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Exploring Sectoral Solutions For Digital Workers: The Status Of The Artist Act Approach, Sara Slinn Jan 2021

Exploring Sectoral Solutions For Digital Workers: The Status Of The Artist Act Approach, Sara Slinn

Articles & Book Chapters

Digital workers have not had significant success in securing conventional forms of collective workplace representation, particularly statutory collective bargaining. This article examines an established sectoral bargaining statute, the Status of the Artist Act (SOA), as a possible model for collective bargaining legislation that is better suited to regulating digital work than the Wagner Act model (WAM) of labor legislation. Key features of the WAM labor legislation pose significant barriers for digital worker organizing. First, the necessity for applicant unions to demonstrate a threshold level of support among workers requires applicants to accurately estimate the number of workers in the proposed ...


What We Owe Workers As A Matter Of Common Humanity: Sickness And Caregiving Leaves And Pay In The Age Of Pandemics, Eric Tucker, Leah F. Vosko, Sarah Marsden Nov 2020

What We Owe Workers As A Matter Of Common Humanity: Sickness And Caregiving Leaves And Pay In The Age Of Pandemics, Eric Tucker, Leah F. Vosko, Sarah Marsden

Articles & Book Chapters

No abstract provided.


Federal Enforcement Of Migrant Workers’ Labour Rights In Canada: A Research Report, Eric M Tucker, Sarah Marsden, Leah F. Vosko Jan 2020

Federal Enforcement Of Migrant Workers’ Labour Rights In Canada: A Research Report, Eric M Tucker, Sarah Marsden, Leah F. Vosko

Articles & Book Chapters

Although Canada’s migrant labour program is seen by some as a model of best practices, rights shortfalls and exploitation of workers are well documented. Through migration policy, federal authorities determine who can hire migrant workers, and the conditions under which they are employed, through the provision of work permits. Despite its authority over work permits, the federal government has historically had little to do with the regulation of working conditions. In 2015, the federal government introduced a new regulatory enforcement system - unique internationally for its attempt to enforce migrants’ workplace rights through federal migration policy - under which employers must ...


Carrying Little Sticks: Is There A ‘Deterrence Gap’ In Employment Standards Enforcement In Ontario, Canada?, Eric Tucker, Leah F. Vosko, Rebecca Casey, Mark P. Thomas, John Grundy, Andrea M. Noack Jan 2019

Carrying Little Sticks: Is There A ‘Deterrence Gap’ In Employment Standards Enforcement In Ontario, Canada?, Eric Tucker, Leah F. Vosko, Rebecca Casey, Mark P. Thomas, John Grundy, Andrea M. Noack

Articles & Book Chapters

This article assesses whether a deterrence gap exists in the enforcement of the Ontario Employment Standards Act (ESA), which sets minimum conditions of employment in areas such as minimum wage, overtime pay and leaves. Drawing on a unique administrative data set, the article measures the use of deterrence in Ontario’s ESA enforcement regime against the role of deterrence within two influential models of enforcement: responsive regulation and strategic enforcement. The article finds that the use of deterrence is below its prescribed role in either model of enforcement. We conclude that there is a deterrence gap in Ontario.


Regulating Strikes In Essential Services - Canada, Eric Tucker Jan 2019

Regulating Strikes In Essential Services - Canada, Eric Tucker

Articles & Book Chapters

This chapter was written as a part of a comparative law project examining the regulation of strikes in essential services. It describes and analyses Canada's experience with strikes in essential services, including the historical development of essential service strike regulation, Canada's shifting understanding of essentiality and, most recently, the implications of constitutional labour rights, including the right to strike, for essential service strike regulation. It also looks at the law in action through a consideration of the application of these laws in their specific contest.


