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Full-Text Articles in Law

Principled Standards Vs. Boundless Discretion: A Tale Of Two Approaches To Intermediary Trademark Liability Online, Stacey Dogan Oct 2014

Principled Standards Vs. Boundless Discretion: A Tale Of Two Approaches To Intermediary Trademark Liability Online, Stacey Dogan

Faculty Scholarship

Over the past decade, courts have developed two distinct approaches in evaluating trademark claims against online intermediaries. In one – contributory infringement – courts struggle with the tension between preserving legitimate, non-infringing uses of technologies, on the one hand, and minimizing infringement, on the other. In the other – direct infringement – liability turns on perceived wrongdoing by intermediaries whose own behavior increases the risk of consumer confusion. This second type of liability boasts neither a clear doctrinal framework nor a coherent normative vision. Most troublingly, the scant case law has paid little attention to issues at the core of secondary liability analysis – namely ...


Learning From Lin: Lessons And Cautions From The Natural Commons For The Knowledge Commons, Daniel H. Cole Sep 2014

Learning From Lin: Lessons And Cautions From The Natural Commons For The Knowledge Commons, Daniel H. Cole

Articles by Maurer Faculty

No abstract provided.


Public Good Economics And Standard Essential Patents, Christopher S. Yoo Aug 2014

Public Good Economics And Standard Essential Patents, Christopher S. Yoo

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Standard essential patents have emerged as a major focus in both the public policy and academic arenas. The primary concern is that once a patented technology has been incorporated into a standard, the standard can effectively insulate it from competition from substitute technologies. To guard against the appropriation of quasi-rents that are the product of the standard setting process rather than the innovation itself, standard setting organizations (SSOs) require patentholders to disclose their relevant intellectual property before the standard has been adopted and to commit to license those rights on terms that are fair, reasonable, and non-discriminatory (FRAND).

To date ...


Myriad Stands Alone, Jacob S. Sherkow, Christopher T. Scott Jul 2014

Myriad Stands Alone, Jacob S. Sherkow, Christopher T. Scott

Articles & Chapters

Myriad took no prisoners on its way to the top of the molecular diagnostics field. That strategy is unlikely to endure.

Myriad Genetics began in 1991 as a small University of Utah startup interested in the then-novel arena of diagnostic genetic testing. After winning a highly publicized race to sequence the BRCA1 and BRCA2 breast cancer genes, the company obtained patents on the gene sequences and methods of using them to determine cancer risk. The patents were broad and interlocking, covering BRCA genomic DNA, cDNA, methods of diagnosis and systems detecting mutations. Myriad also filed for diagnostic 'toolbox' patents, including ...


The 360° Of Information Fluency Delivery To Freshman Engineering Students, Marian G. Armour-Gemmen, Robin A.M. Hensel, Mary L. Strife Jun 2014

The 360° Of Information Fluency Delivery To Freshman Engineering Students, Marian G. Armour-Gemmen, Robin A.M. Hensel, Mary L. Strife

Faculty & Staff Scholarship

For three years, engineering librarians from West Virginia University (WVU) have been teaching information fluency skills to 700-1000 freshman engineering students per year, using a specific information fluency cycle. The librarians’ responsibilities in the Fall 2013 course syllabus included teaching once in each section, providing a two-hour, in-library group sessions to accommodate almost 700 students, delivering an intellectual property Blackboard™ module for students to complete over a specific period of time, and requiring students to complete a Plagiarism Avoidance Tutorial with quiz. Some of these components are similar to those of past semesters. However, past collection of the data was ...


Cognitive Economy And The Trespass Fallacy: A Response To Professor Mossoff, Saurabh Vishnubhakat May 2014

Cognitive Economy And The Trespass Fallacy: A Response To Professor Mossoff, Saurabh Vishnubhakat

Faculty Scholarship

In his recent essay The Trespass Fallacy in Patent Law, Professor Adam Mossoff argues cogently that the metaphor of trespass has become a misused basis for patent indeterminacy critiques that it cannot conceptually or empirically support. While sharing his caution that metaphors are not to be trifled with, this reply suggests that trespass has both a smaller role and a larger potential benefit in the debate on patent indeterminacy, and advances an opposite solution.


