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Full-Text Articles in Law

Crimmigrant Nations: Resurgent Nationalism And The Closing Of Borders [Table Of Contents], Robert Koulish, Martje Van Der Woude Mar 2020

Crimmigrant Nations: Resurgent Nationalism And The Closing Of Borders [Table Of Contents], Robert Koulish, Martje Van Der Woude

Law

As the distinction between domestic and international is increasingly blurred along with the line between internal and external borders, migrants—particularly people of color—have become emblematic of the hybrid threat both to national security and sovereignty and to safety and order inside the state. From building walls and fences, overcrowding detention facilities, and beefing up border policing and border controls, a new narrative has arrived that has migrants assume the risk for government sponsored degradation, misery, and death. Crimmigrant Nationsexamines the parallel rise of anti-immigrant sentiment and right-wing populism in both the United States and Europe to offer ...


A Different Set Of Rules? Nlrb Proposed Rule Making And Student Worker Unionization Rights, William A. Herbert, Joseph Van Der Naald Mar 2020

A Different Set Of Rules? Nlrb Proposed Rule Making And Student Worker Unionization Rights, William A. Herbert, Joseph Van Der Naald

Publications and Research

This article presents data, precedent, and empirical evidence relevant to the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) proposal to issue a new rule to exclude graduate assistants and other student employees from coverage under the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA). The analysis in three parts. First, the authors show through an analysis of information from other federal agencies that the adoption of the proposed NLRB rule would exclude over 81,000 graduate assistants on private campuses from the right to unionize and engage in collective bargaining. Second, the article presents a legal history from the past half-century about unionization of student ...


Are We Responsible For Who We Are? Indoctrination And Social Influence As A Defense To Crime, Paul H. Robinson, Lindsay Holcomb Feb 2020

Are We Responsible For Who We Are? Indoctrination And Social Influence As A Defense To Crime, Paul H. Robinson, Lindsay Holcomb

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

A patriotic POW is brainwashed by his North Korean captors into refusing repatriation and undertaking treasonous anti-American propaganda for the communist regime. Despite the general abhorrence of treason in time of war, the American public opposes criminal liability for such indoctrinated soldiers, yet existing criminal law provides no defense or mitigation because, at the time of the offense, the indoctrinated offender suffers no cognitive or control dysfunction, no mental or emotional impairment, and no external or internal compulsion. Rather, he was acting purely in the exercise of free of will, albeit based upon beliefs and values that he had not ...


The Cost Of Doing Business: Corporate Crime And Punishment Post-Crisis, Dorothy S. Lund, Natasha Sarin Feb 2020

The Cost Of Doing Business: Corporate Crime And Punishment Post-Crisis, Dorothy S. Lund, Natasha Sarin

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

For many years, law and economics scholars, as well as politicians and regulators, have debated whether corporate criminal enforcement overdeters beneficial corporate activity or in the alternative, lets corporate criminals off too easily. This debate has recently expanded in its polarization: On the one hand, academics, judges, and politicians have excoriated the DOJ for failing to send guilty bankers to jail in the wake of the financial crisis; on the other, the DOJ has since relaxed policies aimed to secure individual lability and reduced the size of fines and number of prosecutions.

A crucial and yet understudied piece of evidence ...


A Truce In The Criminal Law Distributive Principle Wars?, Paul H. Robinson Feb 2020

A Truce In The Criminal Law Distributive Principle Wars?, Paul H. Robinson

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Crime-control utilitarians and retributivist philosophers have long been at war over the appropriate distributive principle for criminal liability and punishment, with little apparent possibility of reconciliation between the two. In the utilitarians’ view, the imposition of punishment can be justified only by the practical benefit that it provides: avoiding future crime. In the retributivists’ view, doing justice for past wrongs is a value in itself that requires no further justification. The competing approaches simply use different currencies: fighting future crime versus doing justice for past wrongs.

It is argued here that the two are in fact reconcilable, in a fashion ...