Viewing The International Labour Organization’S Social Justice Praxis Through A Third World Approaches To International Law Lens: Some Preliminary Insights, Obiora Chinedu Okafor, Titilayo Adebola, Basema Al-Alami Jan 2019

Viewing The International Labour Organization’S Social Justice Praxis Through A Third World Approaches To International Law Lens: Some Preliminary Insights, Obiora Chinedu Okafor, Titilayo Adebola, Basema Al-Alami

Articles & Book Chapters

The overarching objective of this paper is to shine a Third World

Approaches to International Law (TWAIL) torchlight on the ILO’s social

justice discourse and praxis to find out what can be seen, or seen in a new

light, or seen in a different way, when the TWAIL approach is adopted,

and to comment on the significance of our findings, if any. To this end,

the paper pursues two specific and intertwined goals, namely: (i) to analytically

tease out the similarities and differences between TWAIL’s avowedly

(global) social justice discourse and praxis and its ILO counterpart; and (ii ...


Working Time, Dinner Time, Serving Time: Labour And Law In Industrialization, Douglas Hay Jan 2018

Working Time, Dinner Time, Serving Time: Labour And Law In Industrialization, Douglas Hay

Articles & Book Chapters

Many economic historians agree that increased labour inputs contributed to Britain’s primary industrialisation. Voluntary self-exploitation by workers to purchase new consumer goods is one common explanation, but it sits uneasily with evidence of poverty, child labour, popular protest, and criminal punishments explored by social historians. A critical and neglected legal dimension may be the evolution of contracts of employment. The law of master and servant, to use the technical term, shifted markedly between 1750 and 1850 to advantage capital and disadvantage labour. Medieval in origin, it had always been adjudicated in summary hearings before lay magistrates, and provided penal ...


Using Tickets In Employment Standards Inspections: Deterrence As Effective Enforcement In Ontario, Canada?, Rebecca Casey, Eric Tucker, Leah F. Vosko, Andrea M. Noack Jan 2018

Using Tickets In Employment Standards Inspections: Deterrence As Effective Enforcement In Ontario, Canada?, Rebecca Casey, Eric Tucker, Leah F. Vosko, Andrea M. Noack

Articles & Book Chapters

It is widely agreed that there is a crisis in labour/employment standards enforcement. A key issue is the role of deterrence measures that penalise violations. Employment standards enforcement in Ontario, like in most jurisdictions, is based mainly on a compliance framework promoting voluntary resolution of complaints and, if that fails, ordering restitution. Deterrence measures that penalise violations are rarely invoked. However, the Ontario government has recently increased the role of proactive inspections and tickets, a low-level deterrence measure which imposes fines of $295 plus victim surcharges. In examining the effectiveness of the use of tickets in inspections, we begin ...


Migrant Workers And Fissured Workforces: Cs Wind And The Dilemmas Of Organizing Intra-Company Transfers In Canada, Eric M Tucker Jun 2017

Migrant Workers And Fissured Workforces: Cs Wind And The Dilemmas Of Organizing Intra-Company Transfers In Canada, Eric M Tucker

Articles & Book Chapters

Canadian temporary foreign worker programs have been proliferating in recent years. While much attention has deservedly focused on programs that target so-called low-skilled workers, such as seasonal agricultural workers and live-in caregivers, other programs have been expanding, and have recently been reorganized into the International Mobility Program (IMP). Streams within the IMP are quite diverse and there are few legal limits on their growth. One of these, intra-company transfers (ICTs), is not new, but it now extends beyond professional and managerial workers to more permeable and expansive categories. As a result, unions increasingly face the prospect of organizing workplaces where ...


Fixed-Term Contracts And Principle Of Equal Treatment In Canada, Eric M Tucker, Alec Stromdahl Jan 2017

Fixed-Term Contracts And Principle Of Equal Treatment In Canada, Eric M Tucker, Alec Stromdahl

Articles & Book Chapters

Canada is best characterized as a liberal market economy which lightly regulates employment relations and, in particular, the duration of employment contracts.1 As such, many of the kinds of protections that might be found in other countries included in this dossier are not present in Canada. There are, however, a few older statutory provisions that limit the length of fixed-term contracts and impose formalities for their creation because of a concern about the creation of disguised forms of unfree labour. There is also a small body of common law that reflects a preference for contracts of indefinite hiring over ...


