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International Trade Law

2019

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Full-Text Articles in Law

‘Overreaching’ Or ‘Overreacting’? Reflections On The Judicial Function And Approaches Of Wto Appellate Body, Weihuan Zhou, Henry S. Gao Dec 2019

‘Overreaching’ Or ‘Overreacting’? Reflections On The Judicial Function And Approaches Of Wto Appellate Body, Weihuan Zhou, Henry S. Gao

Research Collection School Of Law

Since 2017, the US has blocked appointments to the WTO Appellate Body (AB), citing various concerns over its judicial approach, with the most significant being the issue of judicial overreach. This article provides a critical analysis of this issue and makes important contributions to the ongoing debate. Drawing on the fundamental function of the WTO, it offers a fresh approach to assess judicial overreach and shows that AB rulings in major non-trade remedy cases (that have consistently concerned the US) have served that function and hence should not be treated as ‘overreaching’. We argue that, the allegation of judicial overreach ...


Investment In Latin America Will Limit Migration North, Ryan J. O'Riordan, Stanley P. Kowalski Nov 2019

Investment In Latin America Will Limit Migration North, Ryan J. O'Riordan, Stanley P. Kowalski

Law Faculty Scholarship

The refugee crisis at the US Southern Border is due to multiple compounding factors: Latin America’s over-reliance on commodities, failure to economically diversify to innovation, and a lack of coherent US strategic engagement with the region. The situation is hemispheric; imploding states and a serious humanitarian calamity loom ever larger on the southern horizon. Since this represents a long-term problem requiring strategic and sustainable development initiatives, a new Alliance for Progress for the 21st Century is proposed which will build partnerships to advance innovation-driven development across the region.


Inconsistency's Many Forms In Investor-State Dispute Settlement And Implications For Reform, Lise Johnson, Lisa E. Sachs Nov 2019

Inconsistency's Many Forms In Investor-State Dispute Settlement And Implications For Reform, Lise Johnson, Lisa E. Sachs

Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment Staff Publications

Attracting investment in agriculture has been a key policy goal of governments in the global south. Development partners have supported these policies. But what do governments hope to achieve by attracting investment in the agricultural sector? Why are companies interested in investing? What is in it for local communities? And what is the role of lawyers? This primer provides an introduction to some of the key issues that arise in the negotiation of contracts linked to investments in agriculture, and practical guidance for how to approach common issues. Section 1 of this primer outlines the typical goals of three important ...


What Do Chinese Clients Want?, Ji Li, Wei Zhang Nov 2019

What Do Chinese Clients Want?, Ji Li, Wei Zhang

Research Collection School Of Law

The world’s two largest economies are locked in an escalating trade war, and caught in the crossfire are hundreds of Chinese multinational companies (MNCs) that have made substantial U.S. investments. Facing heightened legal risks in a less hospitable environment, the Chinese MNCs increasingly depend on local lawyers. Yet, their purchase of U.S. legal service, a topic of both practical and theoretical importance, has received little attention. To fill the gap, this article empirically investigates how Chinese companies in the United States select their U.S. legal counsel. By analyzing a unique dataset, the article finds that Chinese ...


Wto’Ing A Resolution To The China Subsidy Problem, Chad P. Brown, Jennifer A. Hillman Oct 2019

Wto’Ing A Resolution To The China Subsidy Problem, Chad P. Brown, Jennifer A. Hillman

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The United States, European Union, and Japan have begun a trilateral process to confront the Chinese economic model, including its use of industrial subsidies and deployment of state-owned enterprises. This paper seeks to identify the main areas of tension and to assess the legal-economic challenges to constructing new rules to address the underlying conflict. It begins by providing a brief history of subsidy disciplines in the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the World Trade Organization (WTO) predating any concerns introduced by China. It then describes contemporary economic problems with China's approach to subsidies, their impact, and ...


Building A Market Economy Through Wto-Inspired Reform Of State-Owned Enterprises In China, Weihuan Zhou, Henry S. Gao, Xue Bai Oct 2019

Building A Market Economy Through Wto-Inspired Reform Of State-Owned Enterprises In China, Weihuan Zhou, Henry S. Gao, Xue Bai

Research Collection School Of Law

This paper responds to the widespread view that existing WTO rules are insufficient in dealing with China’s state capitalism, which has been further emboldened by its latest rounds of state-owned enterprise (“SOE”) reforms. Through a careful review of WTO agreements and jurisprudence, the paper argues that, we do not necessarily need new rules, because the unique challenges created by China’s state capitalism can be sufficiently dealt with by the WTO’s existing rules on subsidies coupled with the China-specific obligations. Thus, a more realistic approach would be to push China back to the path of market-oriented reforms through ...