Justifying Bad Deals, Tess Wilkinson-Ryan Feb 2020

Justifying Bad Deals, Tess Wilkinson-Ryan

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

In the past decade, psychological and behavioral studies have found that individual commitment to contracts persists beyond personal relationships and traditional promises. Even take-it-or-leave it consumer contracts get substantial deference from consumers — even when the terms are unenforceable, even when the assent is procedurally compromised, and even when the drafter is an impersonal commercial actor. Indeed, there is mounting evidence that people import the morality of promise into situations that might otherwise be described as predatory, exploitative, or coercive. The purpose of this Article is to propose a framework for understanding what seems to be widespread acceptance of regulation via ...


Mitigations: The Forgotten Side Of The Proportionality Principle, Paul H. Robinson Jan 2020

Mitigations: The Forgotten Side Of The Proportionality Principle, Paul H. Robinson

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

In the first change to the Model Penal Code since its promulgation in 1962, the American Law Institute in 2017 set blameworthiness proportionality as the dominant distributive principle for criminal punishment. Empirical studies suggest that this is in fact the principle that ordinary people use in assessing proper punishment. Its adoption as the governing distributive principle makes good sense because it promotes not only the classic desert retributivism of moral philosophers but also crime-control utilitarianism, by enhancing the criminal law’s moral credibility with the community and thereby promoting deference, compliance, acquiescence, and internalization of its norms, rather than suffering ...


Persistence Of Jewish-Muslim Reconciliatory Activism In The Face Of Threats And “Terrorism” (Real And Perceived) From All Sides, Micah B.D.C. Naziri Jan 2020

Persistence Of Jewish-Muslim Reconciliatory Activism In The Face Of Threats And “Terrorism” (Real And Perceived) From All Sides, Micah B.D.C. Naziri

Dissertations & Theses

This dissertation concerns how Jewish-Muslim and Israel-Palestine grassroots activism can persist in the face of threats to the safety, freedom, lives, or even simply the income and employment of those engaged in acts of sustained resistance. At the heart of the study are the experiences of participants in the Hashlamah Project, an inter-religious collaboration project, involving Jews and Muslims. Across chapters and even nations, chapters of this organization faced similar threats and found universally-applicable solutions emerging for confronting those threats and persisting in the face of them. This raised the question of whether revolutionaries and activists in general can persevere ...


Holding The Therapeutic State At Bay? Balancing Autonomy And Protection In Singapore's Vulnerable Adults Act, Wing Cheong Chan Jan 2020

Holding The Therapeutic State At Bay? Balancing Autonomy And Protection In Singapore's Vulnerable Adults Act, Wing Cheong Chan

Research Collection School Of Law

Abuse, exploitation and neglect of adults raise complex issues on the freedom of the individual to choose for themselves versus the powers of the State to intervene. The law has traditionally limited the scope of compulsory intervention to extreme situations only which can frustrate social workers who deal with such cases. On the other hand, it would be unacceptable to allow intervention simply because it is assessed to be in the adults’ best interests. A balance therefore has to be struck between autonomy and protection. This paper examines how Singapore’s Vulnerable Adults Act identifies the point for intervention and ...


Christianity And Bankruptcy, David A. Skeel Jr. Dec 2019

Christianity And Bankruptcy, David A. Skeel Jr.

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Although the term “bankruptcy” is nowhere to be found in the Bible, debt and the consequences of default are a major theme both in the Hebrew Bible and in the New Testament. In Israel, as in the ancient Near East generally, a debtor who defaulted on his obligations was often sold into slavery or servitude. Biblical law moderated the harshness of this system by prohibiting Israelites from charging interest on loans to one another, thus diminishing the risk of default, and by requiring the release of slaves after seven years of service. Jesus alluded to the lending laws at least ...


