

Some Meandering Thoughts On Plaintiffs And Their Attorneys' Fees And Costs, Deborah A. Geier

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

This article examines statutory interpretation in general and the common-law doctrines at issue in particular (the assignment-of-income doctrine as well as the doctrine first identified in the seminal case of Old Colony Trust). While the author believes that these plaintiffs ought--as a matter of policy and income tax theory--to escape taxation on the amounts paid to their attorneys, she belives that the issue is truly a " deduction" issue, not a "gross income" issue. The article concludes, however, that the ill-fitting application of "gross income" doctrine in this context leads to indefensible distinctions that sound superficially plausible under the rubric of ...


Some Thoughts On The Incidence Of Foreign Taxes, Deborah A. Geier Apr 2000

Some Thoughts On The Incidence Of Foreign Taxes, Deborah A. Geier

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

This 2000 article was prompted by the fact pattern and Tax Court decision in Compaq Computer v. Commissioner, 113 T.C. 363 (1999). While other commentary has focused on the application of the "economic substance" doctrine in this case, this article focuses instead on the ability to take foreign tax credits based not on economic incidence but on legal incidence and how this allows for crediting of foreign taxes economically borne by other actors in the marketplace.


Columbia Business Law Review Spring Symposium 2000 Issue (Introduction), Doron M. Kalir Apr 2000

Columbia Business Law Review Spring Symposium 2000 Issue (Introduction), Doron M. Kalir

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

This is the Introduction to Spring Symposium Issue. On March 28, 2000, the Columbia Business Law Review hosted its Spring Symposium entitled "The Changing Workplace in the New Millennium." The symposium, which brought together legal scholars and thinkers from around the country, sought to address many current labor and employment law issues, as well as some which are likely to arise in the years to come


Pesticide Toxicity, Human Subjects, And The Environmental Protection Agency's Dilemma, Heidi Gorovitz Robertson, Samuel Gorovitz Jan 2000

Pesticide Toxicity, Human Subjects, And The Environmental Protection Agency's Dilemma, Heidi Gorovitz Robertson, Samuel Gorovitz

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

Should humans be used as subjects in research designed to determine the toxicity of pesticides? If so, under what conditions should they be used? If not, why not, given that human subject testing is common in research studies designed to determine the safety and efficacy of drugs? Should the EPA seek, or even accept, the results of such research in formulating the evidentiary base it uses in making decisions about pesticide registration? This article does not propose to answer these questions, but to illuminate the process by which they are addressed and offer some suggestions about how other such questions ...


The Screenwriter's Indestructible Right To Terminate Her Assignment Of Copyright: Once A Story Is 'Pitched' A Studio Can Never Obtain All Copyrights In The Story, Michael Henry Davis Jan 2000

The Screenwriter's Indestructible Right To Terminate Her Assignment Of Copyright: Once A Story Is 'Pitched' A Studio Can Never Obtain All Copyrights In The Story, Michael Henry Davis

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

It is probably not quite fraud, though it comes terribly close to it, when motion picture and television production companies convince their writers to part with the rights to their stories when they sign with the companies. Despite contracts that claim the writer has no rights to the resulting script (either because the author has assigned his rights “in perpetuity” or because he has agreed to produce a “workfor hire”), U.S. copyright law provides many authors, perhaps the vast majority of them, with a future right that cannot be lost and can always be regained, irrespective of any written ...


Out The Window--Prospects For The Epa And Fmla After Kimel V. Florida Board Of Regents, Brian E. Ray Jan 2000

Out The Window--Prospects For The Epa And Fmla After Kimel V. Florida Board Of Regents, Brian E. Ray

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

This note considers how the heightened scrutiny standard that the Court has used in gender cases under the Fourteenth Amendment will impact the congruence and proportionality test that the Court has applied in a recent series of cases examining congressional power under Section 5 of the Fourteenth Amendment. The purpose of this note is twofold First it closely analyzes Kimel v. Florida Board of Regents, the Court's most recent decision concerning Section 5 and argues that the Court's analysis in Kimel indicates that a statute that involves heightened scrutiny has a much greater possibility of meeting the standards ...


The Death Of The "Death Tax"?: An Introduction, Deborah A. Geier Jan 2000

The Death Of The "Death Tax"?: An Introduction, Deborah A. Geier

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

This article considers the possible repeal of the estate tax. This symposium would not be taking place if the repeal of the estate tax were not a serious political possibility, and it would not likely be a serious political possibility if many middle-class taxpayers earning the median household income of about $40,000 to $50,000 per year did not support outright repeal, rather than much-needed reform.