On Writing Labour Law History: A Reconnaissance, Eric M Tucker Jan 2017

On Writing Labour Law History: A Reconnaissance, Eric M Tucker

Articles & Book Chapters

Labour law historians rarely write about the theoretical and methodological foundations of their discipline. In response to this state of affairs, this article adopts a reconnaissance strategy, which eschews any pretense at providing a synthesis or authoritative conclusions, but rather hopes to open up questions and paths of inquiry that may encourage others to also reflect on a neglected area of scholarship. It begins by documenting and reflecting on the implications of the fact that labour law history sits at the margins of many other disciplines, including labour history, legal history, labour law, industrial relations and law and society, but ...


Outsourcing And Supply Chains In Canada, Eric Tucker, Leah F. Vosko, John Grundy, Alec Stromdahl Jan 2016

Outsourcing And Supply Chains In Canada, Eric Tucker, Leah F. Vosko, John Grundy, Alec Stromdahl

Articles & Book Chapters

While data on the extent of outsourcing by Canadian businesses is scant, there is general agreement that over the last several decades the phenomenon has increased and taken a variety of forms including the use of global supply-chains (offshoring) and domestic subcontracting (outsourcing).175 In this way, large businesses have been able to shed responsibility for the employees who actually perform the work. David Weil has aptly characterized this phenomenon as “fissuring”, which can take a variety of forms including sub-contracting, franchising, and other arrangements.176 A related phenomenon that will be addressed here is the use of temporary employment ...


From Theory And Research To Policy And Practice In Work And Employment - And Beyond?, Harry W. Arthurs Jan 2014

From Theory And Research To Policy And Practice In Work And Employment - And Beyond?, Harry W. Arthurs

Articles & Book Chapters

This paper was delivered as the keynote address to the 50th Annual Conference, Canadian Industrial Relations Association, 29 May 2013. My thanks to Alex Zamfir, JD Candidate, Osgoode Hall Law School, for his editorial and research assistance.


A Response, Fay Faraday, Eric Tucker Jan 2014

A Response, Fay Faraday, Eric Tucker

Articles & Book Chapters

Faraday and Tucker respond to criticism about their work Constitutional Labour Rights in Canada: Farm Workers and the Fraser Case (2012).


'In A Settled Country, Everyone Must Eat': Four Questions About Transnational Private Regulation, Migration, And Migrant Work, Amar Bhatia Dec 2012

'In A Settled Country, Everyone Must Eat': Four Questions About Transnational Private Regulation, Migration, And Migrant Work, Amar Bhatia

Articles & Book Chapters

This introduction speaks to one of the questions raised by transnational private regulation: is migration always transnational? One quick answer to this question might be ‘no’. If migration is concerned with the international movement of people, then what has been called the approach of methodological nationalism would force out the ‘trans-­‐’ and always substitute the international. Since methodological nationalism is an approach characterized by an overdue emphasis on states and their external borders as the sole arbiters for what registers as movement, then this answer would not surprise anyone. However, if we do not take a monopolistic approach to borders ...


Who’S Running The Road?: Street Railway Strikes And The Problem Of Constructing A Liberal Capitalist Order In Canada, 1886-1914, Eric Tucker Jan 2010

Who’S Running The Road?: Street Railway Strikes And The Problem Of Constructing A Liberal Capitalist Order In Canada, 1886-1914, Eric Tucker

Articles & Book Chapters

Street railway strikes in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were frequently the occasion for large-scale collective violence in North American cities and challenged the capacity of local authorities to maintain civic order. However, this was only the most visible manifestation of the challenge that street railway workers’ collective action posed to the order of liberal capitalism, an order constructed on several intersecting dimensions. Using the example of Canadian street railway workers from 1886 to 1914, a period of rapid urbanization and industrialization, this article explores the ways the collective action by workers and their community sympathizers challenged the ...