Advancing The Implementation And Sustainment Of Medication Assisted Treatment For Opioid Use Disorders In Prisons And Jails, Warren J. Ferguson, Joan Johnston, Jennifer G. Clarke, Peter J. Koutoujian, Kathleen Maurer, Colleen Gallagher, Julie White, Dyana Nickl, Faye S. Taxman Dec 2019

Advancing The Implementation And Sustainment Of Medication Assisted Treatment For Opioid Use Disorders In Prisons And Jails, Warren J. Ferguson, Joan Johnston, Jennifer G. Clarke, Peter J. Koutoujian, Kathleen Maurer, Colleen Gallagher, Julie White, Dyana Nickl, Faye S. Taxman

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Opioid use disorder (OUD) is among the most prevalent medical condition experienced by incarcerated persons, yet medication assisted therapy (MAT) is uncommon. Four jail and prison systems partnered with researchers to document their adoption of MAT for incarcerated individuals with opioid use disorders (OUD) using their established treatment protocols. Employing the EPIS (Exploration, Planning, Implementation, and Sustainment) framework, programs report on systematic efforts to expand screening, treatment and provide linkage to community-based care upon release.

RESULTS: All four systems were engaged with implementation of MAT at the outset of the study. Thus, findings focus more on uptake and penetration ...


Talking About Casino Gambling: Community Voices From Boston Chinatown, Carolyn Wong, Giles Li Oct 2019

Talking About Casino Gambling: Community Voices From Boston Chinatown, Carolyn Wong, Giles Li

Institute for Asian American Studies Publications

This pilot study examined the casino gambling practices of residents and workers in Boston Chinatown. Our aim was to learn about the trajectory and life context of individual participants’ gambling activity, including how individual participants describe their motivation, nature and frequency of gambling, and its effects on self and family. The research was conducted by a university based research team in partnership with the Boston Chinatown Neighborhood Center, and with the assistance of the Massachusetts Council on Compulsive Gambling.

The stories told by our participants illustrate multiple and overlapping risk factors for problem gambling. Our conceptual approach took into account ...


The Transformative Potential Of High-Level Gender Equality: The Relationship Between Gendered Laws And Perceptions In Rwanda, Elena Ortiz Oct 2019

The Transformative Potential Of High-Level Gender Equality: The Relationship Between Gendered Laws And Perceptions In Rwanda, Elena Ortiz

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

As part of its reconstruction process following the 1994 genocide against the Tutsi, Rwanda introduced several laws and policies protecting gender equality, which stood it stark contrast to traditional patriarchal norms and structures. This study focuses on the relationship between institutional gender reform and local perceptions. Specifically, it seeks to explore the extent to which perceptions around gender have caught up to legal changes and identify where the greatest gaps exist across political, social, and economic dimensions. Data collection occurred in two parts: quantitatively, a multiple-choice survey was distributed to 76 Rwandan adults investigating their perceptions of gender in political ...


Law Versus Action: How Five Cape Town Organizations Are Combating High Rates Of Sexual Assault And The Failure Of Progressive Sexual Offences Legislation, Anna Tinker Oct 2019

Law Versus Action: How Five Cape Town Organizations Are Combating High Rates Of Sexual Assault And The Failure Of Progressive Sexual Offences Legislation, Anna Tinker

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This Independent Study Project (ISP) seeks to understand the work various Cape Town organizations are doing to help survivors of sexual assault gain access to justice. Previous research finds that social norms defining masculinity as well as rape myths and stereotypes lead to the high levels of gender-based violence (GBV) in South Africa. This research led to my hypothesis that organizations fighting GBV would target these norms to help survivors access the justice system that so frequently ignores them. Eight organizations were contacted requesting an interview to discuss their work and two agreed to participate. Participants were asked to discuss ...


The Role Of Local Communities In Preventing And Countering Violent Extremism (P/Cve) In Jordan, Anna Fraher Klingensmith Oct 2019

The Role Of Local Communities In Preventing And Countering Violent Extremism (P/Cve) In Jordan, Anna Fraher Klingensmith

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Bordering Syria, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, and Israel/Palestine, with Lebanon not too far away, Jordan’s location makes it at high risk for violent extremism. Although Jordan is considered one of the safest countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, the country is known for having one of the highest numbers of foreign fighters in the world, and for being the homeland of the father of ISIS (Abu Musab al-Zarqawi). Also worrisome is the increasing number of desperate people turning to extremist ideologies due to the country’s economic crisis and lack of opportunities for political engagement ...


