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Full-Text Articles in Law

Evolutionary Theory And Kinship Foster Care: An Initial Test Of Two Hypotheses, David J. Herring, Jeffrey J. Shook, Sara Goodkind, Kevin H. Kim Jan 2009

Evolutionary Theory And Kinship Foster Care: An Initial Test Of Two Hypotheses, David J. Herring, Jeffrey J. Shook, Sara Goodkind, Kevin H. Kim

Articles

Public child welfare systems increasingly rely on kin to serve as foster parents. This study tests two hypotheses concerning kinship foster care that have been formulated based on evolutionary theory and behavioral biology research. The first hypothesis is that on average foster children are likely to benefit from higher levels of parental investment and realize better outcomes if placed with kin rather than non-kin foster parents. The second hypothesis is that on average children in kinship foster care placements are likely to benefit from higher levels of parental investment and realize better outcomes if placed with some types of kin ...


Kinship Foster Care: Implications Of Behavioral Biology Research, David J. Herring Jan 2008

Kinship Foster Care: Implications Of Behavioral Biology Research, David J. Herring

Articles

Public child welfare systems rely heavily on kin to serve as foster parents, requiring public actors to consider and choose among different types of available kin (e.g. maternal grandmothers, paternal grandfathers, matrilateral aunts). Behavioral biology researchers have been exploring kinship relationships and the expected level of investment in child care for different types of kin. This paper explains the relevance to kinship foster care of behavioral biology research on kinship relationships and expected levels of parental investment. This research allows for the development of a rank listing of second-degree kin in terms of their likely level of investment in ...


The New "Fetal Protection": The Wrong Answer To The Crisis Of Inadequate Health Care For Women And Children, Linda C. Fentiman Jan 2006

The New "Fetal Protection": The Wrong Answer To The Crisis Of Inadequate Health Care For Women And Children, Linda C. Fentiman

Pace Law Faculty Publications

This article will expand upon the feminist critique by focusing on children's health as well as the health and liberty interests of their mothers. In the first part of this article, I examine the legal and cultural underpinnings of “fetal protection” and explore its current manifestations. In the second part, I place “fetal protection” in a broader context, documenting the ways in which American law currently promotes fetal life, while simultaneously neglecting the lives and health of born children. The third part of the article offers concrete recommendations about how government, both state and federal, can actually achieve the ...


Foster Care Safety And The Kinship Cue Of Attitude Similarity, David J. Herring Jan 2006

Foster Care Safety And The Kinship Cue Of Attitude Similarity, David J. Herring

Articles

This article brings behavioral biology research on attitude similarity as a kinship cue to bear on the laws, policies, and practices surrounding the placement of children in foster care. The basic logic of the article relies on the nature and power of kinship cues. Individuals perceive others as kin through fallible, often unconscious mechanisms. Because these mechanisms are fallible, individuals may come to believe that unrelated persons are kin.

Once a cue gives rise to the perception of kinship, the individual who acquires this perception about another person is more likely to treat that other person favorably, providing important benefits ...


The Disability Integration Presumption: Thirty Years Later, Ruth Colker Mar 2005

The Disability Integration Presumption: Thirty Years Later, Ruth Colker

The Ohio State University Moritz College of Law Working Paper Series

The fiftieth anniversary of the Brown v. Board of Education decision has spurred a lively debate about the merits of “integration.” This article brings that debate to a new context – the integration presumption under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (“IDEA”). The IDEA has contained an “integration presumption” for more than thirty years under which school districts should presumptively educate disabled children with children who are not disabled in a fully inclusive educational environment. This article traces the history of this presumption and argues that it was borrowed from the racial civil rights movement without any empirical justification. In addition ...


