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Under The Radar: The Cost And Benefits Of Wind Energy Through The Lens Of National Security, David N. Cassuto Jan 2018

Under The Radar: The Cost And Benefits Of Wind Energy Through The Lens Of National Security, David N. Cassuto

Pace Law Faculty Publications

This Article examines wind energy through the lens of national security. The benefit resides with helping the United States become energy independent. National-security concerns also present a cost because wind energy interferes with military radar, posing a potential threat to the systems that monitor possible attacks. This Article attempts to analyze the overall impact of wind energy while noting the inherent difficulties when so much uncertainty is involved in the process.

Part I of this Article discusses the benefits of wind energy. Part II examines its costs, specifically its interference with radar, and what that means for national security. This ...


Zoning’S Centennial: A Complete Account Of The Evolution Of Zoning Into A Robust System Of Land Use Law—1916-2016 (Part Iv), John R. Nolon Jan 2017

Zoning’S Centennial: A Complete Account Of The Evolution Of Zoning Into A Robust System Of Land Use Law—1916-2016 (Part Iv), John R. Nolon

Pace Law Faculty Publications

Fracking is happening and local governments are subjected to many of its associated risks. They either need to act, or know—clearly and convincingly—why they should not. The federal government has stopped far short of comprehensive regulation of fracking; the states’ regulations range from fair to poor, sometimes preempting local regulation but most often sharing regulatory authority over land use impacts.


Un Environment Guide For Energy Efficiency And Renewable Energy Laws, Richard L. Ottinger Sep 2016

Un Environment Guide For Energy Efficiency And Renewable Energy Laws, Richard L. Ottinger

Pace Law Faculty Publications

This Guide is written as a sequel to the 2007 UN Environment Programme Handbook for Legal Draftsmen on Environmentally Sound Management of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Resources.

This Guide, as the Handbook, is written in response to needs expressed, particularly by energy efficiency and renewable energy project initiators, government officials, energy managers, project developers and particularly developing country energy legal draftsmen, asking for assistance in drafting legislative provisions for promotion and implementation of sound energy efficiency and renewable energy programs.

The Guide describes the key legal issues associated with efficiency and renewable energy resource development, and presents legislative options ...


Fossil Fuel Abolition: Legal And Social Issues, Karl S. Coplan Jan 2016

Fossil Fuel Abolition: Legal And Social Issues, Karl S. Coplan

Pace Law Faculty Publications

This Article will examine the practical, ethical, legal, and socio-political implications of fossil fuel abolition. First, the Article will consider the practical, ethical, and legal arguments in favor of fossil fuel abolition. Then, the Article will examine possible legal means and authorities to implement abolition in the United States, as well as potential legal objections to fossil fuel abolition. Finally, the Article will consider legal abolition’s capacity to effect the far-reaching changes in our socioeconomic system that a ban on fossil fuels will entail. The Article also will compare the climate reform movement to other social law reform movements ...


Mitigating Climate Change By Zoning For Solar Energy Systems: Embracing Clean Energy Technology In Zoning’S Centennial Year, John R. Nolon Dec 2015

Mitigating Climate Change By Zoning For Solar Energy Systems: Embracing Clean Energy Technology In Zoning’S Centennial Year, John R. Nolon

Pace Law Faculty Publications

Adopting land use regulations that encourage solar and other clean energy systems is an essential strategy for promoting clean power and one that focuses on the essential role that local governments play in mitigating climate change. This article explores efforts at the state and local level to reform zoning and land use regulations to permit, encourage, require, and incentivize rapidly-evolving clean energy systems, particularly solar, that, in the aggregate, have the ability to significantly increase power generation and decrease carbon emissions. The article illustrates how zoning, as it approaches its 100th anniversary, is encrusted with provisions that prohibit or discourage ...


A Primer: Air And Water Environmental Quality Standards In The United States, Jason J. Czarnezki Jan 2015

A Primer: Air And Water Environmental Quality Standards In The United States, Jason J. Czarnezki

Pace Law Faculty Publications

This article, designed as a resource for environmental law professors both domestically and abroad, addresses how environmental quality standards are created, implemented, and enforced in the United States. The answers to these questions are useful to those teaching U.S. environmental law and international scholars, especially in the European Union, who are faced with the challenge of creating new environmental quality standards under both national and EU directives. It must be noted that this project is complicated by the federal system within the country, and, thus, attention must be devoted to the federal-state relationship. In fact, the major relevant statutes ...