Advancing National Intellectual Property Policies In A Transnational Context, Marketa Trimble May 2014

Advancing National Intellectual Property Policies In A Transnational Context, Marketa Trimble

Boyd Briefs / Road Scholars

Professor Marketa Trimble presented these materials at the Third International Intellectual Property Scholars Roundtable, which was held at the DePaul University College of Law on May 1, 2014.


Ip Law Book Review: Configuring The Networked Self: Law, Code, And The Play Of Every Day Practice, Frank A. Pasquale Apr 2014

Ip Law Book Review: Configuring The Networked Self: Law, Code, And The Play Of Every Day Practice, Frank A. Pasquale

Faculty Scholarship

Julie Cohen's Configuring the Networked Self is an extraordinarily insightful book. Cohen not only applies extant theory to law; she also distills it into her own distinctive social theory of the information age. Thus, even relatively short sections of chapters of her book often merit article-length close readings. I here offer a brief for the practical importance of Cohen’s theory, and ways it should influence intellectual property policy and scholarship.


Copyright's Topography: An Empirical Study Of Copyright Litigation, Christopher A. Cotropia, James Gibson Jan 2014

Copyright's Topography: An Empirical Study Of Copyright Litigation, Christopher A. Cotropia, James Gibson

Law Faculty Publications

One of the most important ways to measure the impact of copyright law is through empirical examination of actual copyright infringement cases. Yet scholars have universally overlooked this rich source of data. This study fills that gap through a comprehensive empirical analysis of copyright infringement litigation, examining the pleadings, motions, and dockets from more than nine hundred copyright lawsuits filed from 2005 through 2008. The data we collect allow us to examine a wide variety of copyright issues, such as the rate of settlements versus judgments; the incidence of litigation between major media companies, small firms, and individuals; the kinds ...


The Commercial Law Of Intellectual Property, David Frisch Jan 2014

The Commercial Law Of Intellectual Property, David Frisch

Law Faculty Publications

The Commercial Law of Intellectual Property provides comprehensive, in-depth analysis of the intersection of commercial law and intellectual property rights, including discussion of all applicable U.C.C. sections and other relevant legislation, as well as discussion of hundreds of cases in which intellectual property interests have been subject to U.C.C. provisions, with attention to such critical areas.


Consumer Welfare In Competition And Intellectual Property Law, Herbert J. Hovenkamp Jan 2014

Consumer Welfare In Competition And Intellectual Property Law, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Whether antitrust policy should pursue a goal of "general welfare" or "consumer welfare" has been debated for decades. The academic debate is much more varied than the case law, however, which has consistently adopted consumer welfare as a goal, almost never condemning a practice found to produce an actual output reduction or price increase simply because productive efficiency gains accruing to producers exceeded consumer losses.

While some practices such as mergers might produce greater gains in productive efficiency than losses in consumer welfare, identifying such situations would be extraordinarily difficult. First, these efficiencies would have to be "transaction specific," meaning ...


The Empty Promise Of Vara: The Restrictive Application Of A Narrow Statute, David E. Shipley Jan 2014

The Empty Promise Of Vara: The Restrictive Application Of A Narrow Statute, David E. Shipley

Scholarly Works

The Visual Artists Rights Act (VARA) was enacted by Congress in 1990 in order to bring our laws into compliance with Article 6bis of the Berne Convention and to acknowledge that protecting moral rights will foster “a climate of artistic worth and honor that encourages the author in the arduous act of creation.” The passage of this legislation is said to show Congress’s “belief that the art covered by the Act ‘meet[s] a special societal need, and [its] protection and preservation serves an important public interest.’”

Notwithstanding these lofty statements about artistic worth, honor and encouraging creation, VARA ...


