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Full-Text Articles in Law

Blockchains And The Ethical Considerations Of Centralization, Michele Benedetto Neitz Jan 2020

Blockchains And The Ethical Considerations Of Centralization, Michele Benedetto Neitz

Publications

Blockchain technology’s promise is extraordinary—a truly decentralized and immutable ledger that could impact everything from cryptocurrencies and health care to supply chain management and civic voting. But a close examination of both permissioned and permissionless blockchains reveals that blockchain technology is actually moving in the direction of centralization, with small groups of people influencing decisions that affect entire blockchains. This emerging reality has profound ethical ramifications for the governance of blockchains.


Appendix B: Ohio Attorney General Facial Recognition Task Force Proposal On Monitoring, Auditing, Enforcement And Transparency, Brian E. Ray, Dennis Hirsch Jan 2020

Appendix B: Ohio Attorney General Facial Recognition Task Force Proposal On Monitoring, Auditing, Enforcement And Transparency, Brian E. Ray, Dennis Hirsch

Law Faculty Reports and Comments

Policy controls that govern agency activity generally contain at least two components: (1) a substantive policy; and (2) a governance structure for ensuring implementation of and compliance with that policy. Effective controls require both. This proposal focuses on the second component, the governance structure. Specifically, it addresses routine monitoring, annual audits, enforcement of the AG’s policies that govern the facial recognition system, and public transparency. Established facial recognition policies, including those that the Task Force has looked to as models, recognize the importance of establishing such a governance structure.

We have reviewed existing federal and state policy templates documents ...


Law Library Blog (January 2020): Legal Beagle's Blog Archive, Roger Williams University School Of Law Jan 2020

Law Library Blog (January 2020): Legal Beagle's Blog Archive, Roger Williams University School Of Law

Law Library Newsletters/Blog

No abstract provided.


The Automated Administrative State: A Crisis Of Legitimacy, Danielle K. Citron, Ryan Calo Jan 2020

The Automated Administrative State: A Crisis Of Legitimacy, Danielle K. Citron, Ryan Calo

Faculty Scholarship

The legitimacy of the administrative state is premised on our faith in agency expertise. Despite their extra-constitutional structure, administrative agencies have been on firm footing for a long time in reverence to their critical role in governing a complex, evolving society. They are delegated enormous power because they respond expertly and nimbly to evolving conditions.

In recent decades, state and federal agencies have embraced a novel mode of operation: automation. Agencies rely more and more on software and algorithms in carrying out their delegated responsibilities. The automated administrative state, however, is demonstrably riddled with concerns. Legal challenges regarding the denial ...


Big Data Prosecution And Brady, Andrew Ferguson Jan 2020

Big Data Prosecution And Brady, Andrew Ferguson

Articles in Law Reviews & Other Academic Journals

Prosecutors are joining the big data revolution, adopting “intelligence-driven” strategies to target crime patterns. Centralized big data systems now track offenders, places, and groups allowing prosecutors to link crimes by time, place, associations, or other connections. Adding to these types of formalized, structured databases are growing sources of raw, unstructured big data from digital surveillance technologies like video cameras, police body cameras, and automated license plate readers. The prosecutors of the future will sit on a wealth of valuable investigative insights – all searchable and potentially relevant for a more aggressive and proactive investigation strategy.But as helpful as these new ...


Beyond The Marrakesh Vip Treaty: Typology Of Copyright Access-Enabling Provisions For Persons With Disabilities, Caroline B. Ncube, Blake E. Reid, Desmond O. Oriakhogba Jan 2020

Beyond The Marrakesh Vip Treaty: Typology Of Copyright Access-Enabling Provisions For Persons With Disabilities, Caroline B. Ncube, Blake E. Reid, Desmond O. Oriakhogba

Articles

This paper builds upon the evidence drawn from a scoping study on access to copyright works by persons with disabilities. It identifies and discusses specific access‐enabling technologies for persons with aural, cognitive, physical, and visual disabilities and how they are affected by the exercise of exclusive rights. It shows how, and the extent to which states' ratification of the Marrakesh Treaty to Facilitate Access to Published Works for Persons Who Are Blind, Visually Impaired, or Otherwise Print Disabled (Marrakesh Treaty) has enabled the making of accessible format of copyright works for persons with disabilities. To this end, the paper ...