Environmental Privacy, Katrina Fischer Kuh Jan 2015

Environmental Privacy, Katrina Fischer Kuh

Pace Law Faculty Publications

This Article looks to nuisance doctrine, surveillance under environmental statutes, and Fourth Amendment cases arising in implementation of fish and game laws (the hunter enforcement cases) to better understand our experience, to date, balancing the need for environmental information with privacy. Section A analyzes common law nuisance and its relationship to individual privacy concerns and concludes that the law affords little *7 value to or protection of privacy in the context of at least one type of environmental externality -- conduct that gives rise to a common law nuisance. Recognizing that most environmentally significant individual behaviors do not constitute a common ...


The State Response To Climate Change: 50 State Survey, Laura Jensen, Kelly Nishikawa, Benjamin Lowenthal Sep 2014

The State Response To Climate Change: 50 State Survey, Laura Jensen, Kelly Nishikawa, Benjamin Lowenthal

Pace Law Faculty Publications

This survey accompanies Global Climate Change and U.S. Law, Second Edition (Michael B. Gerrard and Jody Freeman, eds, 2014). It compiles state legislation, rules and executive orders that specifically address climate change as of the end of April 2014. It also includes a wide variety of state activities that may have an impact on greenhouse gases including legislation related to energy efficiency and renewable energy. The focus of this material is to provide readers with an understanding of the range of state activity that may contribute to greenhouse gas reduction and climate change. Some types of energy efficiency, alternative ...


Highest Court In New York Affirms Local Power To Regulate Hydrofracking, John R. Nolon, Jessica A. Bacher Sep 2014

Highest Court In New York Affirms Local Power To Regulate Hydrofracking, John R. Nolon, Jessica A. Bacher

Pace Law Faculty Publications

In one of the most anxiously awaited New York land use decisions in recent memory, the State’s highest court held that local governments have the power to regulate hydrofracking under their authority to enact zoning ordinances. Both the Towns of Dryden and Middlefield enacted zoning laws that entirely banned gas drilling and associated activities within their borders. The plaintiffs, a private gas company in one case and a private property owner in the other, claimed that a supersession clause in the State Oil, Gas, and Solution Mining Law (OGSML) preempted local authority. After reviewing the plain language of the ...


Innovative Financing For Renewable Energy, Richard L. Ottinger, John Bowie Jul 2014

Innovative Financing For Renewable Energy, Richard L. Ottinger, John Bowie

Pace Law Faculty Publications

Carbon pollution from fossil-fuel combustion is the largest contributor to climate change worldwide. Renewable energy can materially help to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and their principal cause, worldwide dependence on carbon fuels. If our goal is to remain at or below 1990 numbers, then fossil fuels must be phased out of the global energy portfolio.

While other factors such as energy inefficiencies in buildings, appliances and transportation, for example; deforestation, farm animal excretion, pipeline leakage, HFCs for refrigeration, black soot and changes in land use also contribute to increased emissions, finding new, innovative ways to empower people to seize ...


Options For Adaption To Climate Change, Richard L. Ottinger, Pianpian Wang, Kristin M. Motel Jul 2014

Options For Adaption To Climate Change, Richard L. Ottinger, Pianpian Wang, Kristin M. Motel

Pace Law Faculty Publications

In order to tackle climate change, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (“IPCC”) provided a portfolio of measures: mitigation, adaptation and constant research. Although Article 10 of the Kyoto Protocol underlined the importance of adaptation, adaptation to climate change had been obtained limited attention in the early negotiations of climate talks. In 2010, Cancun Session of Conference of Parties (“COP”) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (“UNFCCC”) highlighted the equal importance of adaptation just as mitigation. Since then, increasing attention has been drawn to adaptation practice by the international society. Typically, adaptation can be broken down into ...


Mitigating The Adverse Impacts Of Hydraulic Fracturing: A Role For Local Zoning?, John R. Nolon, Jessica A. Bacher Jan 2014

Mitigating The Adverse Impacts Of Hydraulic Fracturing: A Role For Local Zoning?, John R. Nolon, Jessica A. Bacher

Pace Law Faculty Publications

This article focuses on the action localities have taken toward mitigating some of the adverse impacts of hydraulic fracturing, or hydrofracking. The Article will explore impacts at the local level and will show the governance gap that has resulted from federal and state regulations that leave many local impacts unmitigated. Zoning laws and other practices that local governments are adopting are also discussed, explaining why state preemption over the traditional role of local governments in regulating this particular heavy industrial activity is not the ideal situation.