Commons At The Intersection Of Peer Production, Citizen Science, And Big Data: Galaxy Zoo, Michael J. Madison Jan 2014

Commons At The Intersection Of Peer Production, Citizen Science, And Big Data: Galaxy Zoo, Michael J. Madison

Book Chapters

The knowledge commons research framework is applied to a case of commons governance grounded in research in modern astronomy. The case, Galaxy Zoo, is a leading example of at least three different contemporary phenomena. In the first place Galaxy Zoo is a global citizen science project, in which volunteer non-scientists have been recruited to participate in large-scale data analysis via the Internet. In the second place Galaxy Zoo is a highly successful example of peer production, sometimes known colloquially as crowdsourcing, by which data are gathered, supplied, and/or analyzed by very large numbers of anonymous and pseudonymous contributors to ...


Penalty Default Licenses: A Case For Uncertainty, Kristelia A. García Jan 2014

Penalty Default Licenses: A Case For Uncertainty, Kristelia A. García

Articles

Research on the statutory license for certain types of copyright-protected content has revealed an unlikely symbiosis between uncertainty and efficiency. Contrary to received wisdom, which tells us that in order to increase efficiency, we must increase stability, this Article suggests that uncertainty can actually be used to increase efficiency in the marketplace. In the music industry, the battle over terrestrial performance rights--that is, the right of a copyright holder to collect royalties for plays of a sound recording on terrestrial radio--has raged for decades. In June 2012, in a deal that circumvented the statutory license for sound recordings for the ...


The Capture Of International Intellectual Property Law Through The U.S. Trade Regime, Margot E. Kaminski Jan 2014

The Capture Of International Intellectual Property Law Through The U.S. Trade Regime, Margot E. Kaminski

Articles

For years, the United States has included intellectual property ("IP") law in its free trade agreements. This Article finds that the IP law in recent U.S. free trade agreements differs subtly but significantly from U.S. IP law. These differences are not the result of deliberate government choices, but of the capture of the U.S. trade regime.

A growing number of voices has publicly criticized the lack of transparency and democratic accountability in the trade agreement negotiating process. But legal scholarship largely praises the 'fast track" trade negotiating system. This Article reorients the debate over the trade negotiating ...


Toward A Closer Integration Of Law And Computer Science, Christopher S. Yoo Jan 2014

Toward A Closer Integration Of Law And Computer Science, Christopher S. Yoo

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Legal issues increasingly arise in increasingly complex technological contexts. Prominent recent examples include the Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA) and the Protect Intellectual Property Act (PIPA), network neutrality, the increasing availability of location information, and the NSA’s surveillance program. Other emerging issues include data privacy, online video distribution, patent policy, and spectrum policy. In short, the rapid rate of technological change has increasingly shown that law and engineering can no longer remain compartmentalized into separate spheres. The logical response would be to embed the interaction between law and policy deeper into the fabric of both fields. An essential step ...


Trade Secrets, Trade, And Extraterritoriality, Elizabeth A. Rowe, Daniel M. Mahfood Jan 2014

Trade Secrets, Trade, And Extraterritoriality, Elizabeth A. Rowe, Daniel M. Mahfood

UF Law Faculty Publications

When a foreign individual or company misappropriates the trade secrets of an American company, and the acts of misappropriation occur entirely outside of the United States, the trade secret law of the United States generally will not apply. This represents the principle of extraterritoriality, and identifies a major vulnerability for companies that choose to conduct operations or engage in other business abroad. In such situations, the substantive and procedural laws of another country are likely to define whether the allegedly misappropriated information is protected and has been misappropriated.

Providing a domestic forum to prosecute extraterritorial infringement would substantially benefit domestic ...


Conferring About The Conference (Recalibrating Copyright: Continuity, Contemporary Culture, And Change), Marketa Trimble Jan 2014

Conferring About The Conference (Recalibrating Copyright: Continuity, Contemporary Culture, And Change), Marketa Trimble

Scholarly Works

Professor Marketa Trimble and her colleagues Professors Jessica Silbey and Aaron Perzanowski reflect on papers presented at the University of Houston Law Center's Institute for Intellectual Property & Information Law's annual conference held in Spring of 2014.