Uncitral Working Group Iii On Isds Reform: How Cross-Cutting Issues Reshape Reform Options, Lorenzo Cotula, Thierry Berger, Lise Johnson, Brooke Güven, Jesse Coleman Jul 2019

Uncitral Working Group Iii On Isds Reform: How Cross-Cutting Issues Reshape Reform Options, Lorenzo Cotula, Thierry Berger, Lise Johnson, Brooke Güven, Jesse Coleman

Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment Staff Publications

The United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) is currently working on how to reform international investment treaties, focusing in particular on those treaties’ provisions enabling investors to sue governments in international arbitration. As an observer organization in this process, CCSI has emphasized that in the context of investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS) reform, it is important to first consider what it is that investment treaties aim to achieve, and only then to consider what form(s) of dispute settlement will best advance those objectives. This means not only looking at reform of the existing ISDS mechanism, but also alternatives ...


Draft Text Providing For Transparency And Prohibiting Certain Forms Of Third-Party Funding In Investor–State Dispute Settlement, Brooke Güven, Lise Johnson, Nathalie Bernasconi-Osterwalder, Lorenzo Cotula, Jane Kelsey Jul 2019

Draft Text Providing For Transparency And Prohibiting Certain Forms Of Third-Party Funding In Investor–State Dispute Settlement, Brooke Güven, Lise Johnson, Nathalie Bernasconi-Osterwalder, Lorenzo Cotula, Jane Kelsey

Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment Staff Publications

The United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) is currently working on how to reform international investment treaties, focusing in particular on those treaties’ provisions enabling investors to sue governments in international arbitration. As an observer organization in this process, CCSI has emphasized that in the context of investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS) reform, it is important to first consider what it is that investment treaties aim to achieve, and only then to consider what form(s) of dispute settlement will best advance those objectives. This means not only looking at reform of the existing ISDS mechanism, but also alternatives ...


Third-Party Rights In Investor-State Dispute Settlement: Options For Reform, Jesse Coleman, Lise Johnson, Brooke Güven, Lorenzo Cotula, Thierry Berger Jul 2019

Third-Party Rights In Investor-State Dispute Settlement: Options For Reform, Jesse Coleman, Lise Johnson, Brooke Güven, Lorenzo Cotula, Thierry Berger

Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment Staff Publications

The United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) is currently working on how to reform international investment treaties, focusing in particular on those treaties’ provisions enabling investors to sue governments in international arbitration. As an observer organization in this process, CCSI has emphasized that in the context of investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS) reform, it is important to first consider what it is that investment treaties aim to achieve, and only then to consider what form(s) of dispute settlement will best advance those objectives. This means not only looking at reform of the existing ISDS mechanism, but also alternatives ...


Draft Treaty Language: Withdrawal Of Consent To Arbitrate And Termination Of International Investment Agreements, Brooke Güven, Lise Johnson Jul 2019

Draft Treaty Language: Withdrawal Of Consent To Arbitrate And Termination Of International Investment Agreements, Brooke Güven, Lise Johnson

Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment Staff Publications

The United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) is currently working on how to reform international investment treaties, focusing in particular on those treaties’ provisions enabling investors to sue governments in international arbitration. As an observer organization in this process, CCSI has emphasized that in the context of investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS) reform, it is important to first consider what it is that investment treaties aim to achieve, and only then to consider what form(s) of dispute settlement will best advance those objectives. This means not only looking at reform of the existing ISDS mechanism, but also alternatives ...


The Trade Facilitation Agreement: Is The Doha Development Round Succeeding?, Maureen Irish Jul 2019

The Trade Facilitation Agreement: Is The Doha Development Round Succeeding?, Maureen Irish

Law Publications

The Trade Facilitation Agreement (TFA) entered into force on February 22, 2017. It has re-oriented thinking on special and differential treatment at the World Trade Organization (WTO). Developing and least-developed countries can make their obligations conditional on the receipt of effective technical assistance that creates the necessary relevant capacity. They can also choose the implementation periods for provisions of the TFA in accordance with their own needs. These innovative approaches may be suitable for adoption in other agreements.