Cloning: A Jewish Law Perspective With A Comparative Study Of Other Abrahamic Traditions, Stephen J. Werber Jan 2000

Cloning: A Jewish Law Perspective With A Comparative Study Of Other Abrahamic Traditions, Stephen J. Werber

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

This Article does not provide answers to the religious, ethical, and moral issues posed by advanced reproductive techniques in human cloning. Rather, the preceding analysis and discussion seeks to make a contribution, however modest, to the continuation of the societal discussion that will ultimately yield the answers. This Article presents the common concerns of the religious traditions of Judaism, Islam, and Christianity with their mutual emphasis on preserving the dignity of all beings. This and other common values must form the foundation upon which all questions related to the cloning debate must be predicated.


A First Amendment Compass: Navigating The Speech Clause With A Five-Step Analytical Framework, Kevin F. O'Neill Jan 2000

A First Amendment Compass: Navigating The Speech Clause With A Five-Step Analytical Framework, Kevin F. O'Neill

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

This Article is designed to serve as a First Amendment “compass,” explaining the Speech Clause while offering a systematic method for analyzing any claim asserted under it. The need for this Article stems from the fact that First Amendment law is more than ever a labyrinth. For students, lawyers, and judges alike, it is difficult even to identify--much less to distinguish and apply-- the various strands of applicable precedent. This is because the Supreme Court has developed a dense mass of overlapping doctrines: drawing distinctions between content-based1 and content-neutral restrictions; drawing further distinctions between fully-protected and “low-level” categories of expression ...


Why A Fundamental Right To A Quality Education Is Not Enough, James G. Wilson Jan 2000

Why A Fundamental Right To A Quality Education Is Not Enough, James G. Wilson

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

This article relies upon the political and economic analysis of such great thinkers as Aristotle and Rousseau to understand and normatively evaluate constitutional caselaw in general and education cases in particular. The article's title contains its conclusion: a judicially created right to a quality education is a laudable, but possibly counterproductive and definitely insufficient condition, for creating a humane constitutional system. The rest of society needs to do far more to protect the average citizen and worker from the ever-ravenous ruling class. All the edification in the world will not mean much if there are only a few decent ...


Extending Copyright And The Constitution: "Have I Stayed Too Long", Michael H. Davis Jan 2000

Extending Copyright And The Constitution: "Have I Stayed Too Long", Michael H. Davis

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

On October 27, 1998, President Clinton signed into law the Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act of 1998, Pub. L. No. 105-298, 112 Stat. 2827 (hereinafter the “Bono Law”). The Bono Law extended the term of copyright protection by an additional twenty years, both prospectively and retrospectively. The former is probably constitutionally proper; the latter is almost certainly forbidden by the Constitution's copyright clause. But most criticism5 has not forcefully distinguished between retrospective as opposed to prospective extension and so far has failed to convince either Congress or the courts of any constitutional infirmity. This is because most critics ...


The Unconstitutionality Of Eliminating Estate And Gift Taxes, James G. Wilson Jan 2000

The Unconstitutionality Of Eliminating Estate And Gift Taxes, James G. Wilson

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

The recent proposal to eliminate estate and gift taxes is not only immoral and a poor allocation of resources, but also is unconstitutional. Irrespective of their ideology, virtually all American lawyers will initially dismiss this accusation as frivolous because it conflicts with their tradition of equating conceptions of "constitutionality" with United States Supreme Court opinions. The Court has long been highly deferential to Congress in federal tax law cases. It is inconceivable that the current Court would find anything "irrational" in a facially neutral law eliminating all estate and gift taxes. Indeed, if I sat on that bench, I would ...


Eleventh Amendment Federalism And State Sovereign Immunity Cases: Direct Effect On Section 1983?, Steven H. Steinglass Jan 2000

Eleventh Amendment Federalism And State Sovereign Immunity Cases: Direct Effect On Section 1983?, Steven H. Steinglass

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

I was asked to address briefly the impact of the Supreme Court's recent Eleventh Amendment, federalism, and state sovereign immunity decisions on Section 1983 litigation. These cases are unlikely to have any direct or significant impact on Section 1983 litigation in the state or federal courts. On the other hand, these decisions will likely have a significant impact on non-Section 1983 litigation, including non-Section 1983 civil rights litigation. For example, a few weeks ago the Supreme Court heard an argument in an Age Discrimination and Education Act (hereinafter "ADEA") case involving claims brought directly against the state. The recent ...