Frontiers In Precision Medicine Iv: Artificial Intelligence, Assembling Large Cohorts, And The Population Data Revolution, Adam Bress, Rich Albrechtsen, Monika Baker, Jorge L. Contreras, Zachary Fica, Austin Gamblin, Chelsea Ratcliff, Bianca E. Rich, Matt A. Szaniawski, Alyssa Thorman, Chad Vansant-Webb, Willard Dere Nov 2019

Frontiers In Precision Medicine Iv: Artificial Intelligence, Assembling Large Cohorts, And The Population Data Revolution, Adam Bress, Rich Albrechtsen, Monika Baker, Jorge L. Contreras, Zachary Fica, Austin Gamblin, Chelsea Ratcliff, Bianca E. Rich, Matt A. Szaniawski, Alyssa Thorman, Chad Vansant-Webb, Willard Dere

Utah Law Faculty Scholarship

Large cohort studies and more recently electronic medical records (EMR) are being used to collect massive amounts of genetic information. Implementation of artificial intelligence has become increasingly necessary to interpret this data with the goal of augmenting patient care. While it is impossible to predict what the future holds, policy makers are challenged to create guiding principles and responsibly roll out these new technologies. On March 22, 2019, the University of Utah hosted its fourth annual Precision Medicine Symposium focusing on artificial intelligence, assembling large cohorts, and the population data revolution. The symposium brought together experts in medicine, science, law ...


Facial Recognition And The Fourth Amendment, Andrew Ferguson Oct 2019

Facial Recognition And The Fourth Amendment, Andrew Ferguson

Articles in Law Reviews & Other Academic Journals

Facial recognition offers a totalizing new surveillance power. Police now have the capability to monitor, track, and identify faces through networked surveillance cameras and datasets of billions of images. Whether identifying a particular suspect from a still photo, or identifying every person who walks past a digital camera, the privacy and security impacts of facial recognition are profound and troubling.This Article explores the constitutional design problem at the heart of facial recognition surveillance systems. One might hope that the Fourth Amendment – designed to restrain police power and enacted to limit governmental overreach – would have something to say about this ...


Beyond Intermediation: A New (Fintech) Model For Securities Holding Infrastructures, Charles W. Mooney Jr. Oct 2019

Beyond Intermediation: A New (Fintech) Model For Securities Holding Infrastructures, Charles W. Mooney Jr.

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Publicly traded securities generally are held by investors in securities accounts with intermediaries such as stockbrokers and central securities depositories—intermediated securities. For many investors this is the only practical means of holding and dealing with securities. These intermediated holding systems (IHSs) impose a variety of risks and costs. Investors are exposed to intermediary risk (default or insolvency of an intermediary holding securities) as well as impediments to the exercise of rights such as voting and asserting claims against securities issuers. The nontransparency of IHSs imposes other social costs, such as obstacles to anti-money laundering enforcement. The emergence of FinTech ...


Introduction, Summary, And Some Inferences, Kung-Chung Liu Sep 2019

Introduction, Summary, And Some Inferences, Kung-Chung Liu

Research Collection School Of Law

India and China make a perfect comparison pair in the area of IT industry, with each having its unique strength and potential for cooperation and synergy. Due to heavy involvement of Indian IT firms in software outsourcing arrangement by MNEs, the IP or patent resources are not important. This is especially true when compared with Chinese IT firms, which have much larger patenting volume (compared with other manufacturing sectors). Film industry in India and China has grown despite piracy. In other words, it prospered with little or no copyright protection. More importantly, piracy in China and India did not kill ...


Cryptocurrencies And Code Before The Courts, Vincent Ooi, Kian Peng Soh Sep 2019

Cryptocurrencies And Code Before The Courts, Vincent Ooi, Kian Peng Soh

Research Collection School Of Law

In the rapidly developing cyber sphere of e-commerce and Fintech, dominated by cryptocurrencies and code, it is perhaps not uncommon for firms to focus on cutting-edge technological developments, leaving the law behind as an afterthought. However, the case of B2C2 Ltd v Quoine Pte Ltd (“B2C2”) may serve as a timely reminder of the importance of the legal principles supporting e-commerce and Fintech. In the first case of its kind, B2C2 raised several key questions before the Singapore International Commercial Court, seeking clarification on how the established legal concepts of breach of trust, mistake and unjust enrichment might apply in ...