"Everybody Knows What A Picket Line Means": Picketing Before The British Columbia Court Of Appeal, Judy Fudge, Eric Tucker Jan 2009

"Everybody Knows What A Picket Line Means": Picketing Before The British Columbia Court Of Appeal, Judy Fudge, Eric Tucker

Articles & Book Chapters

The general hostility of courts towards workers’ collective action is well documented, but even against that standard the restrictive approach of the British Columbia Court of Appeal stands out. Although this trend first became apparent in a series of cases before World War II in which the court treated peaceful picketing as unlawful and narrowly interpreted British Columbia’s Trade Union Act (1902), which limited trade unions’ common law liability, this study will focus on the court’s post-War jurisprudence. The legal environment for trade union activity was radically altered during World War II by PC 1003, which provided unions ...


No Right (To Organize) Without A Remedy: Evidence And Consequences Of Failure To Provide Compensatory Remedies For Unfair Labour Practices In British Columbia, Sara Slinn Jan 2008

No Right (To Organize) Without A Remedy: Evidence And Consequences Of Failure To Provide Compensatory Remedies For Unfair Labour Practices In British Columbia, Sara Slinn

Articles & Book Chapters

Employees and unions encounter significant risks during union organizing and often see their efforts thwarted by employers. Labour law regimes attempt to minimize these risks by rendering unlawful a number of unfair labour practices (ULPs) employers can use to prevent unionization. But labour relations boards (LRBs) in Canada often avoid awarding full compensation for the harm ULPs cause, leading employers to still view ULPs as advantageous courses of action with only moderate associated costs.The author argues that this problem can be solved or greatly mitigated without the need for formal reforms, LRBs rather must come to embrace the full ...


Captive Audience Meetings And Forced Listening: Lessons For Canada From The American Experience, Sara Slinn Jan 2008

Captive Audience Meetings And Forced Listening: Lessons For Canada From The American Experience, Sara Slinn

Articles & Book Chapters

Widespread adoption of mandatory representation votes and express protection of employer speech invite employer anti-union campaigns during union organizing, including employer-held captive audience meetings. Therefore, the problem of whether and how to restrict employers’ captive audience communications during union organizing is of renewed relevance in Canada. Captive meetings are a long-standing feature of American labour relations. This article considers how treatment of captive meetings evolved in the U.S., including the notion of employee choice, the “marketplace of ideas” view of expression dominating the American debate, and the central role of the contest between constitutional and statutory rights. It also ...


Helping Out In The Family Firm: The Legal Treatment Of Unpaid Market Labor, Lisa Philipps Jan 2008

Helping Out In The Family Firm: The Legal Treatment Of Unpaid Market Labor, Lisa Philipps

Articles & Book Chapters

This article investigates the work of individuals who help out informally with a family member's job, often without pay. Examples include the relative who works in the back room of the family business, the executive spouse who hosts corporate functions, the political wife who campaigns with her husband, or the child who does chores on the family farm. The term "unpaid market labor" (UML) is used here to describe the ways that family members collaborate directly in paid activities that are legally and socially attributed to others. The practical legal problems that can arise in relation to UML are ...


Silent Partners: The Role Of Unpaid Market Labor In Families, Lisa Philipps Jan 2008

Silent Partners: The Role Of Unpaid Market Labor In Families, Lisa Philipps

Articles & Book Chapters

The term 'unpaid market labor' refers to the direct contributions of unpaid family members to market work that officially belongs to another member of the household. Thus one individual may be construed legally as an owner or entrepreneur, but relatives may help out informally with business operations. Likewise, in corporate or public-service settings, certain employees rely on the unpaid help of an executive spouse or political wife. This paper argues that unpaid market labor is conceptually distinct from both paid work and unpaid domestic labor. Legal cases from Canada are used to illustrate the policy implications of this insight and ...


Pension Power: Unions, Pension Funds, And Social Investment In Canada, Jinyan Li Jan 2006

Pension Power: Unions, Pension Funds, And Social Investment In Canada, Jinyan Li

Articles & Book Chapters

This is a review of the book Pension Power: Unions, Pension Funds, and Social Investment in Canada.


