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Full-Text Articles in Law

The Legal And Economic Principles Of World Trade Law: National Treatment, Gene M. Grossman, Henrik Horn, Petros C. Mavroidis Jan 2012

The Legal And Economic Principles Of World Trade Law: National Treatment, Gene M. Grossman, Henrik Horn, Petros C. Mavroidis

Faculty Scholarship

The primary objective of most trade agreements is to restrain members' use of trade policies for protectionist purposes. But it would be pointless to restrict the application of border instruments without regulating the possible use of domestic policies for protectionist purpose. To this end, most agreements include an obligation for National Treatment (NT) of foreign products. The NT provision in the GATT appears in Art. III, which applies to most government actions that have impact trade. It requires that imported products be treated as favorably by domestic policy as similar, indigenous products. This study offers suggestions based on legal and ...


Is The Wto Quietly Fading Away?: The New Regionalism And Global Trade Rules, Stephen J. Powell, Trisha Low Jul 2011

Is The Wto Quietly Fading Away?: The New Regionalism And Global Trade Rules, Stephen J. Powell, Trisha Low

UF Law Faculty Publications

While scholars and governments alike view the liberalization of international trade as a positive development, they disagree on the medium that will accomplish this objective with the highest economic returns. Some experts believe that multilateralism through the 150+ member World Trade Organization (WTO) is the only way to achieve truly open and efficient trade. Others view multilateralism as but an aspiration and find that regionalism offers the only viable prospect for the meaningful further opening of markets.

In light of what we label the "new regionalism," our paper explores in detail the positive and negative effects of regional trade arrangements ...


Global Laws, Local Lives: Impact Of The New Regionalism On Human Rights Compliance, Stephen J. Powell, Patricia Camino Pérez Jan 2011

Global Laws, Local Lives: Impact Of The New Regionalism On Human Rights Compliance, Stephen J. Powell, Patricia Camino Pérez

UF Law Faculty Publications

Continuation of the brisk pace of international economic growth with its necessarily increased use of natural resources—often at unsustainable levels—and its higher levels of pollution—often at the cost of citizen health—combine with the rules of the global trading system to threaten human rights to health, to freedom from forced or child labor, to non-discrimination, to a fair wage, to a healthy environment, even to democratic governance and participation in the political process. As a result, in recent years a growing number of economists begrudgingly acknowledge the incontrovertible—although presently dysfunctional—linkage between trade and human rights ...


Redesigning Global Trade Institutions, John Linarelli Jan 2011

Redesigning Global Trade Institutions, John Linarelli

Scholarly Works

This is a draft of an essay for the symposium, 2021: International Law Ten Years from Now, held by the Southwestern Journal of International Law in cooperation with the International Law Association (American Branch) Weekend West. The essay deals with two questions. First, what is to be of the WTO and world trade institutions generally? It examines the rise of regionalism in international trade agreements and possible roles for variable geometry for the WTO. The essay critiques proposals to move towards (or back to) plurilateralism for the WTO. Second, what should trade agreements do? This question goes to the core ...


Sex And Globalization, Berta E. Hernández-Truyol Jan 2008

Sex And Globalization, Berta E. Hernández-Truyol

UF Law Faculty Publications

For some time now, I have focused on a mission to bring together the separate discourses of the human rights and trade fields -- certainly not to blend them, but to raise awareness of their myriad interconnections. Indeed, human rights and trade are interlocking pieces of the puzzle we call international law and cannot possibly remain sequestered in the "splendid isolation" in which they have existed since their inception as disciplines. In any study of globalization, especially if one endeavors to pursue its benefits for all persons, not just the elite around the world, one must be aware of and seek ...


The Permissible Reach Of National Environmental Policies, Henrik Horn, Petros C. Mavroidis Jan 2008

The Permissible Reach Of National Environmental Policies, Henrik Horn, Petros C. Mavroidis

Faculty Scholarship

Trading nations exchange tariff concessions in the context of trade liberalizing rounds. Tariffs, nonetheless, are not the only instrument affecting the value of a concession. Domestic instruments affect it as well, but public order is not negotiable, and, consequently, is not scheduled. Public order is unilaterally defined, but must respect the default rules concerning allocation of jurisdiction which are common to all WTO Members and bind them by virtue of their appurtenance to the international community. In this paper, we focus on the interaction between trade and environment. The purpose of this study is to highlight how these rules and ...