The State Of Legal Innovation In Asia-Pacific, Jerrold Tsin Howe Soh Sep 2019

The State Of Legal Innovation In Asia-Pacific, Jerrold Tsin Howe Soh

Research Collection School Of Law

The report currently covers ten jurisdictions which, appearing alphabetically in separatechapters following this preface, are Australia, China, Hong Kong, India, Japan, the Republic ofKorea, Malaysia, Russia, Singapore, and a snapshot chapter of the United States. Collectively,these country-chapters make three points clear.


Redefining Leadership In The Age Of The Sdgs: Accelerating And Scaling Up Delivery Through Innovation And Inclusion, Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka, Rangita De Silva De Alwis Aug 2019

Redefining Leadership In The Age Of The Sdgs: Accelerating And Scaling Up Delivery Through Innovation And Inclusion, Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka, Rangita De Silva De Alwis

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

In 2015 the United Nations adopted seventeen Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to promote prosperity while protecting the environment. Our research examines how the SDGs, considered the grandest vision for sustainable development for the world, can be accelerated by ambitious leaders in the field of innovation. Through careful selection based on the type of industry, scale, impact, and diversity, we study a cohort of bold leaders who are shaping a brave new world. In turn, the urgent charge of the SDGs provides a platform and an innovation lab to incubate new ideas for inclusion and technologies.


Frand And Antitrust, Herbert J. Hovenkamp Aug 2019

Frand And Antitrust, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This paper considers when a patentee’s violation of a FRAND commitment also violates the antitrust laws. It warns against two extremes. First, is thinking that any violation of a FRAND obligation is an antitrust violation as well. FRAND obligations are contractual, and most breaches of contract do not violate antitrust law. The other extreme is thinking that, because a FRAND violation is a breach of contract, it cannot also be an antitrust violation.

Every antitrust case must consider the market environment in which conduct is to be evaluated. SSOs operated by multiple firms are joint ventures. Antitrust’s role ...


Catalyzing Privacy Law, Anupam Chander, Margot E. Kaminski, William Mcgeveran Aug 2019

Catalyzing Privacy Law, Anupam Chander, Margot E. Kaminski, William Mcgeveran

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The United States famously lacks a comprehensive federal data privacy law. In the past year, however, over half the states have proposed broad privacy bills or have established task forces to propose possible privacy legislation. Meanwhile, congressional committees are holding hearings on multiple privacy bills. What is catalyzing this legislative momentum? Some believe that Europe’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), which came into force in 2018, is the driving factor. But with the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA) which took effect in January 2020, California has emerged as an alternate contender in the race to set the new standard ...


How To Address The Ai Governance Discussion? What Can We Learn From Singapore’S Ai Strategy?, Nydia Remolina Leon, Siew Hui Seah Aug 2019

How To Address The Ai Governance Discussion? What Can We Learn From Singapore’S Ai Strategy?, Nydia Remolina Leon, Siew Hui Seah

Centre for AI & Data Governance

The following speech was based on a research supported by the National ResearchFoundation, Prime Minister’s Office, Singapore under its Emerging Area Research ProjectFunding Initiative, and it was delivered by Yihan Goh, Dean, Professor of Law andDirector of the Centre for Artificial Intelligence and Data Governance at SingaporeManagement University, at a conference on AI and Robot Law organised by KeioUniversity with support from the Research Institute of Science and Technology for Societyof Japan (RISTEX), in Tokyo, Japan the 6th of July, 2019.


Data Regulation With Chinese Characteristics, Henry S. Gao Aug 2019

Data Regulation With Chinese Characteristics, Henry S. Gao

Centre for AI & Data Governance

Data regulation has become a key issue in today’s world. For various reasons, however, it has been challenging to understand data regulations in China, home to the largest e-commerce market in the world. This paper traces the evolution of data and Internet regulation in China, from the early days of the Chinese Internet, to the regulatory turf wars among different agencies, and all the way to the elevation of data and Internet regulation to the level of national security and the rise of a super-agency in charge of the issue in recent years. The paper argues that, the Chinese ...


Diversity As A Trade Secret, Jamillah Bowman Williams Aug 2019

Diversity As A Trade Secret, Jamillah Bowman Williams

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

When we think of trade secrets, we often think of famous examples such as the Coca-Cola formula, Google’s algorithm, or McDonald’s special sauce used on the Big Mac. However, companies have increasingly made the novel argument that diversity data and strategies are protected trade secrets. This may sound like an unusual, even suspicious, legal argument. Many of the industries that dominate the economy in wealth, status, and power continue to struggle with a lack of diversity. Various stakeholders have mobilized to improve access and equity, but there is an information asymmetry that makes this pursuit daunting. When potential ...