Princes Of Darkness And Angels Of Light: The Soul Of The American Lawyer, David R. Barnhizer Jan 2000

Princes Of Darkness And Angels Of Light: The Soul Of The American Lawyer, David R. Barnhizer

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

The increasing belief among many lawyers that life is comprised of "fear and greed and money" has altered the legal profession and helped make lawyers into one of the most feared and powerful groups in American society - and one of the most scorned. In the midst of the widespread contempt American society is showing lawyers, this article seeks to explain the special role the legal profession serves in our complex democracy. At the same time it condemns attitudes such as those reflected in Fritts' statement. The belief that life is driven by fear, greed, and money has created a process ...


The Dilemma Of Old, Urban Neighborhoods, W Dennis Keating Jan 2000

The Dilemma Of Old, Urban Neighborhoods, W Dennis Keating

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

In his recounting of the suburban migration from America's cities, journalist and broadcaster Ray Suarez laments the loss of the "old neighborhood". He extols its virtues while explaining its decline. Suarez's nostalgic examples recall the virtues of the extended family kinship, neighborliness, and other features of the "urban village." These are often associated with those urban neighborhoods populated by recent immigratns. These urban villages were thought to have peaked in the decades between the American Civil War and the onset of the First World War, when many U.S. cities industrialized and grew very rapidly. However, a continuing ...


Second-Parent Adoption, Patricia J. Falk Jan 2000

Second-Parent Adoption, Patricia J. Falk

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

The topic of this article is second-parent adoption. I hope to accomplish four things in my discussion. First, I will define second-parent adoption and give some reasons that it is desirable for both parents and children. Second, I will summarize the state of the law in terms of legislative enactments and case law in the United States. Third, I will discuss the role of social science in second-parent adoption cases. Finally, I will discuss some of the implications of recognizing second-parent adoptions.


Environmental And Brownfield Liability: Relative Influence On Corporate Expansion And Relocation, Heidi Gorovitz Robertson, Alan K. Reichert Jan 2000

Environmental And Brownfield Liability: Relative Influence On Corporate Expansion And Relocation, Heidi Gorovitz Robertson, Alan K. Reichert

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

Many states in America have enacted laws to encourage the development of contaminated properties. The laws attempt to do this by addressing one barrier to redevelopment, the environmental liability attached to contaminated properties. In general, the laws attempt to remove or reduce the significance of that barrier by reducing or eliminating the environmental liability risk attached to these properties. Our hypothesis was that these efforts cannot significantly encourage redevelopment because they fail to address non-environmental barriers to urban redevelopment. To determine whether this legislative focus on environmental liability is misplaced, we conducted a survey of Northeast Ohio businesses, which had ...


Second-Parent Adoption By Same-Sex Couples In Ohio: Unsettled And Unsettling Law, Susan J. Becker Jan 2000

Second-Parent Adoption By Same-Sex Couples In Ohio: Unsettled And Unsettling Law, Susan J. Becker

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

Ohio law regarding second-parent adoptions remains unsettled. Section II of this article provides an overview of Ohio adoption law. Section III presents the case of In re Jane Doe, starting with the decision of the lesbian couple to jointly bring a child into this world, and continuing with the efforts of both mothers to obtain legal recognition for the de facto parent's status through adoption, and the legal strategies employed by the mothers' attorneys, also addressed are the court-appointed Guardian Ad Litem (GAL), the social science data supplied by the amicus curiae to help the court reach a fully ...


Religious Clubs In The Public Schools: What Happened After Mergens?, Dena S. Davis Jan 2000

Religious Clubs In The Public Schools: What Happened After Mergens?, Dena S. Davis

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

The Equal Access Act, upheld by the Supreme Court in Board of Education v. Mergens, requires public secondary schools to allow access to religiously based student groups on the same basis as other student clubs. Mergens presents many challenges to civil libertarians, who may find their traditional sympathies aligned on both sides of the issue. This article seeks to throw light on some of those issues by reporting on a research project that ascertained the actual effect of the Act on public high schools in Ohio.


The Virtue Of Ordered Conflict: A Defense Of The Adversary System, David R. Barnhizer Jan 2000

The Virtue Of Ordered Conflict: A Defense Of The Adversary System, David R. Barnhizer

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

My underlying thesis is that American society is in increasing danger of falling victim to the tendencies against which Hobbes warned, and that we need to understand and deal with the ultimate implications this holds for our political community. Otherwise, we risk ending up with a severe case of ideological balkanization that will undermine and weaken our social system. My concern is that we are well on the way to a state of ideological civil war. If we succumb further it will mean a political culture in which there is little real communication, but only destructive vilification, jockeying for political ...