Diamonds On The Souls Of Her Shoes: The Kimberly Process And The Morality Exception To Wto Restrictions, Karen E. Woody Jan 2007

Diamonds On The Souls Of Her Shoes: The Kimberly Process And The Morality Exception To Wto Restrictions, Karen E. Woody

Scholarly Articles

This Article analyzes the events predicating the Kimberley Process and examines the validity of the Kimberley Process in relation to international trade obligations. Part I describes the background of conflict diamonds and their role in African wars. The section outlines the need for regulation in the diamond industry and examines how other attempted measures at curbing the illicit diamond trade have fallen short. Part II details the Kimberley Process and its guidelines. This section analyzes the relevant U.S. legislation passed in 2003, the Clean Diamond Trade Act. Part II also suggests that because the Kimberley Process ("KP") is predicated ...


The Cotton And Sugar Subsidies Decisions: Wto's Dispute Settlement System Rebalances The Agreement On Agriculture, Stephen J. Powell, Andrew Schmitz Jan 2005

The Cotton And Sugar Subsidies Decisions: Wto's Dispute Settlement System Rebalances The Agreement On Agriculture, Stephen J. Powell, Andrew Schmitz

UF Law Faculty Publications

As far back as David Ricardo's shattering insight as to comparative advantage in 1817, agriculture has enjoyed special favor in trade. The unique place of farming was so well established by the time the 1947 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade ("GATT") was negotiated that GATT's tight disciplines on government interference with free trade not only exempted government protections to growers, but in fact were drafted to be fully consistent with the agricultural policies of the major signatories. While it would be an exaggeration to argue that GATT' s first half century was without impact on agricultural benefits ...


The Closer Economic Partnership Arrangement (Cepa) Between Mainland China And Hong Kong: Legal And Economic Analyses, Henry Shuchao Gao Jan 2004

The Closer Economic Partnership Arrangement (Cepa) Between Mainland China And Hong Kong: Legal And Economic Analyses, Henry Shuchao Gao

Research Collection School Of Law

On 29 June 2003, the Central Government of the People's Republic of China (the Mainland) and the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) signed the Mainland and Hong Kong Closer Economic Partnership Arrangement (CEPA). As the first Regional Trade Agreement (RTA) for both sides, the CEPA provides a model for China to use the arrangements allowed under the rules of the World Trade Organization (WTO) to further trade liberalisation and promote economic development. This article discusses the legal issues raised under the WTO rules as well as the possible economic implications of CEPA. Legally speaking, the CEPA probably satisfies ...


The Case For Tradable Remedies In Wto Dispute Settlement, Kyle Bagwell, Petros C. Mavroidis, Robert W. Staiger Jan 2004

The Case For Tradable Remedies In Wto Dispute Settlement, Kyle Bagwell, Petros C. Mavroidis, Robert W. Staiger

Faculty Scholarship

It has been almost two years since the process leading to the reform of the Dispute Settlement Understanding (DSU) was initiated. The Ministerial Conference in Doha provided the legal mandate (§30) to do so. Negotiations started in early March 2002 and were supposed to be concluded by end of May 2003. This has not been the case. The situation is quite ambivalent from a purely legal perspective right now: negotiators seem to take the view (WTO Doc. TN/DS/9 of 6 June 2003) that although the deadline for concluding negotiations has lapsed, they still have the mandate to ...


The Case For Auctioning Countermeasures In The Wto, Kyle Bagwell, Petros C. Mavroidis, Robert W. Staiger Jan 2004

The Case For Auctioning Countermeasures In The Wto, Kyle Bagwell, Petros C. Mavroidis, Robert W. Staiger

Faculty Scholarship

A major accomplishment of the Uruguay Round of GATT negotiations in creating the World Trade Organization (WTO) was the introduction of new dispute settlement procedures. These procedures were intended to provide a significant step forward, relative to GATT, in the settling of trade disputes, in large part by ensuring that violations of WTO commitments would be met with swift retaliation ("suspension of concessions") by the affected trading partners. While the dispute settlement procedures of the WTO indeed represent a considerable improvement over those in GATT, nine years of experience under the new procedures suggests that significant problems of enforcement remain ...


Disciplining Globalization: International Law, Illegal Trade, And The Case Of Narcotics, Chantal Thomas Jan 2003

Disciplining Globalization: International Law, Illegal Trade, And The Case Of Narcotics, Chantal Thomas

Cornell Law Faculty Publications

This Article is the first in a series of studies of the globalization of illicit markets. My theses are as follows: First, the increase in international trade in illicit products and services parallels the growth in international trade more generally that accompanies the phenomenon of globalization. Second, at the same time that most international trade law has moved toward a posture of liberalization, there has been a movement to strengthen the prohibition and punishment of trade in illicit transactions. Third, the mechanisms that have developed to regulate this prohibition constitute a significant development in the international legal order.


