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International Trade Law

2008

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Articles 1 - 30 of 52

Full-Text Articles in Law

Saving The Wto From The Risk Of Irrelevance: The Wto Dispute Settlement Mechanism As A ‘Common Good’ For Rta Disputes, Henry Gao, Chin Leng Lim Dec 2008

Saving The Wto From The Risk Of Irrelevance: The Wto Dispute Settlement Mechanism As A ‘Common Good’ For Rta Disputes, Henry Gao, Chin Leng Lim

Research Collection School Of Law

Over the past few decades, Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) have proliferated globally. Such proliferation of RTAs created a renewed sense of urgency for the WTO to take action in order to avoid the fate of being eclipsed into irrelevance. There are several options for coping with the challenge. Theoretically speaking, the best approach would be to heighten the level of ambition in global trade talks to reduce all trade barriers to zero so that the discriminatory effect created by RTAs could be reduced or even eliminated. In reality, such an approach would be impossible for well-known reasons. The next best ...


A New Role For The International Monetary Fund In A New World Economic Order, Cynthia C. Lichtenstein Nov 2008

A New Role For The International Monetary Fund In A New World Economic Order, Cynthia C. Lichtenstein

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

The IMF must change to deal with its new functions in a changed world of interconnected global financial markets. The piece first describes the Fund's mandated process of internal reform as of the time the paper was given (2007). It then summarizes the recommendations of Mervyn Kind, Governor of the Bank of England (in a talk he gave in India) as to how the Fund should change its oversight of the functioning of the international monetary system.


Grocery Store Activism: A Wto Compliant Means To Incentivize Social Responsibility, Jessica M. Karbowski Oct 2008

Grocery Store Activism: A Wto Compliant Means To Incentivize Social Responsibility, Jessica M. Karbowski

Student Scholarship Papers

Despite the increases in global wealth attributable to globalization and increased international trade, the damage done by socially irresponsible production practices remains an area of concern for international human and labor rights advocates. Because international trade law under the World Trade Organization (WTO) imposes strict limitations on the policy options available to Member States, international human rights and international trade have been viewed as fundamentally at odds with one another. This Article argues that market-based incentives can be used to allow international trade to reinforce established human rights principles, rather than constantly undermining government attempts to formulate appropriate policy solutions ...


Insource The Shareholding Of Outsourced Employees: A Global Stock Ownership Plan, Robert C. Hockett Oct 2008

Insource The Shareholding Of Outsourced Employees: A Global Stock Ownership Plan, Robert C. Hockett

Cornell Law Faculty Publications

With the American economy stalled and another federal election campaign season well underway, the “outsourcing” of American jobs is again on the public agenda. Latest figures indicate not only that claims for joblessness benefits are up, but also that the rate of American job-exportation has more than doubled since the last electoral cycle. This year’s political candidates have been quick to take note. In consequence, more than at any time since the early 1990s, continued American participation in the World Trade Organization, in the North American Free Trade Agreement, and in the processes of global economic integration more generally ...


International And Comparative Aspects Of Trademark Dilution, Mark D. Janis, Peter K. Yu Oct 2008

International And Comparative Aspects Of Trademark Dilution, Mark D. Janis, Peter K. Yu

Faculty Scholarship

Extract:

In the United States, trademark antidilution protection is back—maybe. Proposed by Frank Schechter in the 1920s, adopted in various incarnations in some states over the next few decades, and ultimately introduced in a slightly different form in federal trademark law in 1995, the dilution provisions drew a cool reception in the courts. By the late 1990s, an increasingly restive judiciary was constraining the federal dilution provisions in various ways, most notably by requiring mark owners to prove actual dilution in order to establish liability, a requirement endorsed by the United States Supreme Court in Moseley v. V Secret ...


Jurisdiction Ratione Temporis Under Nafta Article 1116(2), Rocio I. Digon Sep 2008

Jurisdiction Ratione Temporis Under Nafta Article 1116(2), Rocio I. Digon

Student Scholarship Papers

The interpretation of “continuing breaches” for the purposes of determining jurisdiction ratione temporis has taken on particular importance in the past several years. Most bilateral and multilateral treaty instruments include clauses that establish temporal limitations on jurisdiction, but they do not explicitly address “continuing breaches.” Recently, NAFTA tribunals have considered this question under the three year time limitation of NAFTA Article 1116(2), but the issue still remains largely unresolved. This paper will analyze “continuing breaches” in both investment law and general international law and conclude that “continuing breaches” are not valid exceptions to established time limitations in investment treaties ...