Legal Topic Classification: A Comparative Study Of Text Classifiers On Singapore Supreme Court Judgments, Jerrold Tsin Howe Soh, How Khang Lim, Ian Ernst Chai Jun 2019

Legal Topic Classification: A Comparative Study Of Text Classifiers On Singapore Supreme Court Judgments, Jerrold Tsin Howe Soh, How Khang Lim, Ian Ernst Chai

Research Collection School Of Law

This paper conducts a comparative study on the performance of various machine learning approaches for classifying judgments into legal areas. Using a novel dataset of 6,227 Singapore Supreme Court judgments, we investigate how state-of-the-art NLP methods compare against traditional statistical models when applied to a legal corpus that comprised few but lengthy documents. All approaches tested, including topic model, word embedding, and language model-based classifiers, performed well with as little as a few hundred judgments. However, more work needs to be done to optimize state-of-the-art methods for the legal domain.


Grants, Nicholson Price Ii May 2019

Grants, Nicholson Price Ii

Articles

Innovation is a primary source of economic growth and is accordingly the target of substantial academic and government attention. Grants are a key tool in the government’s arsenal to promote innovation, but legal academic studies of that arsenal have given them short shrift. Although patents, prizes, and regulator-enforced exclusivity are each the subject of substantial literature, grants are typically addressed briefly, if at all. According to the conventional story, grants may be the only feasible tool to drive basic research, as opposed to applied research, but they are a blunt tool for that task. Three critiques of grants underlie ...


Congressional Testimony: Intellectual Property And The Price Of Prescription Drugs: Balancing Innovation And Competition, David S. Olson May 2019

Congressional Testimony: Intellectual Property And The Price Of Prescription Drugs: Balancing Innovation And Competition, David S. Olson

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

There is debate among scholars as to whether patent law provides more benefit than harm. Some studies of the patent system purport to show that patents do not increase invention that much and therefore the monopoly effects of patents cause more harm than the benefit from the additional invention that patents incentivize. But even studies casting doubt on patent law’s efficacy generally tend to find that in the area of pharmaceuticals,1 patent law has a large, positive effect on social welfare by providing incentive for significant levels of drug development that otherwise simply would not occur. While some ...


Shocking Technology: What Happens When Firms Make Large It Investments?, James Bessen, Cesare Righi Apr 2019

Shocking Technology: What Happens When Firms Make Large It Investments?, James Bessen, Cesare Righi

Faculty Scholarship

Many economists see information technology (IT) as central to understanding trends in productivity, labor’s share of output, and employment, especially as new “artificial intelligence” (AI) technologies emerge. Yet it has been difficult to measure its effects. This paper takes a first look at the economic impacts of large custom software investment by firms—“IT shocks.” Using a novel difference-in-differences methodology, we estimate the productivity of these shocks and the associated effects on revenues and employment and we explore the implications in terms of labor’s share and other variables, including heterogeneous relationships by industry, AI use, and time. In ...


Singapore's Consistent, Agile Support For Innovation And Ip In A Digital Age, Sam Sim, Vincent Ooi Apr 2019

Singapore's Consistent, Agile Support For Innovation And Ip In A Digital Age, Sam Sim, Vincent Ooi

Research Collection School Of Law

Singapore has been agile in refining its support for companies investing in the acquisition, development, enhancement and exploitation of intellectual property rights, which is the key to innovation in the digitalised economy of the future.Sam Sim and Vincent Ooi outline the main tax measures announced in recent budgets.


Digital Market Perfection, Rory Van Loo Mar 2019

Digital Market Perfection, Rory Van Loo

Faculty Scholarship

Google’s, Apple’s, and other companies’ automated assistants are increasingly serving as personal shoppers. These digital intermediaries will save us time by purchasing grocery items, transferring bank accounts, and subscribing to cable. The literature has only begun to hint at the paradigm shift needed to navigate the legal risks and rewards of this coming era of automated commerce. This Article begins to fill that gap first by surveying legal battles related to contract exit, data access, and deception that will determine the extent to which automated assistants are able to help consumers to search and switch, potentially bringing tremendous ...