Fundamental Principles Of Law For The Anthropocene?, Nicholas A. Robinson Jan 2014

Fundamental Principles Of Law For The Anthropocene?, Nicholas A. Robinson

Pace Law Faculty Publications

A wide array of questions arises from global change to confront environmental law. The IPCC has examined social decisions affecting the climate in the design of human settlements, transport systems, industrialisation, agriculture and silviculture, waste management, provisions for energy, and virtually all other socio-economic dimensions of human life. The AR-5, too, cannot avoid raising issues of human ethics and values at local and regional scales. Such issues reach environmental policy and law directly. The IPCC’s AR-5 report furthers widespread public debate about the human dimensions of climate change, and how social theory relates to environmental change. Already, climate change ...


A National Mineral Policy As An International Investment Law Stratagem: The Case Of Tajikistan's Gold Reserves, Nadia B. Ahmad Jan 2014

A National Mineral Policy As An International Investment Law Stratagem: The Case Of Tajikistan's Gold Reserves, Nadia B. Ahmad

Pace Law Faculty Publications

This Article proposes that a national mineral policy ("NMP") can be crafted to generate foreign direct investment ("FDI") and strengthen sustainable development goals. Less-developed countries ("LDCs") typically overlook or underestimate this federal policy imperative while seeking to harness mineral resources.' Creation of a NMP and complementary changes to federal mining investment laws can provide host countries increased opportunities as well as autonomy to profit from their own natural resources and, at the same time, investor nations can benefit from a NMP because of further mining prospects.

This Article goes on to discuss how the formulation and implementation of a NMP ...


The Value Of Solar Tariff: Net Metering 2.0, Karl R. Rábago Dec 2013

The Value Of Solar Tariff: Net Metering 2.0, Karl R. Rábago

Pace Law Faculty Publications

Increasing numbers of customers are installing solar photovoltaic systems on their homes and businesses. As module and system costs decline, customer demand grows, and more businesses organize around the solar opportunity, it is time to revisit the tariff structure under which these systems integrate with and operate on the electric grid. This article details a novel approach to a distributed solar tariff, called the “Value of Solar” tariff (“VOST”), that addresses important utility and customer issues, and offers some significant improvements over traditional net metering approaches. There is a saying in the venture capital world to the effect that, “It ...


The ‘Value Of Solar’ Rate: Designing An Improved Residential Solar Tariff, Karl R. Rábago Feb 2013

The ‘Value Of Solar’ Rate: Designing An Improved Residential Solar Tariff, Karl R. Rábago

Pace Law Faculty Publications

The most commonly adopted rate treatment for residential solar systems connected to the grid is net metering, or, as it is also known, net energy metering. The first net metering tariff was adopted in 1983, and the approach is part of utility policy in over 40 states in the U.S.


"Turn On The Lights" -Sustainable Energy Investment And Regulatory Policy: Charting The Hydrokinetic Path For Pakistan, Nadia B. Ahmad Jan 2013

"Turn On The Lights" -Sustainable Energy Investment And Regulatory Policy: Charting The Hydrokinetic Path For Pakistan, Nadia B. Ahmad

Pace Law Faculty Publications

Hydrokinetic energy is an under-recognized, low-cost renewable technology that can be deployed in Pakistan through a robust national energy strategy and international investment schemes to tackle the country’s acute energy crisis. This article will show how national and local laws can be amended to favor progress in the sustainable energy sector and achieve hydrokinetic energy production in Pakistan, which if actualized, would be nothing short of a game changer—strategically and environmentally. Despite current legal regimes that disfavor small scale hydroelectric power production, Pakistan and other less developed countries can adapt and deploy hydrokinetic technology through revamped investment laws ...


The Tropics Exploited: Risk Preparedness And Corporate Social Responsibility In Offshore Energy Development, Nadia B. Ahmad Jan 2013

The Tropics Exploited: Risk Preparedness And Corporate Social Responsibility In Offshore Energy Development, Nadia B. Ahmad

Pace Law Faculty Publications

Soaring energy demands and increasing technological innovation have led to the rapid exploitation of offshore oil and gas exploration and development. This Article seeks to examine elements of risk preparedness and corporate social responsibility in the context of the underwater natural gas pipeline in the Eastern Caribbean and the exploration of Florida's potential offshore energy reserves. I discuss these two case studies to illustrate the prevalence of emerging regional energy corridors in previously unfathomable tropical and subtropical locales known for tourism-intensive commercial activity. While images of environmental degradation of the 2010 BP oil spill remain entrenched in the collective ...