New Paradigms For Protection Of Biodiversity, Srividhya Ragavan Sep 2008

New Paradigms For Protection Of Biodiversity, Srividhya Ragavan

Faculty Scholarship

The most successful bioprospecting venture was established in 1989 in Costa Rica. Interestingly, the distinction of being a forerunner in exploiting bioprospecting goes to India. In 1979, a full decade before Costa Rica, India established the TBGRI (Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute) at Trivandrum.

Yet, the TBGRI venture with the Kani Tribes, which had the potential to become a beacon of bioprospecting success, is showcased as the exemplar of failure. In this era of trade regime, the following paper asserts, bioprospecting ventures are important tools for developing countries. Countries like India and organizations like the TBGRI should learn from ...


The Moral Hazard Problem In Global Economic Regulation, Frank J. Garcia Jul 2008

The Moral Hazard Problem In Global Economic Regulation, Frank J. Garcia

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

Global regulation of international business transactions presents a particular form of the moral hazard problem. Global firms use economic and political power to manipulate state and state-controlled multilateral regulation to preserve their opportunity to externalize the social costs of global economic activity with impunity. Unless other actors can effectively counter this at the national and global regulatory levels, globalization re-creates the conditions for under-regulated or “robber baron” capitalism at the global level. This model of economic activity has been rejected at the national level by the same modern democratic capitalist states which currently dominate globalization, creating a crisis of legitimacy ...


Oversight Of U.S. Trade Preference Programs: Hearing Before The S. Comm. On Finance, 110th Cong., June 12, 2008 (Statement Of Andrew Small, Adjunct Prof. Of Law, Geo. U. L. Center), Andrew Small Jun 2008

Oversight Of U.S. Trade Preference Programs: Hearing Before The S. Comm. On Finance, 110th Cong., June 12, 2008 (Statement Of Andrew Small, Adjunct Prof. Of Law, Geo. U. L. Center), Andrew Small

Testimony Before Congress

No abstract provided.


Justice, The Bretton Woods Institutions And The Problem Of Inequality, Frank J. Garcia Jun 2008

Justice, The Bretton Woods Institutions And The Problem Of Inequality, Frank J. Garcia

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

The Bretton Woods Institutions are, together with the WTO, the preeminent international institutions devoted to managing international economic relations. This mandate puts them squarely in the center of the debate concerning development, inequality and global justice. While the normative analysis of the WTO is gaining momentum, the systematic normative evaluation of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund is comparatively less developed. This essay aims to contribute to that nascent inquiry. How might global justice criteria apply to the ideology and operations of the Bank and Fund? Political theory offers an abundance of perspectives from which to conduct such ...


The Eu Challenge To The Sec, Roberta S. Karmel Jun 2008

The Eu Challenge To The Sec, Roberta S. Karmel

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Access To Medicines, Brics Alliances, And Collective Action, Peter K. Yu Jun 2008

Access To Medicines, Brics Alliances, And Collective Action, Peter K. Yu

Faculty Scholarship

Most discussions on the public health implications of the WTO Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights focus on the right of less developed countries to issue compulsory licenses and the need for these countries to exploit flexibilities within the TRIPs Agreement. However, there are other means by which countries can enhance access to essential medicines. To provide an illustration of these other means, this article explores the possibility for greater collaboration among the BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa) and between these countries and other less developed countries.

This article begins by offering a brief ...


Business Taxes And International Competitiveness, Michael S. Knoll May 2008

Business Taxes And International Competitiveness, Michael S. Knoll

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Around the world, policymakers are obsessed with the competitiveness of their domestic companies and domestically based multinational corporations (MNCs). Such concerns frequently influence policy, especially tax policy. In this paper, I develop a theory of how taxes affect the international competitiveness of businesses. I then use that theory to evaluate basic tax policy decisions, such as the choice between residence- and source-based taxation and the level of tax rates, and to understand the impact various provisions in the U.S. Internal Revenue Code are likely to have on the competitiveness of U.S.-based corporations and MNCs.