After Industrial Citizenship: Market Citizenship Or Citizenship At Work?, Judy Fudge Jan 2005

After Industrial Citizenship: Market Citizenship Or Citizenship At Work?, Judy Fudge

Articles & Book Chapters

This article sketches the rise and fall of industrial citizenship in Canada, and presents two very different models of citizenship that might replace it. It begins by defining the concept of citizenship, and explaining how industrial citizenship has conventionally been understood. It then traces the genealogy of industrial citizenship in Canadian labour law, and how the processes of feminization, deregulation, and globalization have challenged it as a normative ideal and undermined the conditions that have sustained it. The article concludes by considering two scenarios for industrial citizenship in the future: one in which the substance of citizenship is circumscribed by ...


Diverging Trends In Worker Health And Safety Protection And Participation In Canada, 1985-2000, Eric Tucker Jan 2003

Diverging Trends In Worker Health And Safety Protection And Participation In Canada, 1985-2000, Eric Tucker

Articles & Book Chapters

Despite the comprehensiveness of neo-liberal restructuring in Canada, it has not proceeded uniformly in its timing or outcomes across regulatory fields and political jurisdictions. The example of occupational health and safety (OHS) regulation is instructive. This article compares recent OHS developments in five Canadian jurisdictions, Alberta, British Columbia, Nova Scotia, Ontario and the Federal jurisdiction. It finds that despite the adoption of a common model by all jurisdictions, there has recently been considerable divergence in the way that the elements of worker participation and protection have been combined. Modified power resource theory is used to explain a portion of this ...


The Faces Of Coercion: The Legal Regulation Of Labor Conflict In Ontario, 1880-1889, Eric Tucker Jan 1994

The Faces Of Coercion: The Legal Regulation Of Labor Conflict In Ontario, 1880-1889, Eric Tucker

Articles & Book Chapters

This article is part of a larger study of Canadian labor law before the advent of statutory collective bargaining, which questions the traditional periodization and the meanings of the categories. It is often an un-articulated premise that the exercise by employers of their superior economic power, as imparted and structured through the law of property and contract, is not coercion. Rather, the analysis is restricted to direct state coercion, exercised through the criminal law, the police, and the injunction. This framework produces a partial view of the role of law and interferes with an analysis of the strategic choices made ...


Industry And Humanity Revisited: Everything Old Is New Again: Review Of Paul C. Weiler, Governing The Workplace, Eric Tucker Jan 1991

Industry And Humanity Revisited: Everything Old Is New Again: Review Of Paul C. Weiler, Governing The Workplace, Eric Tucker

Articles & Book Chapters

The decline of American unionism is now a well-documented phenomenon. Its causes and consequences, however, remain the subject of intense debate. Regardless of one’s view of this development, it clearly poses a challenge to the traditional techniques for the legal regulation of the employment relationship, and especially for state-sponsored collective bargaining which has been the centerpiece of American labour policy since the enactment of the Wagner Act in 1935. It is this crisis in American labour and employment law which Paul C. Weiler seeks to address in his new book, “Governing the Workplace: The Future of Labor and Employment ...


Understanding "Understanding:" Industrial Relations Research And Policy In Canada From 1969 To 1984...And Beyond, Harry W. Arthurs Jan 1984

Understanding "Understanding:" Industrial Relations Research And Policy In Canada From 1969 To 1984...And Beyond, Harry W. Arthurs

Articles & Book Chapters

This paper is the H.D. Woods Memorial Lecture presented at the 1984 Annual Meeting of the Canadian Industrial Relations Association, Guelph, Ontario.


Book Review: Assault On The Worker: Occupational Health And Safety In Canada By Charles E. Reasons, Lois L. Ross And Craig Paterson, Eric M Tucker Jan 1983

Book Review: Assault On The Worker: Occupational Health And Safety In Canada By Charles E. Reasons, Lois L. Ross And Craig Paterson, Eric M Tucker

Articles & Book Chapters

No abstract provided.


Industrial Unrest In Canada: A Diagnosis Of Recent Experience, J. H. G. Crispo, Harry W. Arthurs Jan 1968

Industrial Unrest In Canada: A Diagnosis Of Recent Experience, J. H. G. Crispo, Harry W. Arthurs

Articles & Book Chapters

To diagnose the recent wave of industrial unrest in Canada, it is first of all necessary to indentify its characteristics. The two major dimensions of this phenomenon concern the source of union militancy and its illegal manifestations.