Crossing The Line: Rape-Murder And The Death Penalty, Phyllis L. Crocker Jan 2000

Crossing The Line: Rape-Murder And The Death Penalty, Phyllis L. Crocker

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

When a woman is raped and then murdered, it is among the most horrifying of crimes. It is also, often, among the most sensational, notorious, and galvanizing of cases. In 1964, Kitty Genovese was raped and murdered in Queens, New York. Her murder sparked soul-searching across the country because her neighbors heard her cries for help and did not respond: it made us question whether we had become an uncaring people. During the 1970s and 80s a number of serial killers raped and murdered their victims: including Ted Bundy in Florida and William George Bonin, the “Freeway Killer,” in Southern ...


Conflicts In Regulating Religious Institutions, Alan C. Weinstein Jan 2000

Conflicts In Regulating Religious Institutions, Alan C. Weinstein

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

Over the past 25 years, religious institutions have greatly increased their claims of violation of religious freedom when they are denied zoning approval or subjected to historic preservation regulations. While no one can definitively explain the causes of this increase in First Amendment challenges, it can partially be traced to recent changes in both our society and the way our political/legal system conceptualizes religious freedom.


The "Race-Neutral" Option For Local Government Contracting Programs, Alan C. Weinstein Jan 2000

The "Race-Neutral" Option For Local Government Contracting Programs, Alan C. Weinstein

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

Despite the dismal record cities have compiled of late in defending their race-conscious contracting programs, this article seeks "to dispel the notion that strict scrutiny is 'strict in theory but fatal in fact.'" If a local government follows the course outlined above, and combines the ability to monitor and analyze all relevant contracting data with the enactment and implementation of a multi-faceted race-neutral program, it has laid a sound foundation for the subsequent enactment of race-conscious remedies that are narrowly-tailored to address statistically valid disparities in utilization of specific categories of MBEs that remain after the race-neutral program has been ...


Book Review, Kenneth J. Kowalski Jan 2000

Book Review, Kenneth J. Kowalski

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

Reviewing L. S. Platt & C. Ventrell-Monsees, Age Discrimination Litigation, James Publishing (2000)


Ethics, Loyalty And Harm To Third Parties: A Debate Based On Spaulding V. Zimmerman, Lloyd B. Snyder, Scott Rawlings Jan 2000

Ethics, Loyalty And Harm To Third Parties: A Debate Based On Spaulding V. Zimmerman, Lloyd B. Snyder, Scott Rawlings

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

This discussion poses the question: should an attorney ever provide information to an opposing party to prevent that party from suffering great harm if the information will have an adverse effect on the attorney's own client? The case that sets the stage for this discussion is Spaulding v. Zimmerman, 243 Minn. 346 (1962).


An Accelerated History Of Expressive Freedom, Kevin F. O'Neill Jan 2000

An Accelerated History Of Expressive Freedom, Kevin F. O'Neill

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

My purpose in writing this article is to examine the growth of Anglo-American speech rights over the past millennium. Since the best measure of expressive freedom is the freedom to criticize one's government, I will focus on the regulation of seditious speech in an accelerated tour of history, from the printing press to the present day.


The First Amendment's Petition Clause As An Alternative Basis For Challenging Voter Initiatives That Burden The Enactment Of Anti-Discrimination Protection For Gays, Lesbians, And Bisexuals, Kevin F. O'Neill Jan 2000

The First Amendment's Petition Clause As An Alternative Basis For Challenging Voter Initiatives That Burden The Enactment Of Anti-Discrimination Protection For Gays, Lesbians, And Bisexuals, Kevin F. O'Neill

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

In the battle for gay, lesbian, and bisexual rights, most of the fighting has centered on two sources of constitutional protection: substantive due process and equal protection. Unfortunately, courts have been reluctant to find in either of those constitutional guarantees a broad source of protection for gays, lesbians, and bisexuals. The purpose of my remarks today is to suggest that the First Amendment—specifically, the Petition Clause of the First Amendment—provides an alternative basis for vindicating gay, lesbian, and bisexual rights in certain cases. At least in the context of voter initiatives that seek to abolish anti-discrimination protection for ...


Brief Against Homophobia At The Bar: To Law School Dean-Mid 1960s, Joel J. Finer Jan 2000

Brief Against Homophobia At The Bar: To Law School Dean-Mid 1960s, Joel J. Finer

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

In the mid-1960s, the author addressed the following "brief" to the Dean of a major law school on behalf of a law student, successfully urging that the Dean not report the student's homosexual activities to the state Bar committee which screened applicants for "good moral character." My own view, to be presently elaborated, is that to deprive a law student of the well-earned fruits of his labor on the basis of psychiatric findings that he might, at some future time commit a homosexual act that might become public and might merely embarrass a client, employer or associate, would manifest ...