Contracts Formed By Software: An Approach From The Law Of Mistake, Vincent Ooi Feb 2019

Contracts Formed By Software: An Approach From The Law Of Mistake, Vincent Ooi

Centre for AI & Data Governance

A ‘Contracting Problem’ arises when software is used to autonomously enter into contracts without human input. Questions arise as to how and whether there can be an expression of an objective intention to be legally bound. This article considers three leading solutions to the Contracting Problem. The ‘Mere Tools Theory’, which views software as ‘mere tools’ of communication, is too harsh as it binds users to any software malfunction. The Agency Approach, which treats software as Electronic Agents, capable of contracting on behalf of their users, is untenable as it ascribes unrealistic characteristics to software. The article submits that the ...


Automatic Reaction - What Happens To Workers At Firms That Automate?, James Bessen, Martin Goos, Anna Salomons, Wiljan Van Den Berge Feb 2019

Automatic Reaction - What Happens To Workers At Firms That Automate?, James Bessen, Martin Goos, Anna Salomons, Wiljan Van Den Berge

Faculty Scholarship

We provide the first estimate of the impacts of automation on individual workers by combining Dutch micro-data with a direct measure of automation expenditures covering firms in all private non-financial industries over 2000-2016. Using an event study differences-indifferences design, we find that automation at the firm increases the probability of workers separating from their employers and decreases days worked, leading to a 5-year cumulative wage income loss of about 8% of one year’s earnings for incumbent workers. We find little change in wage rates. Further, lost wage earnings are only partially offset by various benefits systems and are disproportionately ...


Lowering Legal Barriers To Rpki Adoption, Christopher S. Yoo, David A. Wishnick Jan 2019

Lowering Legal Barriers To Rpki Adoption, Christopher S. Yoo, David A. Wishnick

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Across the Internet, mistaken and malicious routing announcements impose significant costs on users and network operators. To make routing announcements more reliable and secure, Internet coordination bodies have encouraged network operators to adopt the Resource Public Key Infrastructure (“RPKI”) framework. Despite this encouragement, RPKI’s adoption rates are low, especially in North America.

This report presents the results of a year-long investigation into the hypothesis—widespread within the network operator community—that legal issues pose barriers to RPKI adoption and are one cause of the disparities between North America and other regions of the world. On the basis of interviews ...


Artificial Intelligence And Law: An Overview, Harry Surden Jan 2019

Artificial Intelligence And Law: An Overview, Harry Surden

Articles

Much has been written recently about artificial intelligence (AI) and law. But what is AI, and what is its relation to the practice and administration of law? This article addresses those questions by providing a high-level overview of AI and its use within law. The discussion aims to be nuanced but also understandable to those without a technical background. To that end, I first discuss AI generally. I then turn to AI and how it is being used by lawyers in the practice of law, people and companies who are governed by the law, and government officials who administer the ...


The Right To Explanation, Explained, Margot E. Kaminski Jan 2019

The Right To Explanation, Explained, Margot E. Kaminski

Articles

Many have called for algorithmic accountability: laws governing decision-making by complex algorithms, or AI. The EU’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) now establishes exactly this. The recent debate over the right to explanation (a right to information about individual decisions made by algorithms) has obscured the significant algorithmic accountability regime established by the GDPR. The GDPR’s provisions on algorithmic accountability, which include a right to explanation, have the potential to be broader, stronger, and deeper than the preceding requirements of the Data Protection Directive. This Essay clarifies, largely for a U.S. audience, what the GDPR actually requires ...


The Human Element: The Under-Theorized And Underutilized Component Vital To Fostering Blockchain Development, Joshua A.T. Fairfield Jan 2019

The Human Element: The Under-Theorized And Underutilized Component Vital To Fostering Blockchain Development, Joshua A.T. Fairfield

Scholarly Articles

This Article constitutes a lightly edited transcription of Joshua Fairfield's oral remarks at the April 6, 2018 Cleveland State Law Review Symposium on Blockchain Law and Technology.

The author posits that there is a tendency to think that technology will emerge triumphant in resolving physical problems, including banking and transactional recording; that there is sort of a "tech-bro utopianism," epitomized by Mark Zuckerberg, suggesting that what we need is a technological, not a human, solution. He states that one major problem is that social technologists, psychologists, historians, linguists, and cultural anthropologists are not on the development teams that are ...