Human Rights Law And The Investment Treaty Regime, Jesse Coleman, Kaitlin Y. Cordes, Lise Johnson Jun 2019

Human Rights Law And The Investment Treaty Regime, Jesse Coleman, Kaitlin Y. Cordes, Lise Johnson

Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment Staff Publications

In its current form, the international investment treaty regime may stymie the business and human rights agenda in various ways. The regime may incentivize governments to favour the protection of investors over the protection of human rights. Investment treaty standards enforced through investor-state arbitration risk adversely affecting access to justice for project-affected rights holders. More broadly, the regime contributes to a system of global economic governance that elevates and rewards investors’ actions and expectations, irrespective of whether they have adhered to their responsibilities to respect human rights. Without comprehensive reform, investment treaties and investor-state arbitration will continue to interfere with ...


Severance By Unilateral Declaration: Lessons From Singapore, Alvin W. L. See Jun 2019

Severance By Unilateral Declaration: Lessons From Singapore, Alvin W. L. See

Research Collection School Of Law

Thisarticle examines, in the context of Singapore law, unilateral declaration as amode of severing a joint tenancy. In particular, it considers if and in what exceptionalcircumstances should severance by unilateral declaration be allowed in equitynotwithstanding the lack of registration, the effect of such an unregisteredseverance with regards to third parties, as well as how the different modes ofseverance interact with one another.


Ccsi Submits Written Views To Us Department Of State Regarding Uncitral’S Working Group Iii, Columbia Center On Sustainable Investment May 2019

Ccsi Submits Written Views To Us Department Of State Regarding Uncitral’S Working Group Iii, Columbia Center On Sustainable Investment

Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment Staff Publications

In connection with the US Department of State’s Annual Advisory Committee on Private International law meeting in May 2019, CCSI submitted written views regarding UNCITRAL’s Working Group III on ISDS reform. CCSI’s comments highlighted specific areas of CCSI’s research as it relates to the US Government and its work within the Working Group. Specifically, US investment treaty negotiating objectives specify that covered foreign investors in the United States should not be accorded greater substantive rights than domestic investors. CCSI highlights the ways in which greater procedural rights afforded under investment treaties to foreign investors in practice ...


Another Hague Judgements Convention? Bucking The Past To Provide For The Future, Louise Ellen Teitz Apr 2019

Another Hague Judgements Convention? Bucking The Past To Provide For The Future, Louise Ellen Teitz

Law Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Socio-Economic Development In Africa: Tax Reform As A Tool For Fostering The Objectives Of The Afcfta, Oladiwura Ayeyemi Eyitayo-Oyesode Mar 2019

Socio-Economic Development In Africa: Tax Reform As A Tool For Fostering The Objectives Of The Afcfta, Oladiwura Ayeyemi Eyitayo-Oyesode

Articles, Book Chapters, & Blogs

The African Continental Free Trade Area Agreement is aimed at transforming the economic landscape of the African continent. The agreement contains lofty objectives set up to enhance trade integration and promote the free flow of capital and investments. The agreement follows the EU model on market integration and signatories have committed to take measures to reduce the cost of doing business and create a conducive environment for private sector development in Africa. The agreement is not just aimed at eliminating barriers to trade, but is also focused on ensuring sustainable, inclusive social and economic development and structural transformation of the ...


Withdrawing From Nafta, Alison Peck Mar 2019

Withdrawing From Nafta, Alison Peck

Faculty & Staff Scholarship

Since the 2016 campaign, Donald Trump has threatened to withdraw from NAFTA. Can he? The question is complex. For one thing, NAFTA is not a treaty negotiated under the Treaty Clause of the Constitution, but rather a congressional–executive agreement, a creature of dubious con- stitutionality and ill-defined withdrawal and termination parameters. This Article reviews the scope of those restrictions and concludes that unilateral presidential withdrawal from NAFTA, although not without support, is ultimately unlawful. On one hand, unilateral presidential withdrawal would be valid as a matter of international law, and the NAFTA Implementation Act appears to be designed to ...


Dispute Settlement Provisions In Asean’S External Economic Agreements With China, Japan And Korea, Henry S. Gao Mar 2019

Dispute Settlement Provisions In Asean’S External Economic Agreements With China, Japan And Korea, Henry S. Gao

Research Collection School Of Law

This paper conducts a detailed critical analysis of the dispute settlement mechanisms in ASEAN’s external economic agreements with China, Japan and Korea by reviewing the main procedural rules of these mechanisms. The paper also discusses the difference among these agreements, and compares them with the World Trade Organization (WTO) dispute settlement mechanisms. The paper concludes with thoughts on how these dispute settlement mechanisms might evolve in the future, especially in view of the ongoing negotiations for the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (RCEP).