Corporate Taxation And International Charter Competition, Mitchell Kane, Edward B. Rock May 2008

Corporate Taxation And International Charter Competition, Mitchell Kane, Edward B. Rock

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Corporate Charter competition has become an increasingly international phenomenon. The thesis of this article is that this development in the corporate law requires a greater focus on the corporate tax law. We first demonstrate how a tax system’s capacity to distort the international charter market depends both upon its approach to determining corporate location and the extent to which it taxes foreign source corporate profits. We also show, however, that it is not possible to remove all distortions through modifications to the tax system alone. We present instead two alternative methods for preserving an international charter market. The first ...


What's At Stake In The Sovereignty Debate?: International Tax And The Nation-State, Diane M. Ring Apr 2008

What's At Stake In The Sovereignty Debate?: International Tax And The Nation-State, Diane M. Ring

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

The international tax problems of today are typically beyond the scope of a single nation to solve. However, the prospect of multinational problem solving, often under the auspices of an international organization, unleashes objections grounded in sovereignty. Despite widespread reliance on sovereignty arguments, little attention has been directed at what precisely is meant by sovereignty and what place it has in international tax policy. This article contends that a loss of sovereignty undermines both significant functional roles played by a nation-state (revenue and fiscal policy) and important normative governance values (accountability and democratic legitimacy). Whether these limitations are severe enough ...


Evaluating Imf Crisis Prevention As A Matter Of Global Justice, Frank J. Garcia Apr 2008

Evaluating Imf Crisis Prevention As A Matter Of Global Justice, Frank J. Garcia

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

No abstract provided.


What Effect Does Free Trade In Agriculture Have On Developing Country Populations Around The World?, Jacinto F. Fabiosa Apr 2008

What Effect Does Free Trade In Agriculture Have On Developing Country Populations Around The World?, Jacinto F. Fabiosa

CARD Working Papers

Highlighted in the "battle in Seattle" in 1999, anti-trade sentiments still persist, even with development considerations placed at the core of reform negotiations at the World Trade Organization, in which two-thirds of the members are developing countries.

In this paper, the impact of agricultural trade liberalization on food consumption through changes in income and prices is considered. First, agricultural trade liberalization is estimated to raise economic growth by 0.43% and 0.46% in developing and industrialized countries, respectively. Since food consumption of households with lower income are more responsive to changes in income, their food consumption increases more under ...


Investment Provisions In Economic Partnership Agreements, Gus Van Harten Mar 2008

Investment Provisions In Economic Partnership Agreements, Gus Van Harten

Commissioned Reports, Studies and Public Policy Documents

No abstract provided.


Three Questions That Will Make You Rethink The U.S.-China Intellectual Property Debate, Peter K. Yu Mar 2008

Three Questions That Will Make You Rethink The U.S.-China Intellectual Property Debate, Peter K. Yu

Faculty Scholarship

The debate on China's piracy and counterfeiting problems has been ongoing for more than two decades. However, in the past few years, this debate has taken on a new sense of urgency and significance. In August 2008, the City of Beijing will host the Summer Olympic Games. Two years later, the 2010 World Expo will be held in Shanghai. In addition, two World Trade Organization dispute settlement panels were recently established to resolve disputes between China and the United States over inadequate enforcement of intellectual property rights and inadequate market access to U.S. media products. All of these ...


Teaching International Intellectual Property Law, Peter K. Yu Mar 2008

Teaching International Intellectual Property Law, Peter K. Yu

Faculty Scholarship

Intellectual property law was in the backwater only a few decades ago. The Section on Intellectual Property Law of the Association of American Law Schools was not even founded until the early 1980s, and the creation of intellectual property specialty programs has been only a recent phenomenon. As senior legal scholars reminisce, early in their career, they would have been lucky to find a school that would allow them to teach a class on intellectual property law. Although intellectual property law teaching has come of age in the past decade, international intellectual property law courses remain nonexistent in more than ...


Discovery, Judicial Assistance And Arbitration: A New Tool For Cases Involving U.S. Entities?, Peter B. Rutledge Feb 2008

Discovery, Judicial Assistance And Arbitration: A New Tool For Cases Involving U.S. Entities?, Peter B. Rutledge

Scholarly Works

Limited discovery is one of the regularly cited advantages of international arbitration, as opposed to international litigation, particularly in contrast to litigation in the US. courts. Recent decisions by US. courts, however, have threatened to upend this comparative advantage. Invoking a little known US. law, 28 U.S.C. section 1782, these courts have permitted parties in an arbitration to petition for subpoenas issued by US. courts against their adversaries or third parties. Bucking the trend in the academic literature, which largely supports this development, this article opposes reading section 1782 to authorize subpoenas in support of an arbitration. Not ...