World Trade Organization's Anti-Discrimination Jurisprudence: Free Trade, National Sovereignty, And Environmental Health In The Balance, The , Ari Afilalo, Sheila Foster Jan 2002

World Trade Organization's Anti-Discrimination Jurisprudence: Free Trade, National Sovereignty, And Environmental Health In The Balance, The , Ari Afilalo, Sheila Foster

Faculty Scholarship

A discussion of how the World Trade Organization (WTO) resolves disputes centering on the tension between the free trade commit ment of the General Agreement on the Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and domestic policies regarding such matters as environmental, health, consumer, and labor protection. This article describes this evolving jurisprudential framework and the cases that comprise it, and illustrates how this framework articulates and applies an anti-discrimination norm that pervades the GATT. If properly articulated and applied, we argue, the anti-discrimination jurisprudence of the WTO will foster the trade interests that underlie the GATT up to the point where the ...


The Public's View Of Foreign Trade: Pragmatic Internationalism, California Research Bureau Apr 2001

The Public's View Of Foreign Trade: Pragmatic Internationalism, California Research Bureau

California Agencies

The Cold War has ended. The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), World Trade Organization (WTO), the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), and the European Union have changed the global political and economic landscape in only a few short years. This review draws together responses from national and California public opinion surveys over the past ten years to paint a broad picture of the public's views on foreign trade.


Legitimacy, Globally: The Incoherence Of Free Trade Practice, Global Economics And Their Governing Principles Of Political Economy, Michael Henry Davis, Dana Neacsu Jan 2001

Legitimacy, Globally: The Incoherence Of Free Trade Practice, Global Economics And Their Governing Principles Of Political Economy, Michael Henry Davis, Dana Neacsu

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

In this article, we observe the legalized character of the phenomenon popularly called “globalization.” We first examine what it means to be a legalized phenomenon and observe that an important part of legalization is legitimation. In domestic legal regimes, legitimation is accomplished through the Rule of Law, which makes certain claims about the nature of the society of which the legal regime is a part. Simply stated, the Rule of Law claims that a legal system is legitimate if its rules are definite and predictable and are applied in a general, impartial, and non-retroactive manner. In the international trading system ...


The Annihilation Of Sea Turtles: Wto Intransigence And U.S. Equivocation, Lakshman Guruswamy Jan 2000

The Annihilation Of Sea Turtles: Wto Intransigence And U.S. Equivocation, Lakshman Guruswamy

Articles

No abstract provided.


Balance-Of-Payments Crises In The Developing World: Balancing Trade, Finance And Development In The New Economic Order, Chantal Thomas Jan 2000

Balance-Of-Payments Crises In The Developing World: Balancing Trade, Finance And Development In The New Economic Order, Chantal Thomas

Cornell Law Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


The Appellate Body, The Protection Of Sea Turtles And The Technique Of "Completing The Analysis", Sydney M. Cone Iii. Jan 1999

The Appellate Body, The Protection Of Sea Turtles And The Technique Of "Completing The Analysis", Sydney M. Cone Iii.

Articles & Chapters

No abstract provided.


Book Review, Lakshman D. Guruswamy Jan 1998

Book Review, Lakshman D. Guruswamy

Articles

No abstract provided.


Should Unclos Or Gatt/Wto Decide Trade And Environment Disputes?, Lakshman D. Guruswamy Jan 1998

Should Unclos Or Gatt/Wto Decide Trade And Environment Disputes?, Lakshman D. Guruswamy

Articles

No abstract provided.


The Promise Of The United Nations Convention On The Law Of The Sea (Unclos): Justice In Trade And Environment Disputes, Lakshman Guruswamy Jan 1998

The Promise Of The United Nations Convention On The Law Of The Sea (Unclos): Justice In Trade And Environment Disputes, Lakshman Guruswamy

Articles

No abstract provided.


Antilegalistic Approaches To Resolving Disputes Between Governments: A Comparison Of The International Tax And Trade Regimes, Robert A. Green Jan 1998

Antilegalistic Approaches To Resolving Disputes Between Governments: A Comparison Of The International Tax And Trade Regimes, Robert A. Green

Cornell Law Faculty Publications



Dumping And Anti-Dumping In International Trade Origins, Legal Nature, And Evolution Developments In Brazil And In The United States, Luiz Claudio Duarte Jan 1997

Dumping And Anti-Dumping In International Trade Origins, Legal Nature, And Evolution Developments In Brazil And In The United States, Luiz Claudio Duarte

LLM Theses and Essays

Dumping is when an exporting country sells their goods in the foreign market for less than the price of the goods in their own domestic market. Dumping has a negative connotation because it threatens domestic industries in the importing country. In response to harmful dumping situations, mechanisms of defense have been developed to protect nations from unfair trade practices. The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) recognizes in Article VI anti-dumping tariffs as a legitimate defense to protect domestic industries from foreign predatory pricing practices. This paper focuses on anti-dumping developments in international trade since the beginning of the ...