Data Exclusivities And The Limits To Trips Harmonization, Peter K. Yu Mar 2019

Data Exclusivities And The Limits To Trips Harmonization, Peter K. Yu

Faculty Scholarship

2019 marks the silver anniversary of the WTO TRIPS Agreement. Policymakers and commentators remain deeply divided about the strengths and limitations of this agreement. On the one hand, they marvel at its success in establishing international minimum standards for the protection and enforcement of intellectual property rights. On the other hand, they widely criticize the agreement for imposing high "one size fits all" standards upon developing countries.

Regardless of one's perspective, the harmonization project advanced by the TRIPS Agreement, and continued through TRIPS-plus bilateral, regional and plurilateral agreements, has been at the forefront of the international intellectual property debate ...


Chapter 1: Asean Law In The New Regional Economic Order: An Introductory Roadmap To The Asean Economic Community, Pasha L. Hsieh, Bryan Mercurio Mar 2019

Chapter 1: Asean Law In The New Regional Economic Order: An Introductory Roadmap To The Asean Economic Community, Pasha L. Hsieh, Bryan Mercurio

Research Collection School Of Law

The impasse of the World Trade Organization (WTO) Doha Round has spurred the proliferation of trade and investment agreements, particularly in the Asia-Pacific region. The fast-growing Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) has been attracting the attention of governments and enterprises, increasing its importance to global value chains and the world economy. This book explores the theoretical concept of ASEAN law within the broadly defined discipline of international economic law. More specifically, it sheds light on the roadmap to the ASEAN Economic Community Blueprint 2025 by evaluating the impact of regional agreements on the business and commercial aspect of laws.


International Taxation In An Era Of Digital Disruption: Analyzing The Current Debate, Itai Grinberg Mar 2019

International Taxation In An Era Of Digital Disruption: Analyzing The Current Debate, Itai Grinberg

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The “taxation of the digital economy” is currently at the top of the global international tax policymaking agenda. A core claim some European governments are advancing is that user data or user participation in the digital economy justifies a gross tax on digital receipts, new profit attribution criteria, or a special formulary apportionment factor in a future formulary regime targeted specifically at the “digital economy.” Just a couple years ago the OECD undertook an evaluation of whether the digital economy can (or should) be “ring-fenced” as part of the BEPS project, and concluded that it neither can be nor should ...


Symposium On "International Trade In The Trump Era", Padideh Ala'i Feb 2019

Symposium On "International Trade In The Trump Era", Padideh Ala'i

Presentations

Speaker, Symposium on International Trade in the Trump Era, Yale Law School (February 22, 2019) Symposium: International Trade in the Trump EraPanel I: The WTO and the Future of Dispute Settlement in International TradePresented Paper: The Vital Role of the WTO Appellate Body in the Promotion of Rule of Law and International Cooperation: A Case Study


The Intricate Relationship Between Intellectual Property Exhaustion And Free Movement Of Goods In Regional Organizations: Comparing The Eu/Eea, Nafta, And Asean, Irene Calboli Feb 2019

The Intricate Relationship Between Intellectual Property Exhaustion And Free Movement Of Goods In Regional Organizations: Comparing The Eu/Eea, Nafta, And Asean, Irene Calboli

Faculty Scholarship

This article explores the relationship between national rules on the exhaustion of intellectual property (IP) rights and cross-border trade within regional organizations. In particular, this article compares three distinct approaches adopted by: the European Union (EU); the North American Free Trade Area (NAFTA); and the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN). Based on this comparison, this article concludes that in order to effectively promote the free movement of goods, members of regional organizations need to consistently adopt national policies on IP exhaustion that support, at least, a system of regional exhaustion such as currently found in the EU. However ...


Singapore Convention Presents An Opportunity For Georgia In Mediation, Peter B. Rutledge, Katherine M. Larsen Jan 2019

Singapore Convention Presents An Opportunity For Georgia In Mediation, Peter B. Rutledge, Katherine M. Larsen

Popular Media

On Dec. 20, 2018, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Singapore Convention. The Singapore Convention ensures that a mediation settlement reached by parties will be binding and enforceable in accordance with a streamlined procedure. The convention will compel contracting states to recognize international mediation settlement agreements in commercial disputes. On Aug. 7, the opening day of the convention, a record 46 nations signed the Singapore Convention on Mediation, including the United States.