China - Measures Affecting Imports Of Automobile Parts, Sungjoon Cho Jan 2008

China - Measures Affecting Imports Of Automobile Parts, Sungjoon Cho

All Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Metrics And The Measurement Of International Trade: Some Thoughts On The Early Operation Of The Wto Rta Transparency Mechanism, Chios Carmody Jan 2008

Metrics And The Measurement Of International Trade: Some Thoughts On The Early Operation Of The Wto Rta Transparency Mechanism, Chios Carmody

Law Publications

No abstract provided.


A Theory Of Wto Law, Chios Carmody Jan 2008

A Theory Of Wto Law, Chios Carmody

Law Publications

The creation of the World Trade Organization in 1994 has left open the question of whether we can identify a theory of its legal system. A theory should help us to better understand what WTO law is as well as what it should be. This article posits the idea that a theory can be identified if we conceive of the WTO Agreement as protecting expectations about trade, facilitating adjustment to realities encountered in trade, and promoting interdependence between economic operators. Each of these purposes is implemented under the WTO Agreement by a specific instrument. In the case of expectations it ...


Sex And Globalization, Berta E. Hernández-Truyol Jan 2008

Sex And Globalization, Berta E. Hernández-Truyol

UF Law Faculty Publications

For some time now, I have focused on a mission to bring together the separate discourses of the human rights and trade fields -- certainly not to blend them, but to raise awareness of their myriad interconnections. Indeed, human rights and trade are interlocking pieces of the puzzle we call international law and cannot possibly remain sequestered in the "splendid isolation" in which they have existed since their inception as disciplines. In any study of globalization, especially if one endeavors to pursue its benefits for all persons, not just the elite around the world, one must be aware of and seek ...


International Commercial Arbitration And International Courts, Mark L. Movsesian Jan 2008

International Commercial Arbitration And International Courts, Mark L. Movsesian

Faculty Publications

The editors of this symposium have asked us to address an interesting question. Why hasn't international commercial arbitration’s (ICA's) success been repeated in the context of international courts? In the last few decades, states have created scores of permanent tribunals with jurisdiction to resolve disputes about international law. By and large, though, states have not been as receptive to the rulings of these tribunals. What accounts for this comparative lack of hospitality? Why do states treat ICA and international adjudication so differently?

In this essay, I offer an explanation. States treat ICA and international adjudication differently because ...


Toward A Vibrant Peruvian Middle Class: Effects Of The Peru-United States Free Trade Agreement On Labor Rights, Biodiversity, And Indigenous Populations, Stephen J. Powell, Paola A. Chavarro Jan 2008

Toward A Vibrant Peruvian Middle Class: Effects Of The Peru-United States Free Trade Agreement On Labor Rights, Biodiversity, And Indigenous Populations, Stephen J. Powell, Paola A. Chavarro

UF Law Faculty Publications

Past research confirms that trade and human rights are inextricably linked by trade's effects on poverty, labor, women, indigenous populations, health, and the environment. We identified surprisingly direct linkages between these two vital policies in WTO agreements as well as that regional trade agreements add positive indirect contributions by to rules-based governance through their emphasis on transparency, accountability, and due process by governments, as well as timeliness, inclusive record keeping, and impartiality in the administrative decisional process. The present research examines a particular country and a single trade agreement, Peru and the trade agreement between Peru and the United ...


Cuban Claims: Embargoed Identities And The Cuban-American Oedipal Conflict (El Grito De La Yuma), Jose M. Gabilondo Jan 2008

Cuban Claims: Embargoed Identities And The Cuban-American Oedipal Conflict (El Grito De La Yuma), Jose M. Gabilondo

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Wto法律之原理, Chios Carmody Jan 2008

Wto法律之原理, Chios Carmody

Law Publications

No abstract provided.


Un Regard Extérieur: Back Impact Of European Union Legislation On American Environmental Regulations, David A. Wirth Jan 2008

Un Regard Extérieur: Back Impact Of European Union Legislation On American Environmental Regulations, David A. Wirth

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

No abstract provided.