The Natural Complexity Of Patent Eligibility, Jacob S. Sherkow Jan 2014

The Natural Complexity Of Patent Eligibility, Jacob S. Sherkow

Articles & Chapters

It has long been assumed that the doctrine of patent eligibility’s prohibition of patents on “laws of nature,” “natural phenomena,” and “products of nature” rests on legalistic interpretations of those terms. But there is good reason to doubt this assumption. Since the doctrine’s inception, the Supreme Court has yet to provide any framework, formula, or factors explaining these “natural” terms. Rather, the Court has increasingly fixated on a list of scientific tropes, such as gravity, the heat of the Sun, and extracted metals, that it believes are true examples of “natural laws,” “phenomena,” and “products.”

An actual examination ...


Machine Learning And Law, Harry Surden Jan 2014

Machine Learning And Law, Harry Surden

Articles

This Article explores the application of machine learning techniques within the practice of law. Broadly speaking “machine learning” refers to computer algorithms that have the ability to “learn” or improve in performance over time on some task. In general, machine learning algorithms are designed to detect patterns in data and then apply these patterns going forward to new data in order to automate particular tasks. Outside of law, machine learning techniques have been successfully applied to automate tasks that were once thought to necessitate human intelligence — for example language translation, fraud-detection, driving automobiles, facial recognition, and data-mining. If performing well ...


Lost Classics Of Intellectual Property Law, Michael J. Madison Jan 2014

Lost Classics Of Intellectual Property Law, Michael J. Madison

Articles

Santayana wrote, “Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.” American legal scholarship often suffers from a related sin of omission: failing to acknowledge its intellectual debts. This short piece attempts to cure one possible source of the problem, in one discipline: inadequate information about what’s worth reading among older writing. I list “lost classics” of American scholarship in intellectual property law. These are not truly “lost,” and what counts as “classic” is often in the eye of the beholder (or reader). But these works may usefully be found again, and intellectual property law scholarship would ...


Strategies For Surviving In China's Intellectual Property Minefield, David Llewelyn, Peter J. Williamson Jan 2014

Strategies For Surviving In China's Intellectual Property Minefield, David Llewelyn, Peter J. Williamson

Research Collection School Of Law

Despite a slowdown in China’s GDP growth from the double-digit heights of the last decade, it is still expanding at over 7% per annum – a growth rate that looks more sustainable. Growth in the other major emerging economies including India, Brazil and Russia, by contrast, has all but collapsed, at least for the present. Growth in the developed economies, meanwhile, remains fragile in the wake of their post-2008 financial crisis recessions. It is not surprising, therefore, that the Boards of many foreign companies are counting on winning share in the China market to support their top-line growth in coming ...


The Territoriality Referendum, Marketa Trimble Jan 2014

The Territoriality Referendum, Marketa Trimble

Scholarly Works

Many Internet users have encountered geoblocking tools – tools that prevent users from accessing certain content on the Internet based on the location from which the users are connecting to the Internet. Because at least some users want to access such content, they turn to tools that enable them to evade geoblocking, to appear on the Internet as if they were located in another location, and to access the content that is available in this other location. So far these activities appear to be under the radar of intellectual property (“IP”) owners, perhaps because geoblocking evasion by users for the purposes ...


We (Still) Need To Talk About Aereo: New Controversies And Unresolved Questions After The Supreme Court's Decision, Rebecca Giblin, Jane C. Ginsburg Jan 2014

We (Still) Need To Talk About Aereo: New Controversies And Unresolved Questions After The Supreme Court's Decision, Rebecca Giblin, Jane C. Ginsburg

Faculty Scholarship

Recent judicial interpretations of U.S. copyright law have prompted businesses to design technologies in ways that enable the making and transmission of copies of works to consumers while falling outside the scope of the owner's exclusive rights. The archetypal example is Aereo Inc.'s system for providing online access to broadcast television, which the Supreme Court has now ruled results in infringing public performances by Aereo.