Does The Tax Law Discriminate Against The Majority Of American Children: The Downside Of Our Progressive Rate Structure And Unbalanced Incentives For Higher Education?, Lester B. Snyder Oct 2004

Does The Tax Law Discriminate Against The Majority Of American Children: The Downside Of Our Progressive Rate Structure And Unbalanced Incentives For Higher Education?, Lester B. Snyder

University of San Diego Law and Economics Research Paper Series

Our graduate income tax structure provides an incentive to shift income to lower-bracket family members. However, some parents have much more latitude to shift income to their children than do others. Income derived from services and private business-by far the majority of American income-is less favored than income derived from publicly traded securities. The rationale given for this discrimination is that parents in services or private business, as opposed to those in securities, do not actually part with control of their property. This article explores these tax broader (yet subtle) tax benefits and their impact on the majority of children ...


Child Placement Decisions: The Relevance Of Facial Resemblance And Biological Relationships, David J. Herring Oct 2003

Child Placement Decisions: The Relevance Of Facial Resemblance And Biological Relationships, David J. Herring

University of Pittsburgh School of Law Working Paper Series

This article discusses two studies of evolution and human behavior addressing child-adult relationships and explores implications for policies and practices surrounding placement of children in foster homes. The first study indicates that men favor children whose facial features resemble their own facial features. This study may justify public child welfare decisionmakers in considering facial resemblance as they attempt to place children in safe foster homes. The second study indicates that parents are likely to invest more in children who are biologically related to them, thus enhancing their longterm well-being. Among other implications, this study may justify public child welfare decisionmakers ...


Child Placement Decisions: The Relevance Of Facial Resemblance And Biological Relationships, David J. Herring Jan 2003

Child Placement Decisions: The Relevance Of Facial Resemblance And Biological Relationships, David J. Herring

Articles

This article discusses two studies of evolution and human behavior addressing child-adult relationships and explores implications for policies and practices surrounding placement of children in foster homes. The first study indicates that men favor children whose facial features resemble their own facial features. This study may justify public child welfare decisionmakers in considering facial resemblance as they attempt to place children in safe foster homes.

The second study indicates that parents are likely to invest more in children who are biologically related to them, thus enhancing their long term well-being. Among other implications, this study may justify public child welfare ...


Transracial Adoption (Tra): Old Prejudices And Discrimination Float Under A New Halo, Ruth-Arlene W. Howe Jan 1997

Transracial Adoption (Tra): Old Prejudices And Discrimination Float Under A New Halo, Ruth-Arlene W. Howe

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

The primary aim of this article is to place the late twentieth century Transracial Adoption (TRA) of African-American children accurately within the context of the child welfare system milieu out of which it emerged. It also endeavors to provide thoughtful scholars and child advocates a new lens with which to assess the past purpose, function, and efficacy of TRA. The author hopes that through these considerations more careful regulation and monitoring of future TRA placements will emerge, which will both protect the interests of the African-American adoptee and respect the African-American community.


Redefining The Transracial Adoption Controversy, Ruth-Arlene W. Howe Jan 1995

Redefining The Transracial Adoption Controversy, Ruth-Arlene W. Howe

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

Transracial adoption is a highly sensitive topic, evoking intense debate between those who consider transracial placements positive for children and society, and those who consider them injurious to Black children and the Black community. The author explores this debate while asserting that the key to successful living as a minority person in a discriminating, denigrating society is to have positive affiliations with others like oneself. Thus, to promote and protect a child’s “best interests,” race is an important factor to be considered when evaluating the appropriateness of prospective adoptive parents. The Essay considers whose interests would actually be served ...


Freedom And Choice In Constitutional Law, John H. Garvey Jun 1981

Freedom And Choice In Constitutional Law, John H. Garvey

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

The constitutional rights of children, the mentally ill, and other legally incompetent persons have been the subject of much litigation in the past twenty years. In this Article, Professor Garvey develops a general theory to explain the different ways in which persons of diminished capacity can be said to enjoy constitutional protections. He first notes that, of the various constitutional provisions, only one kind – freedoms, which protect the right to make choices – pose serious difficulties when applied to persons of diminished capacity. He then proposes a hierarchy of ways in which we can attribute freedoms to such persons: the laissez-faire ...