After The Crime: Rewarding Offenders’ Positive Post-Offense Conduct, Paul H. Robinson, Muhammad Sarahne Aug 2019

After The Crime: Rewarding Offenders’ Positive Post-Offense Conduct, Paul H. Robinson, Muhammad Sarahne

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

While an offender’s conduct before and during the crime is the traditional focus of criminal law and sentencing rules, an examination of post-offense conduct can also be important in promoting criminal justice goals. After the crime, different offenders make different choices and have different experiences, and those differences can suggest appropriately different treatment by judges, correctional officials, probation and parole supervisors, and other decision-makers in the criminal justice system.

Positive post-offense conduct ought to be acknowledged and rewarded, not only to encourage it but also as a matter of fair and just treatment. This essay describes four kinds of ...


Law School News: Roger Williams Celebrates Pride 06-17-2019, Michael M. Bowden Jun 2019

Law School News: Roger Williams Celebrates Pride 06-17-2019, Michael M. Bowden

Life of the Law School (1993- )

No abstract provided.


From Reformatories, To Today, And Into The Future: What Needs To Change For Female Offenders, Alyson Berry May 2019

From Reformatories, To Today, And Into The Future: What Needs To Change For Female Offenders, Alyson Berry

Senior Honors Projects

In society, and within the criminal justice system, women have always been deemed insignificant and many of their problems have been neglected. Even as time has progressed, convicted women's physical and mental needs are still disregarded as well as their motivation, risk, and recidivism rates. Since the late 1800s, the number of incarcerated women has risen. This indicates a need for change in the current system to decrease the population of female offenders and their likelihood of becoming repeat offenders. In order to determine what aspects have worked and which ones need to be revised, different time periods need ...


Supbrime Lending/Foreclosure Crisis, Jacob Rugh Apr 2019

Supbrime Lending/Foreclosure Crisis, Jacob Rugh

Faculty Publications

Subprime mortgage lending in the USA rose alongside home prices and lasted about 15 years, ending abruptly in late 2007, setting off a national foreclosure crisis. Between 2007 and 2012 there were 9 to 12 million foreclosures filings and 4 to 5 million completed foreclosures. The ensuing foreclosure crisis stemmed more from falling home prices but its unequal distribution across society by race and space was also the product of legacies of exclusion and a shared consensus on the expansion of mortgage credit and home ownership. Modest federal interventions to buffer communities and homeowners from the crisis likely reinforced the ...


The Effect Of Globalization On The National Criminal Law Systems, Shirin Ahmadi Dastjerdi, Abbas Sheikholeslami Apr 2019

The Effect Of Globalization On The National Criminal Law Systems, Shirin Ahmadi Dastjerdi, Abbas Sheikholeslami

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

Globalization has influenced many human life scopes with a variety of tools, which the cyberspace playing the most role. Although both cyberspace and globalization have had many benefits to human life, both as a tool and as a process, they have been able to assist offenders to bring crime into the cyberspace without any trouble. Therefore, today criminologists discuss the globalized world of crime. Although, the processes of homogenization and globalization have been precious to human beings, should not be overlooked. In this article, the author has tried to explain the cybercrime in the age of globalization, with an emphasis ...


Codifying A Sharia-Based Criminal Law In Developing Muslim Countries, Paul H. Robinson Apr 2019

Codifying A Sharia-Based Criminal Law In Developing Muslim Countries, Paul H. Robinson

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This paper reproduces presentations made at the University of Tehran in March 2019 as part of the opening and closing remarks for a Conference on Criminal Law Development in Muslim-Majority Countries. The opening remarks discuss the challenges of codifying a Shari’a-based criminal code, drawing primarily from the experiences of Professor Robinson in directing codification projects in Somalia and the Maldives. The closing remarks apply many of those lessons to the situation currently existing in Iran. Included is a discussion of the implications for Muslim countries of Robinson’s social psychology work on the power of social influence and internalized ...