The Singapore Convention presents a unique opportunity for Georgia to become a forum for hospitable mediation. Much like it adopted an international arbitration code, the state could ...


The Law And Politics Of Socially Inclusive Trade, Timothy Meyer Jan 2019

The Law And Politics Of Socially Inclusive Trade, Timothy Meyer

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

American ambivalence toward international institutions is nothing new. In his farewell address, George Washington famously warned against foreign entanglements. After World War I, the U.S. Senate rejected the Treaty of Versailles, leaving the United States outside the formal post-war order it helped establish and neutering the new League of Nations. Throughout the late twentieth century, the United States refused to ratify multilateral agreements ranging from the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, to the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, to a host of human rights agreements. Nor did the dawn of the twenty-first century change ...


Trade And The Separation Of Powers, Timothy Meyer, Ganesh Sitaraman Jan 2019

Trade And The Separation Of Powers, Timothy Meyer, Ganesh Sitaraman

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

There are two paradigms through which to view trade law and policy within the American constitutional system. One paradigm sees trade law and policy as quintessentially about domestic economic policy. Institutionally, under the domestic economics paradigm, trade law falls within the province of Congress, which has legion Article I authorities over commercial matters. The second paradigm sees trade law as fundamentally about America’s relationship with foreign countries. Institutionally, under the foreign affairs paradigm, trade law is the province of the President, who speaks for the United States in foreign affairs. While both paradigms have operated throughout American history, the ...


Lawyers Should Keep Their Eyes On Cuba Sanctions Cases, Peter B. Rutledge, Katherine M. Larsen, Miles S. Porter Jan 2019

Lawyers Should Keep Their Eyes On Cuba Sanctions Cases, Peter B. Rutledge, Katherine M. Larsen, Miles S. Porter

Popular Media

A dramatic change in the executive branch position on Cuban sanctions recently led to a wave of litigation in the federal courts and could have broad implications for entities that conduct business in or with Cuba. In April, Secretary of State Mike Pompeo announced that Title III of the Helms-Burton Act would no longer be suspended, thereby allowing U.S. nationals to file lawsuits against any individual or entity that “traffics” in property expropriated by the Cuban government.


European Decision Could Have Killed Investment Treaties, Affecting Arbitration And Investments, Peter B. Rutledge, Katherine M. Larsen, Amanda W. Newton Jan 2019

European Decision Could Have Killed Investment Treaties, Affecting Arbitration And Investments, Peter B. Rutledge, Katherine M. Larsen, Amanda W. Newton

Popular Media

A dramatic upheaval in investor-state arbitration last year recently led to the apparent demise of investment treaties throughout Europe and could have broad implications for both international arbitration and foreign investments in the European Union. In May 2018, the Court of Justice of the European Union found in Achmea v. Slovak Republic that the bilateral investment treaty between the Netherlands and the Slovak Republic (a so-called intra-EU BIT) contained an arbitration clause that was incompatible with European law.


Improving Human Rights Compliance In Supply Chains, Kishanthi Parella Jan 2019

Improving Human Rights Compliance In Supply Chains, Kishanthi Parella

Scholarly Articles

Corporations try to convince us that they are good global citizens: “brands take stands” by engaging in cause philanthropy; CEOs of prominent corporations tackle a variety of issues; and social values drive marketing strategies for goods and services. But despite this rhetoric, corporations regularly fall short in their conduct. This is especially true in supply chains where a number of human rights abuses frequently occur. One solution is for corporations to engage in meaningful human rights due diligence that involves monitoring human rights, reporting on social and environmental performance, undertaking impact assessments, and consulting with groups whose human rights they ...


Fragmentation, Harlan G. Cohen Jan 2019

Fragmentation, Harlan G. Cohen

Scholarly Works

A danger, an opportunity, passé, a cliché, destabilizing, empowering, destructive, creative: Depending on whom you ask, fragmentation has meant any and all of these for international law. The concept of fragmentation has been a mirror reflecting international lawyers’ perception of themselves, their field, and its prospects for the future.

This chapter chronicles fragmentation’s meanings over the past few decades. In particular, it focuses on the spreading fears of fragmentation around the millennium, how the fears were eventually repurposed, where, speculatively, those fear may have gone, and how and to what extent faith in international law was restored.