Missouri Oil And Gas Update, Nadia B. Ahmad Jan 2013

Missouri Oil And Gas Update, Nadia B. Ahmad

Pace Law Faculty Publications

The State of Missouri has untapped potential for the development of oil and natural gas resources. While the Missouri courts were quiet this past year on interpreting oil and gas rules and regulations, the legislature was active in amending laws governing storage tanks. The state has experienced a tremendous upsurge in oil and gas production in the past two fiscal years. Missouri is poised to ramp up its conventional oil and gas production in the coming years, so increased legislative actions and court activity will likely occur in the near future. Missouri's energy resources include coal bed methane, oil ...


When Government Intrudes: Regulating Individual Behaviors That Harm The Environment, Katrina Fischer Kuh Mar 2012

When Government Intrudes: Regulating Individual Behaviors That Harm The Environment, Katrina Fischer Kuh

Pace Law Faculty Publications

Emerging environmental problems and technologies, coupled with the existence of mature regulatory regimes governing most industrial sources of pollution, reveal with new clarity the harms that individual behaviors can inflict on the environment. Changing how individuals impact the environment through their daily behaviors, however, requires a reorientation of environmental law and policy and a balancing of government prerogatives with individual liberty. A growing body of legal scholarship recognizes the environmental significance of individual behaviors, critiques the failure of law and policy to capture harms traceable to individuals, and suggests and evaluates strategies for capturing individual harms going forward. In this ...


Land Use For Energy Conservation And Sustainable Development: A New Path Toward Climate Change Mitigation, John R. Nolon Jan 2012

Land Use For Energy Conservation And Sustainable Development: A New Path Toward Climate Change Mitigation, John R. Nolon

Pace Law Faculty Publications

Land use tools and techniques have impressive potential to reduce energy consumption, improve the economy, and mitigate climate change. This article explores the little understood influence of local land use decision-making on energy conservation and sustainable development and how it can mitigate climate change if properly assisted by the federal and state governments. The construction and use of buildings combined with extensive vehicular travel throughout the nation’s human settlements consume large amounts of energy, and much of that consumption is highly inefficient. By enforcing and enhancing energy codes, encouraging the use of combined heat and power and district energy ...


Hydrofracking: Disturbances Both Geological And Political: Who Decides?, John R. Nolon Jan 2012

Hydrofracking: Disturbances Both Geological And Political: Who Decides?, John R. Nolon

Pace Law Faculty Publications

There is much controversy about the mining of shale gas through a process known as hydraulic fracturing (hydrofracking) in the Marcellus Shale formation, one of the largest shale gas areas in the world. A debate is raging about its economic benefits and environmental impacts as the New York State’s Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) considers what standards to require when it issues permits to drillers. New York State law gives permitting authority to DEC and calls into question the historical home rule authority of localities to control the location and land use impacts of gas wells, through comprehensive planning ...


Cooperative Federalism And Hydraulic Fracturing: A Human Right To A Clean Environment, Elizabeth Burleson Jan 2012

Cooperative Federalism And Hydraulic Fracturing: A Human Right To A Clean Environment, Elizabeth Burleson

Pace Law Faculty Publications

United States natural gas production is likely to stunt the direction and intensity of renewable energy by up to two decades according to a MIT study. Gas will not provide a “’bridge’ to a low-carbon future if it erodes efforts to prepare a landing at the other end of the bridge.” Unconventional natural gas extraction need not become a “transition” to a new addiction. This article analyzes how cooperative federalism and inclusive decision-making can provide legitimacy and transparency when balancing property rights versus police powers to regulate natural gas production.


The Evolution Of The Brazilian Regulation Of Ethanol And Possible Lessons For The United States, David N. Cassuto Jan 2012

The Evolution Of The Brazilian Regulation Of Ethanol And Possible Lessons For The United States, David N. Cassuto

Pace Law Faculty Publications

The oil shocks of the 1970s propelled the search for alternative fuel sources by oil-dependent countries. The United States and Brazil–then the two largest producers and consumers of ethanol in the world – focused intensely on biofuels as a substitute for oil, while other countries – such as Japan and European Union members – focused more on nuclear energy and other methods of power generation. However, from the 1980s onward, climate change emerged as a significant concern. This new focus on climate change revived the discussion about the need for alternative energy sources. In addition, during the 2000s, oil prices spiked anew ...