The Understandings And Human Cost Of ‘Prevention Through Deterrence,’ As Seen Amongst Advocates In The United States And Mexico, Margaret Edwards Apr 2019

The Understandings And Human Cost Of ‘Prevention Through Deterrence,’ As Seen Amongst Advocates In The United States And Mexico, Margaret Edwards

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

In the last two years of President Donald Trump and his administration, immigration and border regulations between the United States (US) and Mexico has become one of the most decisive and hottest political issues. This political struggle has brought into question US border practices and strategies such as physical barriers, denial of entry, detention, and, most importantly, how the US should respond to immigration. In reality, though, this question has existed since immigration along the US-Mexico border began.

In this paper, I examine a 1994 US Border Strategy, first introduced under President Bill Clinton, called ‘Prevention Through Deterrence.’ This border ...


Perspectives On Community Policing Of Durban Juveniles Living On The Streets, Dena Cheng Apr 2019

Perspectives On Community Policing Of Durban Juveniles Living On The Streets, Dena Cheng

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

The aim of this project is to critically analyze the structure and performance of the South African Police Service (SAPS) at the nexus of juvenile criminal justice and homelessness. Facing issues of social discord, legitimacy, and patterns of corruption following the era of apartheid, SAPS plays a critical role in both preventing as well as eliminating crime. Therefore, this project focuses on a particularly marginalized community, under-aged street children, since the treatment of youth crime and/or criminality in Durban serves as a microcosm of a larger system of practices implemented by SAPS. Through in-depth interviews with local social workers ...


Criminalizing The Other: Exploring The Impact Of The Netherlands' Adaptation Of Prosecutorial Guidelines On Sentencing Disparities, Alia Nahra Apr 2019

Criminalizing The Other: Exploring The Impact Of The Netherlands' Adaptation Of Prosecutorial Guidelines On Sentencing Disparities, Alia Nahra

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This research explores the impact of the 2015 institution of prosecution guidelines in the Netherlands. Prior to this switch, the Openbaar Ministerie operated using a punishment point system, which provided a mathematical formula with which to decide sanctions. Though the motivation of this change was to make the overall system more efficient and enable individual prosecutors to consider each case in a customizable and more equitable form, this research demonstrates that the change has served instead as a perpetuator (and in some cases, facilitator) of the persistent ethnic and gender biases already at work in the Netherlands. The social and ...


Divorce Experiences: What The 2004 Moudawana Does And Does Not Do For Women In Morocco, Beatrice March Apr 2019

Divorce Experiences: What The 2004 Moudawana Does And Does Not Do For Women In Morocco, Beatrice March

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

In 2004, the parliament amended the original Moudawana, or Family Code, from 1958. Among the changes, they altered the laws regarding divorce. The 2004 Moudawana included new provisions for women to obtain divorces in an attempt to create more progressive and equitable laws. The process of divorce, however, is still unequal for men and women. Despite women’s social conditions improving under the 2004 Moudawana, discrimination against women within the Moroccan legal system continues to prevent women from accessing their rights. A complex legal system and general lack of knowledge about the law create an overwhelming experience for women who ...


Tracing Race Through The Narrative Of A Oaxacan Ex-Bracero, Carlina Green Apr 2019

Tracing Race Through The Narrative Of A Oaxacan Ex-Bracero, Carlina Green

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

On March 21st, 2019, I was at a birthday lunch for my host mother at her parents’ house in Oaxaca de Juárez, Mexico, where I am currently studying abroad. Her father began to ask me about the normal meal times in the United States, and shared that he had witnessed this cultural difference firsthand during his time as a migrant worker in the United States. I asked him more questions and learned that he had first gone to Chesterfield, Missouri as a participant in the bracero program in 1953 and later to Los Angeles as an undocumented migrant in the ...