Private And Governmental Barriers Affecting International Market Contestability: Current And Prospective Remedies, Massimo G. Manzoni Jan 1997

Private And Governmental Barriers Affecting International Market Contestability: Current And Prospective Remedies, Massimo G. Manzoni

LLM Theses and Essays

Several interesting developments indicate that world attention is increasingly focusing on a "novel" category of trade barriers: non-tariff and non-border barriers. Following the Uruguay Round (the eighth round of negotiations under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, "GATT"), scholars and officers of international organizations have expressed hope that international market contestability will become a major goal of future international policy negotiations. Their studies have focused on the links between trade policy and competition policy, and have concluded that anticompetitive business practices are a potent barrier to international market contestability and might cause a loss of confidence in the free ...


Are Tuna And Dolphins The Same? A Rule Of Reason Approach To Resolve The Trade And Environment Conflict, Anantha K. Paruthipattu Jan 1997

Are Tuna And Dolphins The Same? A Rule Of Reason Approach To Resolve The Trade And Environment Conflict, Anantha K. Paruthipattu

LLM Theses and Essays

Trade and environment are both primary values in an ecologically and economically interdependent world; unleashing trade without regard to environmental impact is as detrimental as guarding the environment at the expense of trade and development. Tuna and dolphins have come to symbolize the policy struggle between trade and environment. In early 1990, the United States banned the import of tuna from Mexico and other countries that were fishing in a manner that damaged dolphins in the Eastern Tropical Pacific Ocean. Mexico challenged this ban before a GATT Panel, which ruled against the United States and held that the tuna ban ...


Direct Effect Of International Economic Law In The United States And The European Union, Ronald A. Brand Jan 1997

Direct Effect Of International Economic Law In The United States And The European Union, Ronald A. Brand

Articles

One of the most important and challenging issues in international law is the manner in which we address the relationship between the individual and the international legal system. The traditional framework, in which we set a "sovereign" government between the individual and the development and application of the rules, is no longer sufficient in all circumstances. The fact that governments feel insecure or threatened by the application of international legal rules in actions brought by individuals is not sufficient reason to preclude that development. The purpose of government is not to perpetuate traditional power structures, it is to provide security ...


Major Changes In Council Regulation 3283/94: Its Compatibility With The Uruguay Round Anti-Dumping Code, Sangsoo Son Jan 1996

Major Changes In Council Regulation 3283/94: Its Compatibility With The Uruguay Round Anti-Dumping Code, Sangsoo Son

LLM Theses and Essays

Dumping can be defined as exporting goods at prices below those charged on the domestic market or at prices insufficient to recover the cost of the goods sold. Dumping is considered an unfair trading practice because it interferes with free market economy principles. During the 1980s, anti-dumping measures were an important issue for a few developed countries that had attractive markets for foreign producers; these countries were the United States, the European Community, Canada, and Australia. The European Community (EC) has developed its own anti-dumping laws over the years; Article 113 of the EEC Treaty gives power to Community institutions ...


Developing Countries And Multilateral Trade Agreements: Law And The Promise Of Development, Chantal Thomas May 1995

Developing Countries And Multilateral Trade Agreements: Law And The Promise Of Development, Chantal Thomas

Cornell Law Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Apec As A New Model Of Regional Economic Cooperation: Compatibility With Gatt, Bing Ding Jan 1995

Apec As A New Model Of Regional Economic Cooperation: Compatibility With Gatt, Bing Ding

LLM Theses and Essays

Today’s driving forces in world trade are private trade, investment flows, technological progress, and job creation. These forces create momentum towards the further integration of economy within their respective regions. The challenge for governments today is to reinforce these trends in favor of long-term economic benefits, while resisting the temptation to make short-term adjustments for growth. Regionalism is being considered as a solution to contemporary international economic problems; with the division of the world into the three major trading blocs of the EC, NAFTA, and APEC, regionalism seems to be the fastest road to multilateral free trade. This paper ...


The World Trade Organization's Agreement On Government Procurement: Expanding Disciplines, Declining Membership?, Bernard Hoekman, Petros C. Mavroidis Jan 1995

The World Trade Organization's Agreement On Government Procurement: Expanding Disciplines, Declining Membership?, Bernard Hoekman, Petros C. Mavroidis

Faculty Scholarship

The Agreement on Government Procurement (GPA) – originally negotiated during the Tokyo Round – was renegotiated for the second time during the Uruguay Round. It is one of the WTO's so-called Plurilateral Agreements, in that its disciplines apply only to those WTO Members that have signed it. In contrast to most of the other Tokyo Round codes – e.g., the agreements on technical barriers to trade (standards), import licensing, customs valuation, subsidies, and antidumping – the GPA could not be 'multilateralized'. With the reintroduction of agriculture and textiles and clothing into the GATT, procurement has therefore become the major 'hole' in the ...