Capturing Individual Harms, Katrina Fischer Kuh Jan 2011

Capturing Individual Harms, Katrina Fischer Kuh

Pace Law Faculty Publications

The aggregated lifestyles and behaviors of individuals impose significant environmental harms yet remain largely unregulated. A growing literature recognizes the environmental significance of individual behaviors, critiques the failure of environmental law and policy to capture harms traceable to individual behaviors, and suggests and evaluates strategies for capturing individual harms going forward. This Article contributes to the existing literature by approaching the problem of environmentally significant individual harms through the lens of environmental federalism. Using climate change and individual greenhouse gas (“GHG”) emissions as an exemplar, the Article illustrates how local information, local governments, and local implementation can enhance policies designed ...


From Coase To Collaborative Property Decision-Making: Green Economy Innovation, Elizabeth Burleson Jan 2011

From Coase To Collaborative Property Decision-Making: Green Economy Innovation, Elizabeth Burleson

Pace Law Faculty Publications

This Article considers the advantages and disadvantages of market-based program design, natural gas regulation, and enhanced international understanding. Transitioning to a green economy involves dedicating efforts towards environmentally sound energy innovation. RGGI, natural gas, and climate change represent sustainability challenges. Optimizing cooperative transboundary green innovation can facilitate inclusive decision making just as public participation by civil society can help economies transition to environmentally sound energy use. Building upon progress made in the human lights and environment fields can advance both and enhance resilience.


Energy Revolution And Disaster Response In The Face Of Climate Change, Elizabeth Burleson Jan 2011

Energy Revolution And Disaster Response In The Face Of Climate Change, Elizabeth Burleson

Pace Law Faculty Publications

This article considers the means by which communities can become increasingly resilient through shared best practices across a range of climate change measures. Part II of this article will address emergency preparedness for effective disaster response. Part III will analyze how decision-makers can use adaptive management in a shared local, regional, national, and international cohesive frame- work. Part IV will recommend resilient green building strategies. This article concludes that in the midst of an unprecedented energy revolution, there are meaningful emergency preparedness measures that the international community can facilitate to build resilience in the face of natural and unnatural disasters.


Water, Climate, And Energy Security, Elizabeth Burleson Jan 2011

Water, Climate, And Energy Security, Elizabeth Burleson

Pace Law Faculty Publications

Civil society participation can facilitate sound energy, climate, and water governance. This article analyzes the dynamics of transnational decision-making. Part II discusses sound energy strategy in light of a shrinking water-resources base due to climate change. Part III considers how public participation in international decision-making can sustain trust in governments and strengthen the legitimacy of legal decisions. Part IV concludes that process and outcome are both integral to addressing water, climate, and energy challenges.


Siting Green Infrastructure: Legal And Policy Solutions To Alleviate Urban Poverty And Promote Healthy Communities, Alexandra Dapolito Dunn Jan 2010

Siting Green Infrastructure: Legal And Policy Solutions To Alleviate Urban Poverty And Promote Healthy Communities, Alexandra Dapolito Dunn

Pace Law Faculty Publications

Green infrastructure is an economically and environmentally viable approach for water management and natural resource protection in urban areas. This Article argues that green infrastructure has additional and exceptional benefits for the urban poor which are not frequently highlighted or discussed. When green infrastructure is concentrated in distressed neighborhoods—where it frequently is not—it can improve urban water quality, reduce urban air pollution, improve public health, enhance urban aesthetics and safety, generate green collar jobs, and facilitate urban food security. To make these quality of life and health benefits available to the urban poor, it is essential that urban ...


Public Trust Limits On Greenhouse Gas Trading Schemes: A Sustainable Middle Ground?, Karl S. Coplan Jan 2010

Public Trust Limits On Greenhouse Gas Trading Schemes: A Sustainable Middle Ground?, Karl S. Coplan

Pace Law Faculty Publications

There is a some consensus among economists, environmentalists, and politicians that some form of “cap and trade’ program is the appropriate regulatory mechanism to achieve the greenhouse gas emissions reductions necessary to avoid disastrous global climate disruptions. “Cap and trade” programs necessarily incorporate tradable emissions rights – essentially tradable rights to pollute. As such, they run into principled objection by some environmentalists who oppose the notion of creating economic rights in the global commons – essentially the “right to pollute.” This principled objection derives doctrinal support from the public trust doctrine – the ancient notion rooted in common law and Roman law that ...