La Vulneración De Los Derechos E Invisibilización Sobre Lxs Migrantes Senegaleses En Caba / The Violation Of Human Rights And The Invisibilization Of Senegalese Immigrants In The Autonomous City Of Buenos Aires, Madeline Doane Apr 2019

La Vulneración De Los Derechos E Invisibilización Sobre Lxs Migrantes Senegaleses En Caba / The Violation Of Human Rights And The Invisibilization Of Senegalese Immigrants In The Autonomous City Of Buenos Aires, Madeline Doane

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Antes de que Argentina fuera una estado-nación oficial, ha habido una invisibilización de lxs afro-descendientes y afro-argentinxs que continúa hoy bajo la negación de la existencia y los derechos de lxs inmigrantes senegaleses. Desde la década de 1990, ha habido una progresiva afluencia de migrantes senegaleses, por lo general de varones jóvenes, a Buenos Aires, Argentina, con el sueño de prosperidad económica para compartir con sus familias en Senegal. A su llegada, se enfrentan a varias barreras lingüísticas y culturales para adaptarse al estilo de vida argentino. Debido a las leyes de inmigración actuales, no son capaces de obtener trabajos ...


La Radio Es Más Fuerte Que La Espada : La Percepción De La Eficacia De La Radio Comunitaria De Familiares Y Amigos De Luciano Arruga En La Visibilización Del Problema De La Violencia Institucional. / The Radio Is Mightier Than The Sword: The Perception Of Efficiency Of The Community Radio Of Familiares Y Amigos De Luciano Arruga In Making Visible The Problem Of Institutional Violence., Isabel Torres Apr 2019

La Radio Es Más Fuerte Que La Espada : La Percepción De La Eficacia De La Radio Comunitaria De Familiares Y Amigos De Luciano Arruga En La Visibilización Del Problema De La Violencia Institucional. / The Radio Is Mightier Than The Sword: The Perception Of Efficiency Of The Community Radio Of Familiares Y Amigos De Luciano Arruga In Making Visible The Problem Of Institutional Violence., Isabel Torres

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Este trabajo investiga la percepción de la eficacia de las radios comunitarias en la visibilización de su lucha contra la violencia institucional. En particular, examina las percepciones de la eficacia que los miembros de la organización Familiares y Amigos de Luciano Arruga tienen sobre la radio comunitaria de su organización, Radio Zona Libre. A través de entrevistas semi-estructuradas y la investigación archivística, indagué como los objetivos de la organización y la radio han cambiado con el tiempo, y con esos cambios surgió un cambio posterior en los tipos de visibilidad que querían lograr y sus percepciones sobre el éxito que ...


Humanitarian Negotiations & Humanitarian Principles: The Interaction Between Humanitarian Negotiations For Access And Organizations' Ability To Adhere To Humanitarian Principles, Gabriela Gil Apr 2019

Humanitarian Negotiations & Humanitarian Principles: The Interaction Between Humanitarian Negotiations For Access And Organizations' Ability To Adhere To Humanitarian Principles, Gabriela Gil

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Aim: To examine how do humanitarian organizations apply, or fail to apply, the humanitarian principles through humanitarian negotiations in modern conflict settings.

Methods: A literature review identified relevant peer-reviewed and grey literature on international humanitarian norms and law, the landscape of modern conflict, and existing guidelines on humanitarian negotiations. Five semi-structured interviews were conducted with experts in humanitarian negotiations chosen on the basis of their relevant background. A coded analysis of these interviews was conducted to identify major themes and subthemes in responses.

Background: Multiple international mechanisms outline the humanitarian principles of humanity, impartiality, neutrality and independence and States, non-State ...


Supplying Slaves: The Disguise Of Greener Pastures: An Exploratory Study Of Human Trafficking In Uganda, Kyla Johnson Apr 2019

Supplying Slaves: The Disguise Of Greener Pastures: An Exploratory Study Of Human Trafficking In Uganda, Kyla Johnson

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

The purpose of this study was to evaluate labor migration in Uganda with a specific focus on the role labor recruitment agencies play in transporting people and how certain circumstances such as lack of knowledge of safe migration can leave people vulnerable to human trafficking. Labor externalization is beneficial specifically for developing countries because it provides jobs for the robust and available labor in these countries. Nonetheless, when reports appear that young girls are stranded abroad in the middle east after being taken there for work, labor recruitment agencies are first to receive the blame. Although Uganda issued a ban ...