In previous work we urged the Court to develop a principled reading of the transmit clause focusing on the particular use rather than on the technical architecture of the delivery service (Giblin ...


On Aereo And "Avoision", Rebecca Giblin, Jane C. Ginsburg Jan 2014

On Aereo And "Avoision", Rebecca Giblin, Jane C. Ginsburg

Faculty Scholarship

Avoision describes conduct which seeks to exploit 'the differences between a law's goals and its self-defined limits' – a phenomenon particularly apparent in tax law. This short paper explains how the technology company Aereo utilised avoision strategies in an attempt to design its way out of liability under US copyright law. The authors argue that existing formulations encourage such strategies by applying differently depending on how the transaction is structured, resulting in a wasteful devotion of resources to hyper-technical compliance with the letter rather than meaning and purpose of the law.?


Intellectual Property Geographies, Peter K. Yu Jan 2014

Intellectual Property Geographies, Peter K. Yu

Faculty Scholarship

Written for a special issue on intellectual property and geography, this article outlines three sets of mismatches that demonstrate the vitality, utility and richness of analyzing intellectual property developments through a geographical lens. The article begins by examining economic geography, focusing on the tensions and conflicts between territorial borders and sub-national innovation (including those relating to obligations under the WTO TRIPS Agreement). This article then examines the oft-found mismatch between political geography and cultural geography. Illustrating this mismatch is the challenge of protecting traditional knowledge and traditional cultural expressions. The article concludes by exploring the growing mismatch between legal geography ...


Big Business, Big Government And Big Legal Questions, Michael Mattioli, Todd Vare Jan 2014

Big Business, Big Government And Big Legal Questions, Michael Mattioli, Todd Vare

Articles by Maurer Faculty

No abstract provided.


Protecting American Innovators By Combating The Decline Of Patents Granted To Small Entities, W. Keith Robinson Jan 2014

Protecting American Innovators By Combating The Decline Of Patents Granted To Small Entities, W. Keith Robinson

Faculty Scholarship

The new patent laws and recent economic trends indicate that there is a difficult time ahead for small entities. American entrepreneurs and small businesses have created several of the major technological innovations in the past forty years. However, statistics indicate that patents granted to small entities have declined. In the wake of this trend, the U.S. Patent system has undergone significant changes. Currently, the United States Patent and Trademark Office (“USPTO”) is in the process of implementing the policies and procedures outlined in its five-year strategic plan. Further, the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act (“AIA”), the largest patent reform law ...


Trips-Plus Trade And Investment Agreements: Why More May Be Less For Economic Development, Christine Farley Jan 2014

Trips-Plus Trade And Investment Agreements: Why More May Be Less For Economic Development, Christine Farley

Articles in Law Reviews & Other Academic Journals

Conventional wisdom -- but not empirical research -- maintains that strong intellectual property (“IP”) rights trigger not only foreign direct investment, but also local innovation. Thus investors seek, and developing countries compete to offer, the highest levels of IP protections. But evaluating the level of IP protection in any given country has become increasingly complex. A proliferation of bilateral agreements, such as free trade agreements (“FTAs”) and bilateral investment treaties (“BITs”), intended to enhance the minimum standards set forth in The Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (“TRIPS”), have created uncertainty about precisely what IP protections are available. Chile ...


Patent Examiners And Litigation Outcomes, Shine Tu Jan 2014

Patent Examiners And Litigation Outcomes, Shine Tu

Law Faculty Scholarship

Conventional wisdom argues that unnecessary litigation of low quality patents hinders innovation, and that the PTO could play a role with its high grant rates. Accordingly, it is important to answer these questions: (1) which patent examiners are issuing litigated patents, (2) are examiners who are "rubber stamping" patents issuing litigated patents at a disproportionately higher rate, and (3) are examiners with less experience issuing more litigated patents? In sum, do patent examiners who issue litigated patents have common characteristics? Intuition would argue that those examiners who issue the most patents (approximately one patent every three business days) would exhibit ...